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Publication des Archives canadiennes — No 5. 



LES PRÉCURSEURS DE 
JACQUES-CARTIER 



1497-1534 



COLLECTION DE DOCUMENTS RELATIFS A L'HISTOIRE 
PRIMITIVE DU CANADA 



ÉDITÉE PAR 

H. P. BIGGAR, B.iLlTT. 

DU BUREAU DES ARCHIVES 



Publiée avec l'autorisation du ministre de V Agriculture, 
sous la direction de l'Archiviste. 



OTTAWA 

IMPRIMERIE DE L'ÉTAT 

29837— a 19 13 



BÎBUOTHECA 
°'/avîet^ 



f£ 



"2 






113 



PREFACE. 

L'édition de cette brochure a pour objet de réunir pour 
la première fois les principales pièces manuscrites relatives à 
l'histoire primitive du Canada et de les mettre à la portée du 
public en les faisant suivre de la traduction anglaise. La plu- 
part de ces documents ont déjà été imprimés et publiés, mais 
les textes publiés dans cette brochure ont été, en autant qu'il 
a été possible, copiés des manuscrits originaux ou collationnés 
avec ceux-ci et Ton a eu recours à des copies que dans quelques 
cas seulement. 

La traduction est nouvelle partout et comme il a été jugé 
à propos de reproduire en regard l'original latin, italien, espa- 
gnol et portugais, le sens des documents est rendu assez libre- 
ment. Il n'a pas été considéré nécessaire de traduire les docu- 
ments, français. 

C'est à ces sources ainsi que dans les volumes imprimés et 
dans les atlas dont la liste se trouve dans l'appendice, qu'il a 
été puisé pour écrire l'introduction qui ne renferme qu'une 
narration nécessairement incomplète par suite du manque de 
matériaux. En sorte que l'exposé des faits est conjectural en 
plusieurs endroits et ceux-ci ne sont basés que sur des hypo- 
thèses. Xéanmoins il est à espérer que cette narration, telle 
qu'elle est, aura pour effet de réveiller l'attention au sujet de 
cette période de notre histoire et de piquer la curiosité de nou- 
veaux investigateurs. S'il en est ainsi et si de nouveaux 
efforts tentés dans cette voie contribuent à développer nos con- 
naissances de l'histoire primitive du Canada, l'éditeur verra 
se réaliser l'un des plus ardents désirs qui l'ont poussé à entre- 
prendre ce travail. 

L'éditeur se fait un devoir d'exprimer ici sa reconnaissance 
et sa satisfaction aux nombreux amis et chercheurs qui par 
leur précieux concours lui ont facilité la tâche. Il tient par- 
ticulièrement à remercier M. Hubert Hall, F. S. A., auteur 
d'un ouvrage de premier ordre sur les archives anglaises et le 
Dr S. E. Dawson, C.M.G., dont les travaux ont contribué si 



VI PREFACE. 

puissamment à ¿faire connaître les voyages de Cabot; les 
deux lui ont prodigué leur aide et leurs avis. Quant à la 
copie des documents qui suivent, Sr D. Padre Torres Lanzas 
des Archivo de Indias à Seville, Sr Pedro A. d' Azevedo de 
Torre de Tombo à Lisbonne, Sr D. Julian Paz des Archivo 
General de Simancas et Cav. Giovanni Ognibene des Archivio 
dl 8 tato à Modène ont été d'un grand secours à l'éditeur lors 
de son passage à ces endroits. Il désire remercier aussi M. 
E.-H. Pooley, commis de la Compagnie Draper pour la permis- 
sion d'examiner les archives de la compagnie. Monsieur J. 
Plattard, docteur ès-lettres, a eu la bonté de collationner la 
copie de l'un des manuscrits Frari ; et pour la traduction des 
documents espagnols et portugais, l'éditeur a été heureux 
d'avoir recours à la science approfondie de monsieur R. Foulché- 
Delbosc de Paris, éditeur de la Revue Hispanique. M. S.-V. 
Blake de Trosley, Kent, a bien voulu parcourir l'introduction 
que la critique des Drs Doughty et B,oy de la division des archi- 
ves, a contribué à améliorer avec le reste du volume. A chacun 
de ceux qui viennent d'être nommés, l'éditeur tient à exprimer 
ses plus sincères remerciements. 

H. P. B. 

Londres, 5 novembre 1910. 



INTRODUCTION. 

C'est Giovanni Caboto de Gênes/ explorateur européen, qui 
a aperçu pour la première fois à la fin du quinzième siècle 2 
cette portion de l'Amérique du nord appelée Canada par la 
suite. On ne sait rien de la première partie de la vie de Cabot. 
C'est en 1461 qu'il en est fait mention pour la première fois, 
alors qu'il partit de Gênes pour aller résider à Venise où l'atti- 
rait probablement les nombreux comptoirs que cette république 
maintenait dans tout le Levant. Cabot qui fut naturalisé 
citoyen vénitien 3 en 1476, affirme que lors des voyages qu'il 
fit du côté est de la Méditerranée pour trafiquer, il lui arriva 
une fois de pénétrer par Alexandria et la mer Rouge jusqu'à 
La Mecque 4 qui était alors le principal endroit où s'échan- 
geaient les marchandises de l'Ouest contre celles de l'Est. Les 
renseignements obtenus à l'arrivée des épices, des parfums, des 
soies et des pierres précieuses, apprirent à Cabot que ces arti- 
cles étaient apportés par caravane de la région située au nord- 
est de l'Asie 5 . Comme il connaissait suffisamment le globe 
terrestre il comprit que ces marchandises pouvaient être trans- 
portées en Europe en faisant route directement à travers l'océan 
de l'ouest. Si l'on tient compte de la route qu'il fallait par- 
courir au moyen de chameaux depuis cette partie de l'Asie 
jusqu'à La Mecque et de cet endroit jusqu'à Alexandrie et à 
Venise, il s'ensuit que le voyage par eau de l'Asie à l'Europe 
devait opérer une véritable révolution dans le commerce. Mais 
pour cela il fallait d'abord trouver la route à suivre à travers 
l'océan de l'ouest pour se rendre de l'Europe à l'Asie. 

1. Jean et Sébastien Cabot, par Harrisse, 13-35, Paris, 1882. 

2. Pour un récit des voyages des hommes du Nord, voir The Finding 
of Wineland the ixood, par A. M. Reeves, London, 1890; The voyages of 
the Northmen, par J. E. Olson, dans vol. I de Original Narratives of 
uarly American History, éditées par J. F. Jameson, New- York, 1906. 

3. Après y avoir résidé pendant quinze ans. Voir doc. Ia p. 1. 

4. Doc. XA„ p. 20. 

5. Ibid. 

VTI 



Vlll INTRODUCTION 

Absorbé par cette idée, Cabot se rendit en Angleterre en 
1484 sur les galères vénitiennes et s'installa à Londres. 1 Peu 
à peu il communiqua ses projets aux marchands de Bristol 
dont le port était le siège d'un commerce considérable avec 
Y Iceland. 2 Il fut décidé qu'en premier lieu il serait tenté de 
trouver l'île Brazil ou celle des Seven Cities qui, d'après la 
plupart des cartes du moyen âge, sont situées à l'ouest de 
l'Irlande, 3 car on espérait que ces îles pourraient indiquer la 
nouvelle route pour atteindre l'Asie par l'océan de l'ouest. 

Des vaisseaux furent envoyés de Bristol sans succès en 
1491 et 1492, sous les ordres de Cabot probablement pour 
découvrir l'île Brazil ou celle des Seven Cities; 4 " ils n'aperçu- 
rent aucune terre. Cette tentative semblait devoir être aussi 
infructueuse que celle qui fut faite en 148 0. 5 

Les choses en étaient là lorsque durant l'été de 1493, on 
auorit en Angleterre qu'un autre Génois, Christophe Colomb, 
parti d'Espagne avec trois vaisseaux, avait atteint les Indes. 
Cette nouvelle créa une grande excitation à la cour d ; Angle- 
terre 6 et l'on attacha plus d'importance au projet de Cabot 
après la visite de Henri VII et de sa cour au port de Bristol 
durant l'hiver de 1495-6. 7 II s'ensuivit que par des lettres 
patentes en date du 5 mars 149 6, 8 le roi Henri VII accordait 
à son "bien-aimé Jean Cabot, citoyen de Venise, ainsi qu'à 
Lewis, Sebastien et Santius, fils dudit Jean, autorité complète 
et gratuite, permission et pouvoir de faire voile à leurs propres 

1. Doc. LXIa., p. 183 et Sébastien Cabot lui-même dans Navigationi et 
Viaggi, Raniusio, vol. I, Venetia, 1550, fol. 402v: "& mi disse che sen- 
do'si partito suo pardre da Venetia già molti anni, & andato à stare in In- 
ghilterra à far mercantie lo mené seco nella citta di Londra," 

2. Revue Hispanique, tome 8, pp. 534 et seq., Paris, 1903: et Eden's 
Decade of the newe worlde, dans E. Arber's First Three English Books on 
America, p. 288, note marginale, Londres, 1895. 

3. Ibid, p. 520, note 3. 

4. Doc. XIVa, p. 28. 

5. Willelmi de Worcestre, Itinerarium, édité par Jacob Nasmith, pp. 
267-8, Cantab, 1778, imprimé dans Jean et Sébastien Cabot, par Harrisse, 
p. 44, note 3 et dans son Discovery of North America, p. 659, N° XIII, 
Londres, 1892. 

6. Ramusio, op. cit. cit.: " In quel tempo venue nova che'l 

signor don Christophoro Colombo, Genovese, havea scoperta la costa 
deirindie & se ne parlava grandemente per tutta la corte del Re Henrico 
VII. che allhora regnava, dieendosi che era state cosa piu tosto divina che 
humana Fhaver trovata quella via mai piu saputa, d'andare in Oriente, 
dove nascono la spetie/' 

7. Robert Ricart, The Maire of Bristow is KaJendar, p. 48, Londres 
{Camden Society), 1872. 

8. Doc. Ill et IVa, pp. 6 et 8. 



INTRODUCTION IX 

frais pour toutes les parties, contrées et mers de l'Est, de l'Ouest 
et du Nord, sous nos pavillons et enseignes, avec cinq vaisseaux 
de n'importe quel tonnage et autant de marins ou d'hommes 
qu'ils voudront en embarquer sur lesdits vaisseaux, pour cher- 
cher, découvrir et trouver tous les pays, îles, régions ou pro- 
vinces des païens et des infidèles dans n'importe quelle partie 
du monde oai ils se trouveront et qui jusqu'à ce jour sont restés 
inconnus de tous les chrétiens." " Dans chaque village, bourg, 
château, île et terre ferme leur appartenant qui seront décou- 
verts " devront être déployés " les pavillons et enseignes " du 
roi. De plus, " aussi souvent qu'ils arriveront à notre port de 
Bristol, seul port auquel ils seront tenus d'arriver " ils devront 
payer au roi, après avoir déduit les dépenses nécessaires, " la 
cinquième partie du gain réalisé sur les bénéfices, profits, avan- 
tages et produits d'une telle navigation." Toute chose prove- 
nant des terres nouvelles devait être introduite sans payer des 
droits de douane et personne ne pouvait visiter ces régions 
" sans l'autorisation dudit Jean et de ses fils." 

Armé de ces pouvoirs, Jean Cabot se prépara à partir pour 
la côte de l'Asie. Colomb était revenu de sa seconde expédi- 
tion au mois de juin 1496 et avait apporté de l'or et des mar- 
chandises des tropiques. On espérait beaucoup que Cabot 
aurait le même succès. Le 2 mai 1497, qui était un mardi, 
Cabot chargé du commandement d'un vaisseau appelé le 
MatheWj quitta le port de Bristol avec un équipage de dix- 
huit hommes. 1 

Après avoir fait le tour de l'Irlande, il se dirigea d'abord 
au nord puis à l'ouest et se maintint fermement dans cette 
dernière direction 2 bien que pendant plusieurs semaines les 
vents variables aient rendu sa marche irrégulière. A la fin, 
après avoir passé cinquante-deux jours en mer, il aperçut le 
24 juin, un samedi à cinq heures du matin environ, ce qui 



1. Doc. XA, et LXI1I, pp. 20 et 194-5. 

2. Doc. Xa, p. 20. 



X INTRODUCTION" 

d'après les cartes de La Cosa et de Sébastien Cabot, semble avoir 
été l'extrémité ouest de l'île du Cap-Breton. 1 

Ayant fait déployer la bannière royale Jean Cabot se rendit 
à terre et d'une manière solennelle prit possession de la région 
au nom du roi Henri VII. Comme le sol fut trouvé fertile et 
le climat tempéré, Cabot était convaincu qu'il avait atteint 
l'extrémité nord-est de l'Asie d'où provenaient les soies et les 
épices qui avaient été apportées à La Mecque pour être échan- 
gées. Les arrivants n'aperçurent aucun habitant, mais quelques 
pièges tendus pour prendre du gibier et quelques entailles faites 
ei et là aux arbres indiquaient que cette région était habitée. 2 
Le cap Breton fut appelé cap Discovery et comme c'était le 
jour de la fête Saint- Jean-Baptiste, l'île Scatari située à quel- 
ques milles du rivage, fut appelée île Saint-Jean. 3 

Après avoir transporté du bois et de l'eau à bord, on se 
prépara à retourner dans son pays pour y répandre la grande 
nouvelle. Le cap Ray très visible de loin fut appelé cap Saint- 
Georges par Cabot et le nom de groupe Trinité 4 fut donné aux 
îles Saint-Pierre et Miquelon qui avec Langlade formaient 
trois îles distinctes. Les explorateurs rencontrèrent le long 
de la côte sud de Terre-Neuve des bancs considérables de 
morues et pour en pêcher les marins eurent recours simplement 
à des paniers qui furent descendus dans l'eau et retirés ensuite 
remplis de poissons. 5 La dernière terre qu'ils aperçurent fut 
le cap Race qui fut appelé cap England. 6 

Comme ce sont les vents de l'ouest qui prédominent au nord 
de l'Atlantique, le retour s'opéra sans difficulté et un dimanche 



1. Cartes de La Cosa, de Cabot et de Michael Lok, dans Periphus, N° 
XLIII, de A. E. Nordenskiõld, Stockholm, 1897; Harrisse, Jean et Sébastien 
Cabot, frontispice. Voir aussi, Divers voyages, 55, Londres, 1850; Notes 
and Queries, r ser. XI, ejv et Principall Navigations, 511, Londres, 1859, 
de Hakluyt. Voir The Voyages of the Cabots in 1497 and 1498, Montréal, 
1894, et les Latest Phases on the Controversy, Ottawa, 1897, par le Dr. S. E. 
Dawson. 

2. Dos. VIIa et Xa, pp. 14 et 20. „ . 
3. Doc. LXIII, p. 194 et Hakluyt, op. cit., loe. cit. Bien que, d après 

Jean Alphonse {Cosmographie, édit. Musset, pp. 499 et 502), les deux îles 
Saint-Paul et Scutari portassent ce nom, sur toutes les cartes, sauf sur 
la carte de Cabot, cette île se trouve près du Cap-Breton. Voir les cartes 
de Reinei, Maggiolo, Riccardiana, Santa-Cruz, Harleian, Gutierrez et Vaz 
Dourado. 

4. Carte de La Cosa. 

5. Doc. Xa, p. 20. 

6. Carte de LaCosa.. 



INTRODUCTION XI 

le 6 août le Mathew jeta l'ancre une fois encore dans le port de 
Bristol. 1 Cabot se rendit immédiatement à la cour et le jeudi 
suivant, 10 août, il reçut du roi un présent de dix livres ($600) 
pour avoir " découvert l'île nouvelle." 2 Cabot rapporta qu'à 
sept cents lieues de l'Irlande il avait rencontré le pays du 
Grand Khan. Maintenant que cette route était connue, le 
voyage pouvait s'accomplir en quinze jours. Bien qu'il fût 
possible d'obtenir de la soie et du bois du Brézil à l'endroit où 
il avait débarqué, il avait l'intention, lors de son prochain 
voyage de pénétrer plus au sud le long de cette côte afin d'at- 
teindre Cipangu ou le Japon où se trouvait, à son sens, la 
source de toutes les richesses de l'Est. Une fois rendu à 
Cipangu, Londres deviendrait pour les produits susmentionnés 
un dépôt plus important qu'Alexandrie. 3 

Henri VII était enchanté et promit à Cabot cle lui accorder 
au printemps un grand nombre de vaisseaux pour se rendre à 
Cipangu. En attendant, le découvreur reçut une pension de 
20 livres sterling équivalant en monnaie de compte moderne à 
$1,200 environ. 4 Cabot dépensa une partie de cette largesse 
pour le paiement d'un pourpoint et des bas de soie. Ainsi 
affublé il devint le lion du jour, durant l'hiver, parmi les riches 
marchands de Londres. 5 

Par de nouvelles lettres patentes, en date du 3 février 1-198, 
Cabot fut autorisé de " prendre à son choix six vaisseaux/ 
anglais et de les diriger et les conduire jusqu'à la terre ,et à 
l'île récemment découverte par ledit Jean." 6 En outre, Henri 
VII avança des mourants d'argent considérables à divers mem- 
bres de l'expédition. 7 Comme le succès paraissait assuré, on 
espérait que les vaisseaux reviendraient chargés de richesses 
de l'Est. 

Lors d'une visite à Lisbonne et à Seville pour obtenir les 
services de quelques-uns de ceux qui avaient fait le voyage de 



1. LXIIL p. 195. 

2. Doc. VI, p. 42. 

3. Doc. VIIa et Xa, pp. 14, 20, 21. 

4. Doc. IX, p. 16. 

5. Doc. VIIa et Xa, pp. Il et 21. 

6. Doc. XII, p. 23. 

7. Doc. VI, p. 12. 



Xll INTRODUCTION 

l'Est avec Da Gama ou qui étaient allés aux Indes 1 avec 
Colomb, Cabot semble avoir rencontré un certain João Fernan- 
dez appelé llavrador qui, vers Tan 1492 s'était rendu de Iceland 
jusau'aoi Greenland. 2 Comme Greenland que l'on croyait alors 
faire partie de l'Asie, se trouvait si rapproché ^Iceland il sem- 
blerait que Cabot, d'après les données insuffisantes qu'il a été 
possible d'obtenir, se fût décidé de poursuivre cette fois sa route 
plus au nord. 

L'expédition qui se composait de deux vaisseaux et de 300 
hommes, partit de Bristol 3 au commencement de mai. Il sem- 
ble que plusieurs vaisseaux qui avaient l'habitude d'aller à 
Iceland pour trafiquer accompagnèrent celle-ci. 4 Au large de 
l'Irlande, une tempête obligea l'un des vaisseaux de retourner, 
mais les autres continuèrent leur route dans la direction du 
5 e parallèle. 5 Plus ils avançaient plus le Gulf-Stream les 
entraînait au nord. Enfin Cabot aperçut la côte du Groen- 
land 6 au commencement de juin. Comme Fernandez avait été 
le premier à lui parler de cette région, il l'appela " la terre 
de Labrador." 7 

Dans l'espérance de découvrir une issue à l'ouest, Cabot 
longea d'abord la côte dans la direction du nord. Le froid 
devenait graduellement plus intense et les montagnes de glace 
devenaient aussi plus nombreuses et plus massives. Il fut 
remarqué aussi que la terre se dirigeait à ce point vers l'est. 
Pour ces raisons l'équipage se mutina le 11 juin par 67° 30' 
latitude, et refusa de s'avancer plus loin dans la direction du 
pôle. En conséquence Cabot dut faire virer ces vaisseaux de 
bord et chercher une issue plus loin au sud. 8 

1. Doc. XIVa, p. 28. 

2. Doc. XXIXa, XXXIa et LXIIa, pp. 99, 101 et 190. 

3. The first three English Books on America, E. Arber, p. 161. 

4. Doc. XXX, pp. 99-100. 

5. Doc. XIVa, p. 28. 

6. Istoria ed las Indias, par Francisco Lopez de Gomara, Caragoza, 1552, 
fol. XXv: " camino la buelta de Islândia sobre cabo del Labrador"". Voir 
F. Tardiicci, Di Giovanni e Sebastiano Caboto, etc., p. 112, Venezia, 1892. 

7. Carte de Wolfenbiittel dans Jean et Sébastien Cabot de Harrisse, 
186. Cette carte a été reproduite dans la collection publiée par le pro- 
fesseur E. L. Stevenson du Rutgers College. 

8. Ramusio, op. cit. III, Venetia, 15561 fol. 4 ; " Signor Sebastian 

Gabotto mi dieeva corne essendo egli andato lungo la detta terra 

fino à gradi sessantasette & mezzo sotto il nostro polo, a' XI di Giugno 

pensava ferinamente per quella via di poter passare alia volta del 

Cataio Orientale. & Fhavrebbe fatto, se la malignità del padrone & de 
marinari sollevati non Fhavessero fatto tornare à dietro^; ibid. vol. 
I, fol. 402V; and Gomara, loe. cit. 



INTRODUCTION Xlll 

Après avoir atteint le cap Farewell, les vaisseaux furent 
dirigés le long de la côte sud-ouest du Groenland, qui peu à 
peu oblique vers le nord. Cabot semble avoir longé la côte du 
Groenland jusqu'à un endroit où se trouve aujourd'hui le dis- 
trict Sukkertoppen par 66°, alors .qu'il fut arrêté par les mon- 
tagnes de glace qui descendent de la baie Disko. Sur tout son 
parcours la côte présente une série de promontoires élevés et 
escarpés dont la hauteur atteint quelquefois 4,000 pieds, 
A cause des montagnes de glace Cabot dut prendre la direction 
de l'ouest et finalement il arriva en vue de la terre de Baffin 
qui se trouve à cet endroit à 150 milles du Groenland. 

Après avoir pris la direction du sud le long de cette côte 
indiquée comme montagneuse, rude, sombre et stérile, l'explo- 
rateur atteignit enfin le détroit d'Hudson qui borne la terre de 
Baffin au sud. 1 Cabot longea ensuite la côte de notre Labrador 
moderne et comme il prenait celui-ci pour le continent asiati- 
que il dut être surpris et désappointé de constater que les sau- 
vages n'avaient pas d'autre chose à échanger que des peaux et 
du poisson. 2 

L'explorateur prit notre détroit de Belle-lsle pour une baie 
ordinaire et la côte du côté est de Terre-Neuve fut considérée 
comme la continuation de la côte principale déjà explorée du 
côté nord. Cabot fut très surpris d'apercevoir u un grand 
nombre d'ours sur la côte venus pour manger du poisson ; ceux- 
ci s'élançaient dans l'eau aux endroits où les poissons se tenaient 
en grande quantité, puis saisissaient ces derniers de leuîra 
griffes et les emportaient sur la rive pour les manger. 3 Au 
dire de Sébastien Cabot, " il y avait une telle abondance de 
morue dans cette région que celles-ci arrêtaient quelques fois 
la marche des vaisseaux." 4 

Après avoir doublé le cap Race auquel ils avaient donné le 
nom de cap England lors de leur premier voyage, les explora- 
teurs visitèrent de nouveau les régions qu'ils avaient découver- 
tes durant l'été précédent. Ils prirent ensuite la direction du 
sud le long de la côte de la Nouvelle-Ecosse et de la Nouvelle- 



1. Carte de Ruysch dans t asimile-Atlas de A. E. Nordenskiold, gravure 
XXXII, Stockholm, 1889. 

2. Arber, op. cit., loc. cit. 

3. Ibid. 

4. Ibid. 



XIV INTRODUCTION 

Angleterre, dans Tespérance peut-être d'atteindre 'Cipangu que 
l'on croyait alors situé dans la région de l'équateur. Comme 
ils ne rencontrèrent aucun indice de civilisation de l'Est et que 
les vivres avaient diminué considérablement, ils résolurent de 
ne pas pousser plus loin leur exploration cette fois. Or les 
vaisseaux virèrent de bord et prirent la route de l'Angleterre où 
ils arrivèrent en bon état à la fin du même automne. 1 

Les Cabot ont dû être l'objet d'une froide réception, car 
après avoir promis au départ de revenir avec des cargaisons 
d'épices et de riches pierres précieuses, ils ne rapportèrent que 
quelques fourrures après n'avoir visité qu'une terre stérile. 
Le désappointement des marchands qui avaient avancé des 
fonds pour ce voyage, semble avoir été grand puisqu'il ne partit 
pas d'autre expédition de Bristol durant les trois années subsé- 
quentes et que celle qui fut envoyée en 1501 ne fut pas confiée 
aux Cabot. 

Dans l'intervalle les Portugais avaient commencé à explo- 
rer les mêmes côtes. Sur l'île de Terceira où résidait Fernan- 
dez, vivait un gentilhomme nommé Gaspar Corte Real que les 
découvertes qui se faisaient alors avaient intéressé au point 
qu'il était parti à la recherche des îles nouvelles à ses propres 
frais. Le 12 mai 1500 le roi Manuel l'avait nommé gouver- 
neur de toute contrée ou île qu'il pourrait découvrir dans les 
limites où s'exerçait l'autorité du Portugal. 2 Par le traité de 
Tordesillas conclu avec l'Espagne le 7 juin 1494, le Portugal 
avait consenti à limiter ses possessions dans l'Ouest à une ligne 
s'étendant au nord et au sud des îles du cap Vert à une dis- 
tance de 370 lieues. 3 

Parti de Terceira au printemps de 1500, Corte Real se 
dirigea vers le nord-ouest et atteignit la côte orientale du 
Groenland vers le milieu du mois de juin. Comme les Cabot 
il prit d'abord la direction du nord, mais à la fin du mois de 
juin, il fut forcé comme eux de virer de bord et de prendre la 
route du sud. Après avoir doublé le cap Earewell auquel il 
donna avec raison le nom de cap Get-sigM-of-me-and-leave-me, 



1. Doc. XIIa, XVa et XXX, pp. 26, 30 et 100; Divers Voyages, Hakluyt, 
23. 

2. Doe. XVIIa, p. 35. 

3. Collection de los viages y desciibrimientes, par M. F. de Navarrete, 
2e édition, II, n° LXXV, p. 147, Madrid, 1859. 



INTRODUCTION XV 

Corte Real longea la côte sud-ouest du Groenland et le nom 
de son père João Vaz Corte Real fut donné à plusieurs pro- 
montoires saillants et autres points de reconnaissance. Près 
de la baie North Strom, par 67° 30', l'explorateur rencontra 
encore des montagnes de glace, alors qu'il fit virer ses vaisseaux 
de bord, prit la direction du sud et se dirigea vers Lisbonne où 
il arriva sans accident durant l'automne de la même année. 1 

Corte Real rapporta au roi Manuel que la contrée qu'il 
avait explorée, appelée le Groenland ou le Labrador, était telle- 
ment enveloppée de neige et de glace, qu'il n'avait pu aborder 
qu'à quelques endroits. 2 Les natifs dont la taille était moyenne 
étaient d'excellents archers; ils vivaient dans des cavernes de 
pierres ou dans des habitations de chaume et se vêtissaient de 
peaux de bêtes. 3 Il espérait qu'une nouvelle exploration serait 
plus fructueuse et des préparatifs furent faits en vue de retour- 
ner dans ces parages le printemps suivant. 4 

Trois vaisseaux furent équipés avec lesquels Corte Real 
partit de Lisbonne le 15 mai 1501. 5 En approchant du cap 
Farewell, les vaisseaux rencontrèrent une des banquises 6 que 
le courant du nord descend du côté est du Groenland. Pour 
éviter cette glace les vaisseaux durent prendre la direction de 
l'ouest. Après quelques jours de marche Corte Real aperçut 
notre moderne Labrador, probablement dans le voisinage du 
cap Mugford, par 58° latitude, à l'endroit où la côte s'élève 
à une hauteur de 3,000 pieds. 7 

Comme la côte semblait s'élever davantage vers le nord 
et que toute la région paraissait stérile et désolée, Corte 
Real en conclua que cette côte devait faire partie de la terre 
explorée l'été précédent et pour cette raison il décida de la 



1. Chronica do felicíssimo Rei Dom Emanuel, par Damián de Goes, pt. 
lv, fol. 65, Lisboa, 1566; The Discoveries of the World, de A. Galvano, 96-7¡ 
Londres (Hakluyt Society) 1862; et les cartes portugaises du seizième siècle! 

2. Ainsi indiqué sur la carte de Cantino, publiée avec Les Corte-Real, 
faris, 1883, de feu Mr Harrisse. 

3. Damián de Goes, op. cit., loc. cit. 

4. Ibid. 

5. Ibid. 

6. Doc. XXIIa, p. 63. 

7. Cartes de Cantino, de Canerio, de Reinei et de Riecardiana dans K, 

Kretschmer, Atlas der Entdeckung Âmerika's Tafeln VIII, 1, et 

XXXIII, Berlin, 1892. 



XVI INTRODUCTION" 

suivre en prenant la direction du sud. 1 Aux environs de l'une 
des nombreuses anses qui parsèment la côte du Labrador, pro- 
bablement la baie Hamilton qu'ils appelèrent baie Doe, 2 les 
Portugais rencontrèrent une bande de sauvages naskapis. 
Comme la traite des noirs en Afrique leur avait appris à con- 
sidérer tous les natifs comme un butin ordinaire, Corte Real 
fit saisir soixante de ces sauvagees qui furent ensuite entassés 
à fond de cale. 3 

Continuant sa route vers le sud, il prit le détroit de Belle- 
Isle pour une baie et supposa que la côte orientale de Terre- 
]STeuve était la continuation de la côte principale déjà explorée 
au nord. 4 Belle-Isle fut appelée île Friar Lewis, 5 mais le cap 
Bonavista a conservé le nom de cabo de Boa Vista ou cap Fair- 
view 6 qui lui fut donné par Corte Real. La baie Trinity fut 
appelée baie Saint-Irénée, nom d'un saint portugais bien connu. 7 
Plus loin au sud l'île Baocalieu et la baie Conception ont con- 
servé toutes les deux les noms qui leur furent donnés. par Gaspar 
Real. Ferryland reçut le nom de FareUiño ou promontoire 
rocheux et Fermeuse fut appelée rio. Fermoso ou belle rivière. 
Le cap Race doit son nom à son apparence stérile (cabo Razo) 
ou à sa ressemblance à un cap du même nom située à l'embou- 
chure du Tagus. 8 

Après avoir contourné ce promontoire, Corte Real longea 
les côtes du sud de Terre-Neuve jusqu'à la baie Placentia qu'il 
nomma la Grande Baie. 9 Quant à la baie Sainte-Marie située 
entre cette dernière et le cap Race il semble que l'explorateur 



1. Docs. XXIIa et XXIIIa, pp. 63-4 et 66. 

2. Cartes de Miller et de Reinei dans Découverte et évolution cartogra- 
phique de Terre-Neuve par Harrisse, 74 et 86, planches V et VII, Paris, 1900. 

3. Docs XXIIa et XXIIIa, pp. 64 et 66. 

4. Cartes de Cantino, de Canerio, de Reinei, de Miller, de Riccardiana 
et de Freire, Harrisse, op. cit., p. 238, n° 79. 

5. Cartes de Reinei, de Miller, de Ribero et de Freire. La carte de 
Ribero a été bien reproduite dans Die beiden ãltesten General-Karten von 
Amerika par J. G. Kohl, Weimar, 1860. 

6. Cartes de Viegas, de Riccardiana, de Freire et du dépôt portugais. 
Voir Harrisse, op. cit., pp. 105, 108, 234 et 238. La carte de Viegas se 
trouve aussi dans History of the Discovery of Maine par J. G. Kohl, 348, 
Portland, 1869. 

7. Cartes de Reinei, de Ribero, de Viegas et de Freire. 

8. Cartes de King, de Reine!, de Miller, de Ribero, de Viegas et de 
Freire. La carte de King est reproduite dans Periplus de Nordenskiõld, 
n° XLV. 

9. Cartes de Riccardiana et de Freire. 



INTRODUCTION XVll 

lui donna le nom de havre de la Croix si Ton tient compte de 
la fête qui fut célébrée le 14 septembre. 1 

Ce fut vers cette époque que dans l'un des ports sur le côté 
ouest de la baie Placentia, Corte Real se sépara de deux de 
ses vaisseaux qui prirent la route de Lisbonne. Il voulait con- 
tinuer son exploration vers le sud afin de s'assurer des commu- 
nications entre ce grand continent et les îles que Christophe 
Colomb .avait découvertes près de l'équateur. 2 

Les deux caravelles à bord desquelles se trouvaient les sau- 
vages, arrivèrent à Lisbonne sans accident, la première le 
9 octobre et la seconde le 11. Il ne leur avait fallu qu'un mois 
pour effectuer leur retour 3 et le roi Manuel fut enchanté de cette 
vaste contrée remplie d'esclaves et couverte de bois; de telles 
ressources lui donnaient l'espoir de continuer avec succès ses 
conquêtes dans les Indes orientales. 4 

Durant le même été de 1501 les marchands de Bristol 
envoyèrent une nouvelle expédition du côté de l'ouest. En 
vertu de lettres patentes, en date du 17 mars 1501, Henri VII 
accorda à Richard Warde, à Thomas Ashurst et à John Thomas, 
de Bristol, ainsi qu'à João et Francis Fernandez et à João Gon- 
zales des Açores, la permission de poursuivre des explorations 
d-ans l'ouest avec le monopole du commerce durant dix ans dans 
la région qu'ils découvriraient et l'autorisation d'entrer un 
vaisseau dans le port de Bristol sans payer de droits durant 
quatre ans. 5 C'est en vertu d'une telle autorité qu'une expédi- 
tion fut envoyée de Bristol du côté de l'ouest, mais quant à la 
région que celle-ci explora, nous sommes dans l'ignorance. Il 
ne nous est pas parvenu d'autre donnée à cet égard qu'une 
entrée de cinq livres dans les comptes du roi, en date du 7 jan- 
vier 1502, payées " aux hommes de Bristol qui trouvèrent 



1. Carte de Miller. D'après les cartes de Cantino ,de Canerio et de 
King, il paraît certain que Gaspar Corte Real ne s'est pas séparé de ses 
compagnons avant d'avoir atteint la côte sud de Terre-Neuve. 

2. Doc. XXIIa et XXIIIa, pp. 64 et 67. 

3. Doc. XXIIa, p. 64. 

4. Doc. XXIIIa, p. 67. 

5. Doc. XXa, pp. 50-59. 
29837— B 



XVlll INTRODUCTION 

l'île." 1 Xous inférons de cela que ceux-ci ont pu visiter la 
côte sud de Terre-iSTeuve déjà explorée par Jean Cabot en 1497. 

L'automne de 1501 se passa sans recevoir de nouvelles de 
Gaspar Corte Real. Il était évident que son exploration de la 
région située à l'ouest de Placentia, avait été périlleuse. Pour 
cette raison, son frère Michel résolut d'aller à sa recherche et 
le 15 janvier 1502, le roi ratifia les prétentions de Michel sur 
la région déjà explorée par Gaspar. 2 Trois vaisseaux ayant 
été équipés, Michel partit de Lisbonne avec ceux-ci le 10 mai 
1502. 3 

Arrivé à Terre-Neuve, ordre fut donné à chaque vaisseau 
de visiter chacun sa partie de la côte et de se rassembler à 
Saint-Jean le 20 août. 4 Il semble que l'un des vaisseaux visita 
la région située au delà de la baie Placentia, endroit où Garpar 
s'était séparé de ceux qui l'avaient accompagné. Chapeau 
Rouge, sorte de colline conique qui forme l'extrémité de la baie 
à l'ouest, reçut apparemment le nom de cap Pilot? tandis que 
Langlade fut appelée île Green 6 pour faire contraster celle-ci 
avec la terre ferme stérile située en face. Le cap La Hune, 
point de reconnaissance important situé plus à l'ouest fut 
angelé cap Shallop, 7 peut-être parce que l'une des chaloupes de 
Gaspar fut trouvée à cet endroit. Près de Grand-Bruit les 
sauvages ont apparemment cherché à faire des échanges et par 
suite, les Portugais auraient appelé ce promontoire Peddler's 
cape. 8 

Après avoir doublé le cap Ray qui fut appelé avec raison 
cap Bend 9 le vaisseau s'avança à une distance considérable le 
long de la côte ouest de Terre-Neuve. La baie et la rivière 



1. Doc. VI, p. 12. 

2. Doc. XXIV (, pp. 67-70. 

3. Damián de Goes, op. cit., loc. cit. 

4. Galvano, op. cit., 97. 

5. C. do Piloio sur les cartes de Viegas et de Riccardiana. 

6. I. Verde, sur les cartes de Viegas et de Riccardiana. 

7. C. do Batell sur la carte de Viegas. La b. do Batell sur l'atlas de 
Riccardiana serait donc la baie Hermitage. 

8. C. do Mazcatos sur l'atlas de Riccardiana ; c. do Mazcato sur la carte 
de Viegas. 

9. C. da Volta sur les cartes de Viegas et de Riccardiana. 



INTRODUCTION XIX 

Saint-Georges .qui furent trouvées plus agréables que toute 
autre partie de la côte sud, reçurent le nom de rivière Pretty. 1 
Cette baie est séparée de la baie Port-au-Port par un isthme 
étroit dont la largeur en certains endroits est moins de cent 
verges, ce qui a valu à la baie de Port-au-Port le nom de baie 
Athwart.' 1 La baie des Islands dans laquelle se jette la plus 
grande rivière de Terreneuve reçut le nom de rivière Large 3 
tandis que la baie Bonne dont la largeur est de quatre milles 
seulement fut appelée baie Small, 4 La côte élevée jusque là 
se transforme à cet endroit en plage inclinée désignée sous le 
nom de * k plage unie ". 5 Des sauvages ayant été rencontrés à 
la baie Saint-Paul, celle-ci reçut le nom de rivière des Natives. 6 
Ce vaisseau ne semble pas être allé plus loin que Cow-Head qui 
fut appelé cap du Gulf, 7 car c'est de là qu'il partit pour le 
rendez-vous à Saint-Jean. 

A cet endroit il rencontra Tun des autres vaisseaux tel qu'il 
avait été convenu, mais ni l'un ni l'autre n'avait découvert 
d'indice de Gaspar Corte Peal et pour surcroît de malheur, le 
vaisseau de 3iichael manquait. Après avoir attendu en vain 
pendant quelque temps, les deux vaisseaux prirent seuls • la 
route du Portugal. 8 

Durant le même été une autre expédition fut envoyée de 
Bristol à Terre-Neuve mais nous n'avons aucune donnée au 
sujet de l'étendue de la cote qui fut visitée. Les explorateurs 
revinrent au mois de septembre avec kk trois hommes emmenés 
d'une Hand forre beyonde Irelond [île bien au delà de 



1. Rio Fremoso sur les cartes précédentes. Voir Voyage of H. M. S. 
"Rosamund" to Newfoundland, 66 et 73-4 par le Meut. E. Chappell, Londres, 
1818; et Excursions in and about Newfoundland, par J. B. Jukes, I, 228, 
Londres, 1842. 

2. Rio du Travesa sur les cartes de Viegas et de Eiccardiana. 

3. Rio Comprido sur l'atlas de Eiccardiana; Rio pria sur la carte de 
Viegas. 

4. B. Pequena sur l'atlas de Eiccardiana. 

5. Cosia chã sur les cartes de Viegas et de Eiccardiana. Voir Harrisse, 
Découverte et évolution cartographique, etc., 106, note 2; ainsi que Staff 
Commander W. F. Maxwell, The N ewfoundland and Labrador Pilot, 503, 
Londres, 1897. 

6. R. das Poblas sur la carte de Viegas et R. se Solhas sur l'atlas de 
Eiccardiana. 

7. C. do Golf ram sur l'atlas de Riccardiana. 

8. Galvano, op. cit., loe. cit. 
29837— Bi 



XX INTRODUCTION 

r Irlande] ; ceux-ci étaient vêtus de peaux de bêtes, mangeaient 
de la viande crue et avaient des manières rudes comme les 
bêtes "Z Le 26 du même mois, le roi Henri VII accorda à 
Francis Fernandez et à John Gonzales qui avaient évidem- 
ment faient partie de cette expédition, une pension de dix 
livres chacun " en reconnaissance des services réels qu'ils nous 
a rendus et de notre bon plaisir à l'égard de ces capitaines de 
la terre découverte récemment ". 2 Quatre jours après le roi 
accorda une autre somme de vingt livres " aux marchands de 
Bristol qui étaient allés à la terre récemment découverte ". 3 
Il est à propos de tenir compte que cette expression " terre 
récemment découverte " embrasse une côte beaucoup plus éten- 
due que celle de 'Terre-Neuve d'aujourd'hui. 4 

De nouvelles lettres patentes, en date du 9 décembre 1502, 
accordaient à Fernandez, à Gonzales, à Ashurst et à un nommé 
Hugh Eliot de Bristol, le pouvoir d'entreprendre des explora- 
tions dans l'ouest, à condition de ne pas pénétrer sur aucun 
territoire déjà en possession du roi du Portugal. Le monopole 
du commerce dans la région qu'ils pourraient explorer, leur 
était accordé durant quarante ans et ils avaient la permission 
d'entrer deux vaisseaux dans le port de Bristol sans payer de 
droits durant cinq ans. 5 En vertu de ces lettres patentes et de 
celles du 19 mars 1501, qui étaient encore valides, 6 il semble 
que des expéditions sont parties de Bristol en 1503 et 1504, 
mais nous n'avons malheureusement ausun renseignement au 
sujet des endroits qu'elles ont explorés. 7 

Nous n'avons non plus aucun renseignement au sujet de la 
région explorée par deux vaisseaux envoyés par le roi Manuel 
en 1503, à la recherche des frères Gaspar et Michsel Corte Real. 
Les recherches qui furent faites sans succès se sont sans doute 



1. Doc. XXX, p. 100. 

2. Doc. XXVI, p. 91. 

3. Doc. VI, p. 12. 

4. Voir Lescarbot, Histoire de la Nouvelle-France, Paris, 1618, p. 29: 
"' sur la côte de la Terre neuve qui est baignée du grand Océan jusques 
au quarantième degré/' 

5. Doc. XXVa, pp. 81-91. 

6. Doc. XXa, pp 50-59 

7. Doc. VI, p. 12. 



INTRODUCTION XXI 

bornées à la côte déjà explorée par les Portugais en 1501 et 
(:ii 150:?. 1 Comme les deux frères étaient évidemment perdus, 
leurs droits furent transférés au mois de septembre 1506 à leur 
frère Vasco Aunes qui avait assumé les dettes contractées à 
Tégard des expéditions précédentes. 2 C'est peut-être à cause 
de ces dettes qu'une taxe fut imposée à Vienna sur la morue 
transportée des côtes de Terre-Neuve au Portugal. 3 

Bien que les Bretons aient pu visiter les bancs de Terre- 
Neuve même avant les expéditions des Cabots, 4 ce n'est qu'en 
1501 que des vaisseaux de pêches français se sont rendus jus- 
qu'à cette île. 5 Comme les pêcheurs portugais avaient prii 
possession des havres depuis le cap Race jusqu'au cap Bona 
vista, les Français furent obligés d'avoir recours à ceux qui se 
trouvent à l'ouest du cap Race entre celui-ci et le cap Brean/ 
En 1508 un vaisseau de Dieppe, appelé la Pensée indiqua aux 
pêcheurs de la Normandie, la route des havres situés au nord 
du cap Bonavista. 7 L'année suivante un des vaisseaux de 
pêche normands transporta un canot et sept sauvages à Rouen. 8 

L'Espagne était donc le seul pays de l'Europe occidentale 
dont les sujets n'avaient pas visité cette région. Au mois 
d'octobre 1511, une convention fut arrêtée entre le roi Ferdi- 
nand et un nommé Juan de Agramonte au sujet d'un voyage 
de découverte à Terre-Neuve, 9 mais bien que l'entente fut rati- 
fiée par la reine Jeanne, 10 il n'existe aucune donnée pour démon- 
trer que l'expédition qui devait être dirigée par des Bretons, 
soit jamais partie de Santander. 

Durant la décade suivante, les pêcheurs bretons, portugais, 
anglais et français semblent avoir pris chaque année la route 



1. Damián de Goes, op. cit., fol. 65v. 

2. Doc. XXVIIA, pp. 94-6. 

3. Doc. XXVIIIA, pp. 97-8. 

4. Doc. XXXVI, p. 119. Voir aussi Ch. de La Roneière, Histoire de la 
marine française, II, 399-400, Paris, 1900. 

5. Ramusio, op. cit., Ill, 423.V. 

6. Ibid. 

7. Ibid. 

8. Ensebei csesariensis episoopi, Chronicon, etc, fol. 172v, Paris, 1512. 
Reproduite dans Harisse, op. cit., 162-3. 

9. Doc. XXXIIa, pp. 107-11. 

10. Doc. XXXIIIa, pp. 113-15. 



Xxii INTRODUCTION 

des bancs/ mais ce n'est qu'en 1520 que fut tentée une nou- 
velle exploration de cette région. Cette année-là João Alvares 
Fagundes, pêcheur de Vienna qui avait visité les bancs depuis 
longtemps, demanda et obtint la concession des terres ou îles 
qu'il pourrait découvrir dans la sphère réservée au Portugal. 
Parti de Vianna, peut-être en même temps que les vaisseaux 
de pêche qui partent chaque année, il semble avoir exploré la 
côte depuis la Nouvelle-Ecosse jusqu'à la baie Placentia à 
Terre-Neuve. 

En examinant notre Nouvelle-Ecosse, probablement vers 
le milieu de juin, il donna à la baie Chedabouctou le nom de 
baie Freswhater sans doute parce qu'il s'approvisionna d'eau 
à cet endroit. 3 Fagundes rencontra des pêcheurs de la Breta- 
gne le long de l'île du Cap-Breton qui prétendirent que la 
pointe qui formait la dernière partie de cette île à l'est avait 
toujours été appelée Cap-Breton. 4 Après avoir continué sa 
route le long de cette côte, Fagundes semble avoir donné le 
29 juin, le nom de rivière Saint-Pierre et Saint-Paul 5 au havre 
de Sydney, tandis que le 5 juillet peut-être, la baie Sainte- 
Anne fut appelée rivière Saint-Jacques, 6 L'explorateur a dû 
apercevoir des sauvages le long de cette côte car sur plusieurs 
des anciennes cartes se trouve cette inscription légendaire 



1. Doc. XXXV-VIIIa, pp. 116-27. 

2. Voir p. XV supra. 

3. Doc. XXXIX, p. 128: " aas tres ilhas na baya d'Auguoada, na costa 
de nordeste e sudueste." Celles-ci seraient les îles Madame, Petit Degrat 
et Janvrin. Il peut être trouvé de Feau fraîche dans la rivière Salmon. 
Sur Fatias de Lazaro Luiz de 1563, cette région est attribuée à Fagundes, 
tandis que la carte de Diogo Homem de 1568 indique à ce sujet I. Fa- 
gunda ainsi que C. Fagunda. Voir E. A. de Bettencourt, Descobrimen- 
tos guerras e conauestas dos Portuguezes em terras do ultramar nos 
secutos, XV et XVI, appendice, Lisboa, 18812; Hantzsch und Schmidt 
Kartographische Denkãler zur Entdeckungsgeschichte von Amerika, 
Tafeln, VIII et X, Leipzig, 1903; Harrisse op. cit., 233-4 et 282-3; et F. 
Kunstmann, Atlas zur Entdeckungsgeschichte Amerikas, Blatt XII, Mùn- 
chen, 1859. 

4. Voir l'inscription Terra q foy descuberta por berrtõmes, sur la carte 
de Kunstmann, n° IV. Ce nom se trouve sur les cartes de Miller, Mag- 
giolo, Ferdinand Columbus, Ribero, Verrazano, Viegas, Riecardiana, 
Deliens, Harleian, Desceliers, Freire, Vallard, Homem, Mercator, Vaz 
Dourado, etc. 

5. Cartes de Miller, Maggiolo, Viegas et Riecardiana. 

6. R. de Santiago sur les cartes de Miller et de Maggiolo. 



INTRODUCTION" XXÎÎÎ 

ik Région d'un grand nombre de gens 'V Puis se dirigeant 
vers le nord, Fagundes atteignit enfin le cap Nord qui forme 
l'extrémité du Cap-Breton au nord-est et qui, à cause de sa 
hauteur, fut nomme Thick ou Big. 2 

L'entrée sud du golfe Saint-Laurent fut prise pour une 
baie et c'est ainsi qu'elle est indiquée sur la plupart des ancien- 
nes cartes portugaises. 3 Au cap Ray qui est un promontoire 
élevé, Fagundes donna le nom de cap Beautiful* Poursui- 
vant sa route le long de la côte sud de Terre-Neuve il donna 
le nom de baie des Islands^ à une entrée qui devait être la baie 
La Poile. Saint-Pierre, Miquelon et Langlade furent appe- 
lées les Elevand Thousand Virgins, tandis que Chapeau Rouge 
qui marque l'entrée de la baie Placentia conserva le même 
nom. 6 Comme cette fête tombe le 21 octobre, l'automne devait 
être avancé quand l'explorateur atteignit la baie Placentia d'où 
il reprit la route du Portugal. 

Fagundes fut introduit devant le roi Manuel durant l'hiver 
et appuyé par des témoins dignes de foi, il prouva son droit sur 
les îles qui se rencontrent depuis Chedabuctou jusqu'à la baie 
Placentia. Ces îles lui furent cédées en vertu de lettres paten- 
tes en date du 13 mars 1521. 7 Cette concession ne porta 
atteinte en aucune façon aux droits des Corte Reals, que le roi 
Jean III, en montant sur le trône transféra à Vasco Annes 



1. Terre de muyta gemte sur les cartes indiquées dans la note précé- 
dente. Voir aussi les cartes de Viegas et de Riecardiana. 

2. C. Gordo sur la carte de Miller ; c. Grosso sur les cartes de Mag- 
giolo et de Freire et c. Grueso sur la carte de Gutierrez Voir aussi 
Oviedo, op. cit., loc. cit. La hauteur du cap Nord est de 1,000 pieds. 

3. Cartes de Reinei et de Kunstmann, n os IV et VII, et celles de Miller. 
Viegas, Riccardiana et Freire. Voir aussi Santa-Cruz'slsiario general, 
infra p. 186: "Passadas las islas de las Honze mill Virgines [Saint-Pierre 
et Miquelon] haze la mar una muy gran ensenada llamada bava de Bre- 
tones:" ainsi que Oviedo, op. cit., loc. cit.: "Pero ntes de dicho rio esta 
un embocamiento, desde el mesmo Cabo Gruesso adelante, que tiene de 
traviessa veynte leguas ", etc. 

4. C. Fremoso sur les cartes de Miller et de Maggiolo. 

5. B. das Ythas sur la carte de Miller. Le C. das Ilhas sur la carte de 
Freire serait ainsi le Grand Bruit. 

6. Cartes de Miller et de Freire. Sur celles-ci aussi bien que sur les 
cartes de Maggiolo et de Ribero le cap La Hune est appelé cap St-Paul. 

7. Doc. XXXIXa, pp. 129-31. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION 

Corte Real, le 17 septembre 1522. * Fagundes ne put jamais 
tirer profit de sa concession, et à sa mort, il laissa plusieurs 
dettes qu'il avait contractées pour préparer l'expédition ci- 
dessus. 2 

Au printemps de 1521, le cardinal Wolsey avait l'intention 
d'équiper cinq vaisseaux pour " a viage into the Newfound 
Hand ", 3 mais les compagnies de la ville refusant de venir en 
aide, il ne fut rien fait jusqu'à 1527. Dans l'intervalle les 
pêcheurs anglais aussi bien que les pêcheurs français conti- 
nuaient de se rendre annuellement sur les " Bancs " 4 et au 
mois d'août 1522, un vaisseau de guerre reçut ordre de se 
rendre à l'embouchure de la Manche pour protéger le retour de 
la flotte revenant des " new found Islelandes ". 5 Giovanni de 
Verrazano ayant exploré le littoral de l'Atlantique pour le 
compte de François I, à partir de la Floride, " s'approcha en 
se dirigeant vers le nord, de la terre que les Bretons avaient 
découverte autrefois " et après s'y être " approvisionné d'eau 
et de bois ", il retourna à Dieppe. 6 

Un vaisseau espagnol fut envoyé pour explorer cette région 
durant l'hiver de 1524-5.. Stephen Gomez, le commandant, 
était d'origine portugaise et probablement que, durant sa jeu- 
nesse, il avait rencontré les pêcheurs de Vianna qui tous les ans 
faisaient voile pour les " Bancs ". Il avait aussi visité les 



1. Doc. XLIIIa, pp. 144-5. 

2. Boletim da Sociedade de Geographia de Lisbon, n° 3, Lisbonne, 1878, 
pp. 170-1 : " e depois de estar o dito testamento feito foi descobrir a Terra 
JNova, en que fez muita despeza e tomou dinheiro emprestado, do que 
ticaram muitas dividas.'" 

3. Doc. XLI, pp. 134-42. 

4. Docs. XXXVIIa, Xil VIIa et LI-LVIa, pp. 124-27 et 159-65. Voir 
aussi A new interlude and a mery of the nature of the IIII elementes, etc., 
dans Arber, op. cit., p. XXI: 

" Fyshe they have so great píente 
Tua* in havyns take and slayne they be 
W ith stavys withouten fayle 

Kowe frenchmen and other have founden the trade 
TJ at yerely of fyshe there they !adt* 
Above an C. [100] sayle." 

5. Doc. XLII, pp. 142-3. 

6. Hakluyt, op. cit., B. 3v et 4. Voir appendice A n° €, p. 200. 



INTRODUCTION XXV 

Indes orientales sur des vaisseaux de Lisbonne. 1 Comme 
Magellan il entra au service de l'Espagne dans l'espérance 
d'améliorer sa situation, mais tandis que Magellan reçoit le 
commandement de la flotte envoyée à la recherche de la nou- 
velle route de l'est, Gomez doit se contenter du poste modeste 
de pilote du vaisseau du commandant. Aussi ne fut-il pas 
fâché de voir l'équipage du St. Anthony, sur lequel il avait été 
transféré, se mutiner au mois d'août 1520 à l'entrée du détroit 
de Magellan et reprendre la route de l'Espagne après avoir mis 
le capitaine aux fers. 2 Gomez ne fut pas lent à demander des 
vaisseaux afin de chercher un passage pour l'est entre Terre- 
Neuve et la Floride. D'après ce qui fut convenu le 27 mars 
1523, Charles Y consentit à lui fournir une caravelle de cin- 
quante tonneaux avec des vivres pour une année. 3 Sébastien 
Cabot qui se préparait alors pour une expédition aux Molu- 
ques, approuva le plan de Gomez 4 qui faisait espérer que ce 
dernier découvrirait plusieurs îles " riches en or, en argent, en 
épices et en drogues ". 5 La caravelle qui fut accordée à Gomez, 
fut préparée à Corunna et cette ville de même que le district 
du même nom fut requise par l'empereur de fournir au vais- 
seau toutes les choses nécessaires. 6 

Gomez partit de Corunna le 3 août 1524 et atteignit Terre- 
Neuve au mois de septembre probablement, mais comme il lui 
avait été défendu de pénétrer sur aucun territoire qui appar- 



1. Gomara, op. cit., loc. cit. : " avia navegado algunas vezes a las In- 
dias." Voir J. T. Medina, El Portugués Esteban Gomez al servicio de 
Espana, p. 146, Santiago de Chile, 1908, et S. E. Dawson, The Saint Law- 
rence Basin, eh. VIII, Londres, 1905. 

2. A. Pigafetta, Magellan's Voyage around the World, edit, par J. A. 
Robertson, vol. I., pp. 68-9. Cleveland, 1906. 

3. Docs XLIV-XLVa, pp. 147-52. 

4. A. de Herrera, Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos, etc., 
Doc III, lib. TV, Madrid, 1730, p. 144: "porque Sebastian Gaboto, Capitán 
del Rei i Piloto Maior, también tenían opinion, que havia muchas Islas 
por descubrir cerca de los Malucos." 

5. Doc. XLIVa, p. 148. 

6. Docs XLVII-XLIXa, pp. 154-58. Voir Herrera, op. cit., pp. 143-4/ 
" Concluido este Asiento, mando, el Rei dar sus Cédulas, para que en el, 
Señorío de Vizcaya, i quatro Villas de la Costa de la Mar, se diese todo 
favor, en el armar de este IS'avio," etc. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION 

tenait au Portugal/ il semble s'être dirigé du côté de l'ouest 
jusqu'à l'île du Cap-Breton qu'il côtoya dans la direction du 
sud. Notre Bras-d'Or fut appelé " rivière à deux embouchu- 
res " 2 et comme il ignorait que le détroit de Canso était un pas- 
sage entre la Nouvelle-Ecosse et le Cap-Breton, Gomez donna 
à la baie Cliedabucto qui conduit à ce détroit, le nom de " bay 
with the Cove ". 3 Continuant son exploration dans la direc- 
tion du sud, il donna les noms de rivière " Chesnut-grove " 4 et 
rivière des " Mountains "° à deux anses situées sur la côte de 
la Nouvelle-Ecosse qui apparemment devaient être nos havres 
" Ship et Halifax ". 

Après avoir doublé le cap Sable dont les récifs sont indi- 
qués sur les cartes de cette époque, 6 Gomez pénétra dans la 
baie de Fundy. Plus il s'enfonçait dans celle-ci plus il était 
convaincu d'avoir trouvé le détroit qu'il cherchait. Aussi son 
désappointement fut-il grand quand il atteignit le fond de la 
haie. Il appela celle-ci la rivière Doe, 7 parce que, sans doute, 
il avait aperçu des daims sur ses bords. 

Puis passant ensuite en face de l'île Grand Manan, du côté 
sud, Gomez prit celle-ci pour la terre ferme et donna à l'extré- 



1. Doc. XL1VA, p. 148. 

2. Rio de Dos Bocas, dans Oviedo, Historia general y natural de las 
Indias, TI, 148. Madrid, 1852. 

3. Bahia de la Ensenada, qu'Oviedo (Historia general, etc., II, 148) 
indique comme ayant une largeur de dix lieues. La largeur de la baie 
Chedalbucto est de 17 milles. 

4. Rio de Castañar dans Oviedo, loe. cit. Ce nom se trouve aussi sur 
la carte de Ferdinand Colomb. 

5. Rio de Montañas dans Oviedo, loe. cit. Ce nom se trouve aussi sur 
la carte de Ribero. 

6. Appelés arecifes sur les cartes de Ribero et de Santa Cruz. Les 
medaños ou bancs de sable indiqués par Oviedo, op. cit., II, 148, semblent 
avoir existé avant (1857) au nord du cap Sable. 

7. Oviedo, op. cit. II, 147: "Desde el Cabo de Muchas Islas hasta la 
punta ó cabo que tiene el rio de las Gamas al Leste, hay veynte leguas de 
mar, é todo aquello es entrada ó embocamiento ó habia del dicho rio." 
Voir aussi la carte de Santa-Cruz dans Discovery of North America par 
Harrisse, gravure XI, p. 241. ainsi que les cartes qui se trouvent dans 
History of the Discovery of Maine par J. G. Kohl, p. 315, n° XVII. 



INTRODUCTION XXVll 

mité sud-ouest de cette île le nom de ik cape of Many Islands". 1 
Iï pousuivit ensuite sa route vers le sud, le long de la côte de 
la terre ferme et donna à la pointe Schoodic, probablement le 
jour de Tan 1525, 2 le nom de " cape St. Mary ". 3 Les nom- 
breuses îles qui remplissent les baie Frenchman et Penobscot 
reçurent le nom d'Archipel de Stephen Gomez/ tandis que la 
pointe Penaquid à cause de ses récifs, fut appelée pointe Reef.° 
A la rivière Sheepscat il semble avoir donné le nom de rivière 
Dry. La rivière Kennebec se trouve tout près de cette der- 
nière, mais comme son embouchure est dissimulée parmi les 
îles, elle ne fut pas remarquée. Le 18 février la baie Casco 
fut appelée la baie Saint- Jean-Baptiste. Serrant toujours la 
terre, Gomez poursuivit sa route dans la direction du sud et le 
25 mars, la rivière Saco reçut le nom de rivière Good Mother 
en commémoration de la conception de la Vierge. 7 Trois jours 
après il nomma le Merrimac, rivière St. Anthony. 8 La baie 
Boston fut appelée, le 14 avril probablement, baie St. Christo- 
pher. 9 Continuant sa route vers le sud, Gomez se trouve ren- 
fermé dans le détour du cap Cod auquel il donna le nom de cap 
St. James 10 dont la fête" de ce nom tombe le premier jour de 
mai. 



1. Cabo de Muchas Islas dans Oviedo, loe. cit., ainsi que sur les cartes 
indiquées dans la note précédente. 

2. Harrisse, Découverte, etc., planche X, p. 90: Tierra que descubrió 
Estevam Uomez este año de 1525; et carte de Riberi. 

3. Cabo de Santa Maria dans Oviedo, op. cit., 147. 

4. Oviedo, op. cit., II, 146-7: "Desde el Cabo de Arrecifes hasta el 
Cabo de Sancta Maria hay veynte leguas, y todo la, que hay en medio es 
un ancón ó ensenada lleno de islas, lo qual todo llama la carta moderna 
arcipiélago," etc. Le nom se trouve sur " the Henri II map in Kohl, 
op. cit., p. 351, n° XVIII." VoirRelation de Verrazano dans Hakluyt,' 
op. cit., loe. cit. 

5. Cabo de Arrecifes dans Oviedo, op. cit., II, 146. 

6. Bahia de Sanct Johan Baptista, ibid. 

7. Rio de Buena Madre, ibid. 

8. Rio de Hand Antonio, ibid. 

9. Bahia de Sanct Chrispstobal, ibid. Oviedo semble donner ce nom à 
la baie du cap Cod, mais sur la carte que l'on trouve dans Islario General 
de Santa-Cruz, carte reproduite dans Discovery of North America de 
Harrisse, p. 241, gravure XI, ainsi que dans sa Découverte et évolution 
cartographique de Terre-Neuve, p. 88, gravure LX, ce nom se trouve près 
de la baie Boston. 

10. Cabo de Sanctiago, Oviedo, loe. cit. 



XX VIH INTRODUCTION 

Gomez fit prisonniers un certain nombre d'Indiens 1 lors de 
son exploration du golfe du Maine, mais nous ne savons pas 
comment il s'y est pris en cette occurrence. Comme la 
présence de ces prisonniers eut pour effet d'augmenter la con- 
sommation des provisions et que Ton manquait entièrement 
d'indication quant au passage pour aller à l'est il fut décidé 
d'abandonner l'exploration de la côte et de se diriger directe- 
ment vers Cuba. 

Gomez doubla le cap Cod et donna à l'île de Nantucket 
entourée de hauts-fonds jusqu'à une distance de quarante 
milles, le nom de cap " of Shoals ", nom qui lui fut conservé 
durant tout le seizième siècle. 2 

Après s'être muni de provisions nouvelles à Santiago dans 
l'île de Cuba, 3 Gomez fit voile pour Corunna et atteignit l'Espa- 
gne environ dix mois après l'avoir quittée, c'est-à-dire, au mois 
de juin 1552. 4 Comme la caravelle entrait dans le port, un 
marin cria qu'ils avaient des esclaves, esclavos en espagnol. Un 
spectateur comprit le mot clavos (épices) et se rendant à la 
cour, il informa l'empereur que Gomez avait rapporté des 
épices. Cette nouvelle fut reçue avec une grande joie, mais 
lorsque la vérité fut connue, l'empereur en fut beaucoup peiné. 5 
Oviedo vit les Indiens de Gomez à Toledo. " Ce sont de grands 
archers ", écrit-il, " ils sont vêtus de peaux de diverses bêtes 
sauvages et apprivoisées. Dans la région qu'ils habitent se 
trouvent d'excellentes fourrures provenant de martes, de zibe- 
lines et d'autres animaux à fourrures riches, desquelles ledit 
pilote Gomez a apporté quelques échantillons en Espagne. 6 



1. Gomara, loe. cit.: : tomo quantos indios pudieron caber en la 
caravela y traxo se los contra la ley, y voluntad del rey." Voir Herrera, 
op. cit., Doc. Ill, lib. VIII, cap. VIII, p. 241. 

2. Kohl, op. cit., gr av. XVII, p. 315; Harrisse, op. cit., loe. cit; et 
Oviedo, loe. cit. 

3. Herrera, loe. cit. ; " fue à dar al Puerto de Santiago, adonde se 
refrescó y le regaló Andrés de Duero ", etc. 

4. Gomara, loe. cit.: "se bolvio a la Coruña dentro de diez messes;" 
ainsi que Herrera, loe. cit. 

5. Gomara, loe. cit.; Herrare, loe. cit. 

6. E. Arber, op. cit., 242. 



INTRODUCTION XXIX 

Deux ans après, un vaisseau envoyé d'Angleterre explora 
une fois encore ce côté-ci de l'Atlantique. En 1521 Henri 
VIII avait essayé d'obtenir le concours des corporations des 
notables commerçants de Londres en vue d'équiper cinq vais- 
seaux pour un voyage qui devait être fait " into the newefound 
Hand "/ mais bien qu'il insista fortement auprès du maire 
pour amener celui-ci à faire tout son possible, ses efforts 
n'eurent pas de résultat avant 1527. Au printemps de cette 
année-là, deux vaisseaux, le Samson et la Mary Guildford, 
furent équipés à Londres pour être envoyés à la recherche d'un 
passage pour atteindre l'est par le détroit de Davis. Après 
avoir quitté Londres le 10 mai, ces vaisseaux partirent défini- 
tivement de Plymouth le 10 juin. Trois semaines après, le 
1 er juillet, par 53° de latitude, les deux vaisseaux furent sépa- 
rés par une violente tempête et le Samson a dû sombrer, car 
on n'en entendit plus parler. 2 

La Mary Guildford résista à la tempête, mais deux jours 
après elle rencontra les montagnes de glace que le courant des- 
cend de la mer polaire à travers le détroit de Davis. l Alors,' 
écrit le capitaine au roi Henri VIII, i nous n'osâmes pas avan- 
cer plus loin dans la direction du nord de peur de rencontrer 
plus de glace ; nous nous dirigeâmes vers le sud et en moins de 
quatre jours, par cent soixante brasses, nous atteignons avec 
le 52 e degré, la terre ferme " du Labrador. Après avoir longé 
cette côte dans la direction du sud ils entrèrent, le 21 juillet, 
dans une ouverture qui devait être notre rivière Alexis. Ils 
trouvèrent là " un bon port, plusieurs petites îles et une grande 
rivière d'eau douce qui remontait à une grande distance dans 
la terre ferme." Celle-ci était inhabitée, montagneuse, cou- 
verte de bois, entièrement tapissée de mousse et dépourvue 
d'habitations et d'habitants." Dans les bois ils découvrirent 
Ci les pistes de divers grandes bêtes mais ne virent aucun animal 
sur un parcours de dix lieues." Les dix jours qu'ils passèrent 
dans ce port furent employés à réparer les avaries, à faire la 
pêche et à s'approvisionner de bois et d'eau douce. 



1. Doc. XLI, pp. 135 et 138. 

2. R. Purchas, His. Pilgrim es, pt. III, p. 809, Londres, 1625. 



XXX IîîTBODUCTIOjS' 

Ils mirent à la voile la fin du mois de juillet et " nous en- 
traînent le 3 août dans un grand port appelé Saint-Jean, où nous 
trouvâmes onze bateaux normands, un bateau breton et deux 
barques portugaises, tous venus là pour faire la pêche." 
Comme ils ne purent obtenir à cet endroit aucun renseignement, 
sur le sort du Samson, la Mary Guildford se dirigea vers le sud 
dans la vaine espérance de rencontrer sa conserve. 1 Au cours 
de son voyage alors qu'elle longeait la côte de l'Atlantique de 
notre côté, elle perdit son pilote, un Italien, qui était peut-être 
Verrazano. Il fut tué dans une escarmouche avec les Indiens. 2 

Il semble que ce vaisseau se rendit de Terre-Neuve aux 
Indes occidentales et qu'il arriva à Porto Rico vers le milieu 
de novembre. Des renseignements sur la condition de San 
Domingo, furent obtenus du capitaine d'une caravelle expa- 
gnole qui prenait une cargaison de cassave à Mona, île située 
à mi-chemin entre Porto Rico et San Domingo. La Mary 
Guildford partit de Mona jeudi, 21 novembre, et arriva à San 
Domingo lundi, 25 novembre, dans l'après-midi. Un canot 
fut immédiatement envoyé à terre pour demander la permis- 
sion d'entrer dans le port et se procurer des vivres. Les auto- 
rités consentirent et envoyèrent denx pilotes pour conduire le 
vaisseau dans la rivière Ozana, le seul port dont la ville avait 
le droit d'être flère. Le 26 novembre, la Mary Guildford 
gagna l'embouchure de la rivière mais un violent vent du nord 
l'empêcha d'entrer dans le port. Elle avait à peine jeté 
l'ancre que l'on tira sur elle du fort. Surprise de cette récep- 
tion, elle regagna la mer 3 immédiatement mais nous ne savons 
à Quelle date elle arriva en Angleterre. 4 



1. Purchas, loc. cit. 

2. Doc. LVIIa, T). 167. Voir Ramusio, op. cit., III, 417v: "et nelF 
ultimo viaggio, che esto fece, havendo voluto smontar in terra con alcuni 
compagni, furono tutti morti da quei popol & in presentía di coloro, che 
erano rimasi nelle navi, furono arrostiti & mangiati " ; et La Roncière, 
op. cit., III, 267. 

, 3. Doc. LVIIIa, pp. 173-4. 

4. Hakluyt. Principall Navigations, 1589, p. 517: et Avgmeniaton office, 
Mise, aies., ¿17, n° 6138 (3), fols 50 et 51v, dans le Record office. 



INTRODUCTION 

De 1527 jusqu'à l'exploration du golfe Saint-Laurent par 
Cartier en 1534, des vaisseaux de pêche continuèrent de se 
rendre annuellement sur nos bords 1 durant l'été,, mais il n'est 
parvenu jusqu'à nous aucun indice de nouvelles explorations 
de nos côtes ou de tentative de trouver dans ces latitudes un 
passage pour atteindre l'Est. Jacques Carties fut l'explora- 
teur qui tenta ensuite de trouver ce passage ; il n'y parvint pas 
mais il réussit à découvrir le golfe et le fleuve Saint-Laurent 
et cet immense territoire qui s'étend du détroit de Belle-Isle 
jusqu'aux rapides de Lachine. 

1. Doc. LIXa-LX, pp. 179-82. 



DOCUMENTS. 

29 mars 1476. 

LETTRES DE NATURALISATION ACCORDEES À JEAN CABOT 

À VENISE. 

MCCCCLXXVI die xxviiii Martii. 

Cousiliarii. Quod fiat privilegium civilitatis de intus et extra 
Joanni Caboto per habitationem annorum XV 
juxta consuetum. 
de parte — 149. 
de non — O ; non sine. — O. 

From the Archivio di Stato at Venice, Senato, Terra, 
Eegistro VIL, 1473-1477, fol. 109 verso: printed as 28 March 
in S. Romanin, Storia documentata di Venezia, IV., 453, 
Venezia, 1858 : C. Barrera Pezzi, Di Giovanni Cabotto rivela- 
tore del settentrionale emisfero d' America, 18, note 1, Venezia, 
1881; H. Harrisse, Jean et Sébastien Cabot, 309, Paris, 1882; 
F. Tarducci, John and Sebastian Cabot, 2, note 1, Detroit, 
1893 ; Raccolta di Documenti e Studi pubblicati dalla Reale 
Commissione Colombia, parte V., vol. II., p. 216, Eoma, 
1894; Harrisse, John Cabot and Sebastian his Son, 387, 
London, 1896 ; G. E. Weare, Cabot's Discovery of North 
America, 70, note 2, London, 1897 ; and C. R. Beazley, John 
and Sebastian Cabot, 205-6, London, 1898. 

Ia. 

Le 29 e jour de mars 1476. 

That a privilege of citizenship, both internal and external, be 
made out for John Cabot after fifteen year's residence, as usual. 

Ayes, 149. 

îsoes, 0. neutrals, 0. 

Also translated in Rawdon Brown, Calendar of State 
Papers and Manuscripts relating to English affairs existing in 
the Archives and Collections of Venice, &c, 136, rTo. 453, 
London, 8164; Harrisse, op. cit., loe. cit. ; Weare, loe. cit.; and 
Beazley, op. cit., 34. 

29837—1 



2 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

IL 

1472-1498. 

FORMULE DES LETTRES DE NATURALISATION. 

Privilegium civilitatis de intus et extra per habitationem 
annorum xv. Aluisii Fontana olim de Pergamo. 

Nicolaus Tronus Dei gratia Dux Venetiarum, etc. Uni- 
versis et singulis tam amicis quam fidelibus, et tam praesentibus 
quam futuris, presens privilegium inspecturis, salutem et sin- 
cere dilectionis affectum: 

Notum vobis fieri volumus per praesentem paginam, quod 
cum inter cetera, que in mente nostra revolvimus, attendamus 
precipue nostrorum subditorum et fidelium devotorum tractare 
propensius cómoda et utilia salubriter procurare. Cum hoc 
Excellentie nostre decus aspiciat, et fidelium devotio utilius 
per tractata in nostrae, fidelitatis et devotionis constantia 
ferventius solidetur. Duximus volentes beneficia recompensare 
pro meritis statuendum: 

Quod quicumque annis xv vel inde supra, Venetiis con- 
tinue habitasset ; factiones et onera nostri dominij ipso tempore 
subeundo, a modo civis et Venetus noster esset ; et Citadinatus 
Venetiarum privilegio et alijs beneficiis, libertatibus et immun- 
itatibus quibus alij Veneti et cives nostri utuntur et gaudent 
perpetuo et ubilibet congauderet. Unde cum providus vir,. 
Aluisius Pontana, olim de Pergamo, nunc habitator Venetiarum 
in contrata Sancti Juliani, sicut legitimis et manifestis proba- 
tionibus per provisores nostri Comunis diligenter examinatis, 
nobis innotuit annis xv Venetiis continuam habitationem 
habuerit, erga nos et ducatum nostrum, fideliter et laudabiliter 
sub devotionis integritate se gerens et subiens continue factiones 
et onera nostri dominij, digna remuneratione prosequentes, 
eundem ipsum Aluisium Pontana consiliorum et ordinamen- 
torum nostrorum, necessária solemnitate servata, in venetum 
et eivem nostrum de intus et extra recepimus atque et recipi- 
mus, et Venetum et eivem nostrum, de intus et extra, fecimus 
et facimus, et pro Véneto et cive nostro in Venetiis et extra, 
habere et tractare, ac haberi volumus, et ubique tractari. Ita 
quod singulis libertatibus, beneficis et immunitatibus, quibus 
alii veneti et cives nostri de intus et extra utuntur et gaudent, 
idem Aluisius in Veneti js et extra, libere gaudeat de cetero et 
utatur. Intelligendo, quod per mare, et in fon tico theotoni- 
corum, seu cum tbeotonicis, mercari, seu mercari faceré non 
possit, nisi de tanto quanto fecerit imprestita nostro dominio^ 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER Ó 

in anno. In suius rei fidem et evidentiam pleniorem, presens 
privilegium fieri jussimus et bulla nostra plúmbea pendente 
muniri. Datum in nostro ducale Palatio, Anno domini incar- 
nationis, millesimo quadringentesimo septuagésimo secundo, 
mensis Augusti die undécimo, indictione quinta. 

Simile priviletium factum fuit provido viro Johanni Jacobi, 
qui fuit de Pensauro, nunc liabitatori Venetiarum, tempore 
Serenissimi principis domini Nicolai Marcelli, Incliti ducis 
Venetiarum etc, sub bulla plúmbea, MCCCCLXXIII, mensis 
Octubris die xxiii, Indictione VII. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit provido viro Martino Figini, 
qui fuit de Mediolano, habitatori Venetiarum tempore Seren- 
issimi Principis domini Nicolai Marcello, MCCCCLXXIIII, 
die quarto Julii, Indictione VII. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit provido viro Martino Frigini, 
Gulielmi Calderario de Columbis, qui fuit de Balabio districtus 
Mediolani, habitatori Venetiarum tempore Serenissimi Prin- 
cipis domini Petri Mocenigo, sub bulla plúmbea, 
MCCCCLXXV, mensi Maii die quinto, Indictione octava. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit provido viro Joanni Bar- 
tholomei de Brixia, habitatori Venetiarum tempore Serenissimi 
Principis domini Nicolai Marcello, MCCCCLXXIIII, die 
xvii Maii, Indictione VIL 

Simile privilegium factum fuit probo et prudenti viro 
Joanni pero de Turco, qui fuit de Navaria, habitatori Vene- 
tiarum tempore Serenissimi Principis Domini Joannis 
Mocenigo, die xxii do Augusti, 1480. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit Bartholomeo Antonii 
Casarolo, die xviii augusti, 1481. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit Bernardo Bartholomei de 
Pergamo, die 28 septembris, 1484. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit Zacharie de panti de lodi» 
die 28 septembris, 1484. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit Benedicto Lancelloti fon- 
tana, die 82 septemb'ris, 1484. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit Joanni Sebastiono et Stefano, 
fratribus, die 28 septembris, 1484. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit Raphaeli quondam Antonî 
de ardiconibus, die 12 februarii, 1484. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit M. Stefano Nicolai Aurificî r 
bulla áurea, die 26 februarii, 1484. 

Simile privilegium factum fuit Joanni Caboto sub duce 
suprascripto, 1476. 

29837— \\ I 



4 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Simile privilegium factum fuit Dominico Joanni de la 
Cisio sud die xviii jannuari, 1498, etc. 

From the Archivio di Stato at Venice, Libro privilegi, 
II, 53. The above copy was most kindly collated with the 
original by my friend, Dr. Plattard, and by Mr. Horatio F. 
Brown, of Venice. Printed in C. Bullo, La vera patria di 
Nicoli de Conti e di Giovanni Caboto, 59-60 Chioggia, 1880; 
and more fully in Harrisse, op. cit., 309-12 ; and in Tarducci, 
op. cit., 315-71 

IIa. 

Privilege of citizenship, internal and external, after 
fifteen years' residence. Aloysio Fontana, formerly of Ber- 
gamo. 

Piccolo Trono, by the grace of God, Doge of Venice, etc. 
To all and singular our friends and lieges, present and future, 
who shall see the present privilege, greeting and proof of sincere 
friendship : 

By these presents we desire to make known to you that 
among the other thoughts which fill our mind, we aim princi- 
pally to procure what is especially advantageous and useful in 
a wholesome way to our subjects and devoted lieges. As this 
is one of the duties of our august office, and as our acts 
strengthen our subjects in their faithful and devoted attach- 
ment towards us, we, wishing to reward merit according to its 
deserts, have thought good to decree: 

That since whoever has resided in Venice continuously for 
fifteen years or more, and during that period has fulfilled the 
duties and borne the charges of our government, is to be hence- 
forward a citizen and one of our Venetians, and is to enjoy for- 
ever and everywhere the rights, liberties and immunities exer- 
cised and enjoyed by the other Venetians, our citizens : wherefore 
as the prudent man, Aloysio Fontana, formerly of Bergamo, 
now a resident in St. Julian street, Venice, has notified us by 
proper and clear proofs which have been carefully verified 
by the magistrates of our municipality, that he has inhabited 
Venice continuously during fifteen years, conducting himself 
towards us and our duchy faithfully and worthily, with whole- 
hearted devotion, and submitting regularly to the duties and 
charges of our government, things worthy of reward, we have 
received and receive the said Aloysio Fontana, the proper 
formality having been observed, as a Venetian and our citizen 
within and without, and have created and create him a Vene- 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 5 

tian and our citizen within and without, and desire him to be 
and act and be held and treated as a Venetian and our citizen 
in Venice and without, everywhere, in such a manner that the 
said Aloysio may for the rest freely enjoy and make use of all 
the liberties, rights and immunities that the other Venetians, 
our citizens, have and enjoy within and without, it being under- 
stood that he cannot himself trade or carry on trade through 
others by sea or in the German warehouse or with Germans, 
unless he has given security for this to our government within 
the year. In witness and more complete evidence whereof we 
have caused the present privilege to be drawn up, and our 
leaden seal to be affixed thereto. Given in our ducal Palace 
on 11 August in the year of our Lord's incarnation 1472. 
Indiction V. 

A similar privilege was granted to the prudent man, 
Giovanni, the son of Giacomo, formerly of Pesara, now an 
inhabitant of Venice, in the time of the Most Serene Liege 
Lord Nicolas Marcello, Illustrious Doge of Venice, etc., under 
a leaden seal on 23 October, 1473, Indiction VII. 

A similar privilege was granted to the prudent man, 
Martino Figinis, formerly of Milan, inhabitant of Venice in 
the time of the Most Serene Liege Lord Nicolas Marcello, on 
4 July, 1474, Indiction VIL 

A similar privilege was granted to the prudent man, 
Antonio, son of Gulielmo, boilermaker of Colombi, formerly 
of Balabio, a district of Milan, inhabitant of Venice in the 
time of the Most Serene Liege Lord Pietro Mocenigo, under a 
leaden bull, on 5 May, 1475, Indiction VIII. 

A similar privilege was granted to the prudent man, 
Giovanni, son of Bartholomeo of Brescia, inhabitant of Venice 
in the time of the Most Serene Liege Lord Nicolas Marcello, on 
17 May, 1474, Indiction VIL 

A similar privilege was granted to the honest and prudent 
man, Giovanni Pietro de Turco, formerly of Novara, inhabi- 
tant of Venice in the time of the Most Serene Liege Lord 
Giovanni Mocenigo, 22 August, 1480. 

A similar privilege was granted to Bartholomeo, son of 
Antonio Casarolo, on 18 August, 1481. 

A similar privilege was granted to Bernardo, son of Bar- 
tholomeo of Bergamo, on 28 September, 1484. 

A similar privilege was granted to Zacharia de Panti, of 
Lodi, on 28 September, 1484. 

A similar privilege was granted to Benedetto, son of 
Lancelloto Pontana, on 28 September, 1484. 



6 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

A similar privilege was granted to the brothers Giovanni, 
Sebastiano and Stephano, on 28 September, 1484. 

A similar privilege was granted to Rafaele, son of the late 
Antonio of Ardiccione, on 12 February, 1484. 

A similar privilege was granted, with a golden seal, to M. 
Stefano, son of Nicolas, the goldsmith, on 26 February, 1484. 

A similar privilege was granted to John Cabot under the 
Doge above mentioned [Pietro Mocenigo], 1476. 

A similar privilege was granted to Domenico Giovanni de 
la Cisio on 18 January, 1498, etc. 

Also translated in part in Tarducci, op. cit., 26-7 ; in 
Beazley, op. cit., 35-6 ; and in full in Harrisse, John Cabot, &c, 
387-9. 

III. 
Í 5 mars 1496. 

PÉTITION DE JEAN CABOT ET DE SES FILS. 

Memorandum quod quinto die marcii, anno regni regis 
Henrici septimi undécimo, ista billa deliberta fuit domino 
Cancellario Anglie apud Westmonasterium exequenda: 

To the kyng our souvereigne lord: 

Please it your highness of your moste noble and haboundant 
grace to graunt unto John Cabotto, Citezen of Venice, Lewes, 
Sebastyan and Soncio, his sonnys, your gracious letters patentes 
under your grete seale in due forme to be made according to the 
tenour hereafter ensuying 1 . And they shall during their lyves 
pray to God for the prosperous continuance of your moste 
noble and royall astate long to enduer. 

From the Public Record Office. Chancery Warrants for 
Privy Seal, ser. II, 146, (7th in packet) : printed in 
C. Desimoni, Intomo a Giovanni Caboto in the Atti delta 
Società ligure di Storia patria, p. 223, Genova, 1881 ; H. Har- 
risse, Jean et Sébastien Cabot, pp. 312-3; A. J. Weise, The 
Discoveries of America to the year 1525, p. 188, New York, 
1884; Tarducci, op. cit., 320; Hakluyt, Principall Navigations, 
XII, 22, note, Edinburgh, 1889; American History Leaflet, 
No. 9, edit, by A. B. Hart and E. Channing, p. 5, New York, 
1893; Raccoita di Documenti e Studi pubblfyati dalla Reate 
Commissions Colombiana, parte V, vol. II, p. 216 ; D. W. 
Prowse, A History of Newfoundland, p. 8, London, 1895 ; 
G. E. Weare, op. cit., 94; and C. R.^ Beazley, op. cit., 48-9. 

1 Cette pièce contenait la copie d'un brouillon [de lettres patentes] qui 
correspond au document IV. qui suie, à l'exception d'un mot qite Ton y 
trouve en plus. Voir note de la p. 7. 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 7 

IV. 

5 mars 1496. 

PREMIÈRES LETTRES PATENTES ACCORDEES PAR HENRI VII À 
JEAN CABOT ET À SES FILS. 

Pro Jolianne Caboto et filiis suis. 

Hex omnibus ad quos, etc. Salutem: Notum sit et niani- 
festum quod dedimus et eoncessimus ac per presentes damus 
et concedimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris dilectis mobis 
Johanni Cabotto, civi Veneciarum, ac Lodovico, Sebastiano 
et Sancto, filiis dicti Johannis, et eorum ac cuiUslibet eorum 
heredibus et deputatis, plenam ac liberam auctoritatem, facul- 
tatem et potestatem navigandi ad omnes partes, regiones et 
sinus maris orientalis, occidentalis et septemtrionalis sub 
banneris, vexillis et insigniis nostris cum quinqué navibus sive 
navigïis, cuiuscumque portiture et qualitatis existant, et cum 
tot et tantis nautis et hominibus, quot et quantis in dictis 
navibus secum ducere voluerint, suis et eorum propriis sumpti- 
bus et expensis, ad inveniendum, discooperiendum et investi- 
gandum quascumque insulas, patrias, regiones sive provincias 
gentilium et infidelium 1 in quacumque parte mundi positas, 
que Christianis omnibus ante hec témpora fuerunt ineognite. 
Concessimus eciam eisdem et eorum cuilibet, eorumque et cuius- 
libet eorum heredibus et deputatis, ac licenciam dedimus 
affigendi predictas banneras nostras et insignia in quacumque 
villa, oppido, castro, insula seu terra firma a se noviter inven- 
tis. Et quod prenominati Johannes et filii eiusdem seu 
heredes et eorum deputati quaseumque huiusmodi villas, 
castra, oppida et insulas a se inventas, que subiugari, occupa ri 
et possicleri possint, subiugare, occupare et possidere valeant, 
tamquam vasalli nostri et gubernatores, locatenentes et depu- 
tati eorundem, dominium, titulum et jurisdiccionem eorundem 
villarum, castrorum, oppidorum, insularum ac terre firme sic 
inventorum nobis acquirendo ; Ita tamen ut ex omnibus fructu- 
bus, proficuis, emolumentis, commodis, lucris et obvencionibus 
ex huiusmodi navigacione provenientibus, prefati Johannes et 
filii ac heredes et eorum deputati teneantur et sint obligati 
nobis pro omni viagio suo, tociens quoeiens ad portum nostrum 
!Bristollie applicuerint, ad quem omnino applicare teneantur 
et sint astricti, deductis omnibus sumptibus et impensis neces- 
sariis per eosdem factis, quintam partem tocius capitalis lucri 
sui facti sive in mercibus sive in pecuniis persolvere. Dantes 

1 Dans la copie conservée parmi les pièces revêtues du petit sceau en 
vertu d'une autorisation de la chancellerie, ser. II, 146, le mot quorum 
cumque est inséré à l'endroit indiqué ici. 



8 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

nos et concedentes eisdem suisqne heredibus et deputatis ut 
ab omni solutione custumarum omnium et singulorum bono- 
rum ac mercium, quas secum reportarint ab illis locis sic 
noviter inventis, liberi sint et immunes. Et insuper dedimus 
et concessimus eisdem ac suis heredibus et deputatis, quod 
terre omnes firme, insuie, ville, oppida, castra et loca quecum- 
que a se inventa, quotquot ab eis inveniri contigerit, non pos- 
sint ab aliis quibusvis nostris subditis frequentari seu visitari 
absque licencia predictorum Johannis et eius filiorum suorum- 
que deputatorum, sub pena amissionis tam navium sive navigi- 
orum quam bonorum omnium quorumcumque ad ea loca sic 
inventa navigare presumencium. Volentes et strictissime 
mandantes omnibus et singulis nostris subditis tam in terra 
quam in mare constitutis ut prefato Johanni et eius filiis ac 
deputatis bonam assistenciam faciant, et tam in armandis navi- 
bus seu navigiis quam in provisione commeatus et victualium 
pro sua pecunia emendorum atque aliarum rerum sibi provi- 
dendarum pro dicta navigacione sumendarum suos omnes 
favores et auxilia imparciantur. 

In cuius etc. 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium quinto die Marcii. 
Per ipsum Regem, etc., et de data, etc. 

From the Public Record Office, Treaty Roll 178, membrane 
8 (old numbering 23). Another copy will be found under 
Chancery Warrant for Privy Seal, ser. II, 146, No. 7 : printed 
in Hakluyt, Divers Voyages, sign. A, London, 1582; Idem, 
Principal! Navigations, 509-10, London, 1589 ; Idem, 
Principall Navigations, III, 4-5, London, 1600 ; Rymer, Pozolera 
XII, 595-6, London, 1712; ibid, V, pt. IV, 89, Hagae 
Comitis, 1741 ; E. Hazard, Hictorical Collections, I, 9-10, 
Philadelphia, 1792; Hakluyt, op. cit. Ill, 25-6, London, 1810; 
idem, Divers Voyages, 19-20, London, 1850; Desimoni, op. 
cit., 223-5; Harrisse, op. cit., 313-5; Hakluyt, op. cit., XII, 
19-21, 1889; Tarducci, op. cit., 320-2; American History 
Leaflet, No. 9, 2-3 (from Rymer) ; Raccolta Colombians, loc. 
cit., 216-7; Weare, op. cit., 96-7; and Hakluyt, op. cit., VII, 
141-3. Glasgow, 1904. 

IVa. 

Eor John Cabot and his Sons. 

The King, to all to whom, etc. Greeting : Be it known and 
made manifest that we have given and granted as by these 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 9 

presents we give and grant, for us and our heirs, to our well- 
beloved John Cabot, citizen of Venice, and to Lewis, Sebastian 
and Saneio, sons of the said John, and to the heirs and 
deputies of them, and of any one of them, full and free 
authority, faculty and power to sail to all parts, regions and 
coasts of the eastern, western and northern sea, under our 
banners, flags and ensigns, with ûve ships or vessels of whatso- 
ever burden and quality they may be, and with so many and 
such mariners and men as they may wish to take with them in 
the said ships, at their own proper costs and charges, to find, 
discover and investigate whatsoever islands, countries, regions 
or provinces of heathens and infidels, in whatsoever part of the 
world placed, which before this time were unknown to all 
Christians. We have also granted to them and to any of them, 
and to the heirs and deputies of them and of any one of them, 
and have given licence to set up our aforesaid banners and 
ensigns in any town, city, castle, island or mainland whatso- 
ever, newly found by them. And that the before-mentioned 
John and his sons or their heirs and deputies may conquer, 
occupy and possess whatsoever such towns, castles, cities and 
islands by them thus discovered that they may be able to 
conquer, occupy and possess, as our vassals and governors 
lieutenants and deputies therein, acquiring for us the dominion, 
title and jurisdiction of the same towns, castles, cities, islands 
and mainlands so discovered; in such a way nevertheless that 
of all the fruits, profits, emoluments, commodities, gains and 
revenues accruing from this voyage, the said John and sons 
and their heirs and deputies shall be bounden and under obliga- 
tion for every their voyage, as often as they shall arrive 
at our port of Bristol, at which they are bound and holden only 
to arrive, all necessary charges and expenses incurred by 
them having been deducted, to pay to us, either in goods or 
money, the fifth part of the whole capital gained, we giving and 
granting to theem and to their heirs and deputies, that they shall 
be free and exempt from all payment of customs on all and 
singular the goods and merchandise that they may bring back 
with them from those places thus newly discovered. 

And further we have given and granted to them and to their 
heirs and deputies, that all mainlands, islands, towns, cities, 
castles and other places whatsoever discovered by them, however 
numerous they may happen to be, may not be frequented or 
visited by any other subjects of ours whatsoever without the 
licence of the aforesaid John and his sons and of their deputies, 
on pain of the loss as well of the ships or vessels daring to sail 



10 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

to these places discovered, as of all goods whatsoever. Willing 
and strictly commanding all and singular our subjects as well 
by land as by sea, that they shall render good assistance to the 
aforesaid John and his sons and deputies, and that they shall 
give them all their favour and help as well in fitting out the 
ships or vessels as in buying stores and provisions with their 
money and in providing the other things which they must take 
with them on the said voyage. 

In witness whereof, etc. 

Witness ourself at Westminster on the fifth day of March. 

By the King himself, etc. 

Also translated in Hakluyt, Divers Voyages, sign. A 2; 
idem, Principall Navigations, 510-11, London, 1589; idem, 
Principall Navigations, III, 5, London, 1600; G. Chalmers, 
Political Annals of the Present United Colonies, etc., 7-8, 
London, 1780; W. Barrett, The History and Antiquities of 
the City of Bristol, 171-2, Bristol, 1789 ; Hakluyt, op. cit. Ill, 
26, 1810; idem, Divers Voyages, 21-2, 1850; J. F. Nicholls 
and J. Taylor, Bristol, Past and Present, III, 294, Bristol, 
1882; Hakluyt, op. cit., XII, 21-2, 1889; Old South Leaflet, 
~No. 37, 1-2 (from Hakluyt) ; C. B. Markham, The Journal of 
Christopher Columbus and Documents relating to the Voyages 
of John Cabot and Gaspar Corte Real, 197-9, London (the 
Hakluyt Society), 1893; American History Leaflet, "No. 9, 4-5 
(from Hakluyt); Weare, op. cit., 97-100; Beazley, op. cit., 
49-51; and Hakluyt, op. cit., VII, 143-4, ,1904. 



V. 



28 mars 1496. 



EXTRAIT DUNE DEPECHE DE FERDINAND ET D ISABELLE A GON- 
ZALES DE PUEBLA, LEUR EMBASSADEUR EN ANGLETERRE. 

.... Quanto a lo que desis que alla es ydo uno como Colon para 
poneré al Key de Ynglaterra en otro negocio como el de las 
Y ndias syn perjuysio de España ni de Portogal, sy asy le acude* 
a el como a nos otros, lo de las Yndias bien librado estara. 
Crehemos que esto sera echadiso del Bey de Francia por poner 



1 Tel qu'indiqué dans Jean et Sébastien Cabot par feu M. Harrisse, p. 
13, la dépêche originale de Puebla était datée du 21 janvier 1496. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 11 

en esto al Rey de Ynglaterra para le apartar de otros negocios. 
Mirad que procureis que en esto ni en lo some jante no resciba 
engaño el Rey re Ynglaterra, que por quantas partes pudieren, 
trabajaran los franceses de gelo faser. Y estas cosas somej antes 
son cosas muy ynçiertas, y tales que para agora no conviene 
entender en ellas ; y tanbien mirad que a aquellas partes no se 
puede entender en esto syn perjuisio nuestro o del Rey de 

Portogal 

De Tortosa a xxviii de Marzo de MCCCCXCVI. 

From the Archivo General de Simancas, Estado, Tratados 
con Inglaterra leg. 2 o , fol. 16 ; draft copy: printed in Desimoni, 
op. cit., 226; Harrisse, op. cit., 315-6; Tarducci, op. 
cit., 322-3 ; Raccolta Colombiana, loe. cit., 217 ; and Weare, 
op. cit., 110-11 (from Harrisse). 

Va. 

. . In regard to what you say of the arrival there of one like 
Columbus for the purpose of inducing the king of England 1 to 
enter upon another undertaking like that of the Indies, without 
prejudice to Spain or to Portugal, if he [the king] aids him 
as he has us, the Indies will be well rid of the man. We are 
of opinion that this is a scheme of the Erench king's to persuade 
the king of England to undertake this so that he will give up 
other affairs. Take care that you prevent the king of England 
from being deceived in this or in anything else of the kind, 
since wherever they can, the Erench will endeavour to bring 
this about. And things of this sort are very uncertain, and of 
such a nature that for the present it is not seemly to conclude 
an agreement therein ; and it is also clear that no arrangement 
can he concluded in this matter in that country [England] 

without harm to us or to the king of Portugal 

Tortosa, 2 28 March, 1496. 

Also translated in Bergenroth, Calendar of Spanish State 
Papers I, 89, London, 1862 ; The Historical Magazine, 2nd 
ser. Ill, No. 3, 134, appendix B, Morrisania, 1868 (from Ber- 
genroth) ; Weise, op. cit., 187; Weare, op. cit., 111-12; and 
Beazley, op. cit., 51-2. 

1 Henri VII. 

2 Ville de Catalogne. 



12 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

VI. 

DIVERS MONTANTS FOURNIS PAR HENRI VII LUI-MEME. 

12. H. 7 1 Aug 1 : 10 th Itm to hym that founde the 

new Isle £10 

13. H. 7 Mch: 22 d Itm to Lanslot Thirkill 2 of 

Lond. upon a Prest for his 
Shipp going towards the 

new Ilande £20 

Itm delivered to Launcelot 
Thirkill going towards the 

new He in Prest £20 

Apr: 1 st Itm to Thomes Bradley & 
Launcelot Thirkill going 

to the new Isle £30 

Apr: 1 st Itm to John Carter going to 

the Newe He in rewarde. . 40 

17. H. 7 3 Jan: 7 th Itm to men of Bristoll that 

founde Thisle 100 

17. [sic]* H. 7 Sept: 30 th Itm to the merchants 

of Bristoll that have bene 
in the newe founde Launde.£20 

19. H. 7 5 Apr: 8 th Itm to a preste that goith to the 

new Ilande 40 

20 th H. 7 th6 Augt: 25 th Itm to Clays goying to 

Richemount with wylde 
Catts & Popyngays of the 
Newfound Island for his 
costs 13 4 

From the British Museum, Additional MS. 7099 fols. 41- 
95 : printed in |"S. Bentley] Excerpta Histórica or Illustrations 
of English History, 113-33 London, 1831; The Hictorical 
Magazine 2nd ser. Ill, No. 3, 134 C ; Desimoni, op. cit., 
237 (in part) ; Harrisse, Jean et Sébastien Cabot, 256, 267, 
270 and 272 (from Bentley) ; J. F. Nicholls and J. Taylor, op. 



1 Du 22 août 1496 au 21 août 1497. 

2 II est aussi question de cet homme dans le manuscrit additionnel 
21480, pp. 58, 76r. 

3 Du 22 août 1501 au 21 août 1502. 
5 Du 22 août 1503 au 21 août 1504. 
« Du 22 août 1504 au 21 août 1505. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 13 

cit., 73 ; Tarducci, op. cit., 325-6 (from Bentley) ; Weare, op. 
cit., 154-5; and Beazley, op. cit., 267-8 and 271-2. 

VIL 

Londres, 23 août 1497. 

LETTRE DE LORENZO PASQUALIGO. 

Copia de uno capitolo scrive in una lettera sier Lorenzo 
Pasqualigo, fo di sier Filippo, da Londra a di 23 avosto a sier 
Alvixe e Francesco Pasqualigo, suo fradeli in Veniexia. Rice- 
vuta adi 23 setiembre 1497. 

L'è venuto sto nostro veneziano che ando con uno navilio di 
Bristo a trovar ixole nove, e dice haver trovato lige 700 lontam 
di qui terra ferina ch'è el paexe del gram cam ; ed è andato per 
la costa lige 300 ed è desmontato e non a visto persona alguna, 
ma a portato qui al re certi lazi ch'era tesi per prender salva- 
dexine e uno ago da far rede, e a trovato certi albori talati sichè 
per questo judicha che ze persone ; vene in nave per dubito, et è 
stato mexi tre sul viazo, e questro è certo. E al tornar aldreto a 
visto do ixole ma non ha voluto desender per non perder tempo 
che la vituaria li manchava. Sto re ne habuto grande a piacer ; 
e dize che le aque è stanche e non hano corso come qui. El re li 
ha promesso a tempo novo navili x armati come lui vorà ed ali 
dato tutti i presonieri da traditori in fuora che vadano con lui, 
come lui a rechiesto, e ali dato danari fazi bona ziera sino a quel 
tempo, ed è con so moler veniziana e con so fioli a Bristo. El 
qual se chiama Zuam Talbot e chiamasi el gran armirante e 
vienli fato grande honor e va vestido de seda, e sti inglexi li 
vano driedi a mo pazi, e pur ne volese tanti quanti navrebe con 
lui, et etiam molti de nostri furfanti. Sto inventor de queste 
cose a impiantato suli tereni a trovato una gran,+ [i- e - croce] 
con una bandiera de Ingeltera e una di San Marcho per esser lui 
veneziano, siche el nostro confalón o se steso molto in qua. 

From the Diarii di Sanuto in the Biblioteca nazionale di S. 
•Marco at Venice, MSS. Italiani CI. 7, No. 419, (vol. I), fol. 
734 verso; printed in Rawdon Brown, RagguaM sulla vita e 
stale opere di Marin Sanuto, part T, y>\). 99-100, Venezia, 
1837; Marin Sanuto, Diarii, vol. I, cols. 806-7, Venezia, 1879; 
Desimoni, op. cit., 227-8 ; Barrera Pezzi, op. cit., 15, note 3 ; 
Harrisse, op. cit., 322 : Tardneei op. cit., 326-7 ; Tîaeeolta 
Colombiana, pt. ITT, v. IT, p. 109; and Weare, op. cit. 138-9. 



14 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



VIIa. 



Copy of a Paragraph in a Letter ser Lorenzo Pasqualigo [son 
of J the late ser Philip wrote from London on 23 August to ser 
Alvise and Francesco Pasqualigo, his brothers, in Venice. Re- 
ceived on 23 September, 1497. 

That Venetian of ours who went with a small ship from 
Bristol to find new islands has come back and says he has dis- 
covered mainland 700 leagues away, which is the 
country of the Grand Khan, and that he coasted it for 
300 leagues and landed and did net see any person; but he 
has brought here to the king 1 certain snares which were spread 
to take game and a needle for making nets, and he found cer- 
tain notched [or felled] trees so that by this he judges that there 
are inhabitants. Being in doubt he returned to his ship; and 
he has been three months on the voyage; and this is certain. 
And on the way back he saw two islands, but was unwilling to 
land, in order not to lose time, as he was in want of provisions. 
The king here is much pleased at this; and he [Cabot] says 
that the tides are slack and do not run as they do here. The 
king has promised him for. the spring ten armed ships as he 
[Cabot] desires, and has given him all the prisoners to be sent 
away, that they may go with him, as he has requested ; and has 
given him money that he may have a good time until then, and 
he is with his Venetian wife and his sons at Bristol. His name 
is Zuam Talbot and he is called the Great Admiral and vast 
honour is paid to him and he goes dressed in silk, and these 
English run after him like mad, and indeed he can enlist as 
many of them as he pleases, and a number of our rogues as well. 
The discoverer of these things planted on the land which he has 
found a large cross with a banner of England and one of St. 
Mark, as he is a Venetian, so that our flag has been hoisted very 
far afield. 

Also translated in Rawdon Brown, Calendar, &c, I, 262, 
Xo. 752 ; Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for 
October 21, 1865. 20-1, Cambridge, 1866 (from Brown) ; The 
Historical Magazine, 2nd series, III, No. 3, 134 D 
(from Brown) ; Nicholls and Taylor, op. cit., 294-5 ; 
Weise, or>. cit.. 189-90 (from Brown) ; J. Winsor, Narrative 
and Critical History of America, TIT, 53, London, 1866 (from 
Brown) ; Markham, op. cit., 201-2; American History Leaflet, 
No. 9, 5-6 (from Brown) ; Collections of the Nova Scotia 
Historical Society, TX, 35-6, Halifax, 1895 (from Brown) ; 

1 Henri VIT. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 15 

Weare, op. cit., 139-40 (from Brown) ; Beazley, op. cit., 60-1 ; 
Old South Leaflet No. 115, 1-2, Boston, 1902 (from Brown) \ 
and E. G. Bourne, The Voyages of the Cabots in volume I of 
Original Narratives of Early American History, ed. by J. F. 
Jameson, LL.D., 423-4, New York, 1906. 

VII. 

Extrait d'une dépêche du 24 août 1497. 

Raimondo di Soncino au duc de Milan. 

le nove havute questa matina de ingliterra per littere 
de xxiiii augusti 

.... Item la Magista de Be sono mesi passati havia mandato 
uno Veneciano el qual e molto bono marinare et a bona scientia 
de trovare insule nove, e ritornato a salvamento et a ritrovato 
due insule nove grandissime et fructiffere et etiam trova ¿o le 
Septe Citade lontane da l'insula de Ingliterra lege 400 per lu 
camino de ponente: la Maista de Re questo primo bono tempo 

gli vole mandare xv in xx navili, etc 

From the Public Record Office, Venetian Transcripts, No. 
195, at the date. The original cannot now be found in the 
Archivio di Stato at Milan whence in 1860 the late Mr. Rawdon 
Brown procured the above copy, and the authorities think 
it has been stolen: printed in Harrisse, op. cit., 323 ; Tarducci r 
op. cit., 327 (from Harrisse) ; and Weare, op. cit., 143 (from 
Harrisse). The text given by Signor C. Bullo in his La vera 
patria di Nicole de' Contiedi Giovanni Caboto, p. 60, and re- 
printed thence by Desimoni (op. cit., 228-9), Harrisse (op. cit., 
323), and Weare (op. cit., 142-3), is according to Signor I. 
Macagnani, the Director of the Archives at Milan, merely a 
modernised version of the above done to make the old Italian 
more intelligible. 

VIIIa. 

Nouvelles reçues d'Angleterre ce matin par lettres [de 
Raimondo di Soncino] en date du 21 août. 

. . . .Also some months ago his majesty the king 1 sent out a 
Venetian who is a very good mariner and has considerable skill 

1 Henri VII. 



16 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

in discvoering new islands, and he has returned safe, and has 
found two new very large and fertile islands, and also dis- 
covered the Seven Cities, 400 leagues from the island 
of England, on the western passage. This next spring his 
majesty the king means to send him out with fifteen or twenty 
ships 

Also translated in Bawdon Brown, op. cit., 260, ~No. 750 ; 
Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for October 
21, 1865, 21-2 (from Brown) ; The Historical Magazine, 2nd 
series, III, No. 3, 134 E ; American History Leaflet, Ko. 9, 
6-7; Old South Leaflet; No. 115, p. 2 (from Brown) ; Mark- 
ham, op. cit., 202 ; Weare, op. cit., 143-4 (from Brown) ; Beaz- 
ley, op. cit., 62 ; and Bourne, op. cit., 424-5. 

IX. 

13 décembre 1497. 

PENSION ANNUELLE DE VINGT LIVRES ACCORDEE À JEAN CABOT. 

Memorandum quod xxviii die januarii anno subscripto 
istud breve liber atum fuit domino Cancellario Anglie apud 
Westmonasterium exequendum. 

Henry by the grace of God King of England and of fTraunce 
and lord of Irland, To the most reverend ¿adre in God, John, 
Cardinal archiebisshop of Cantrebury, prymate of all England, 
and of the apostolique see legate, our chauncellor, greeting : We 
late you wite that We for certaine considerations us specially 
moevying have yeven and graunted unto our welbiloved John 
Calbot of the parties of Venice an annuitie or annuel rent of 
twenty poundes sterling, to be had and yerely perceyved from 
the fest of thanunciation of our lady last passed 1 during our 
pleasur of our custumes and subsidies commying and growing 
in our Poort fo Bristotwe by thands of our custumers ther for 
the tyme beying at Michelmas 2 and Estre by even porcions. 
Wherefor we wol and charge you that under our grete seal ye 
do make heruppon our letters patentes in god and effectual 
forme Yeven undre our Pryve Seal at our paloys of West- 
minister the xiii th day of Décembre The xiii th yere of our 
Peigne. 

• HORWOOD. 



1 25 mars 1497. 

2 29 septembre. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 17 



From the Public Kecord Office, Chancery Privy Seal, 
December, 13 Henry VII, 22nd in packet: printed in Winsor, 
op. cit., Ill, 56; Harrisse, John Cabot, etc., 392 (from the 
original) ; Weare, op. cit., 128 ; and Beazley, op. cit., 92-3. 



18 décembre 1497. 

Deuxième dépêche de Raimondo di Soncino au duc de 

Milan. 

Illustrissimo et Excellentissimo Segnor mio. 

Forsi che tra tante occupatione de Vostra Excellentia, non 

li sara molesto intendere como questa Maiestà ha guadagnato 

una parte de Asia senza colpo de spada. In questo regno è uno 

populare venetiano chiamato messer Zoanne Caboto, de gentile 

ingenio, peritissimo de la navigatione, el quale, visto che li 

serenissimi Re, prima de Portugallo, poi de Spagna, hanno occu- 

pato isole incognite, delibero fare uno simile acquisto per ditta 

Maiestà, et impetrato privilegii regii, che Futile dominio de 

quanto el trovasse fussi suo, per che lo diretto se reserva a la 

corona, cum uno piccolo navilio et xvin persone se pose a la 

fortuna, et partitosi da Bristo, porto occidentale de questo regno, 

et passato Ibernia, piu occidentale, et poi alzatosi verso el septen- 

trione, comencio ad navigare a le parte orientale, lassandosi 

(fra qualche giorni) la tramontana ad mano drita, et havendo 

asai errato in fine capitoe a terra ferma, dove posto la bandera 

regia et tolto la possessione per questa Alteza, et preso certi seg- 

nali, se ne retornato. Al ditto messer Zoanne, como alienigena 

et povero, non saria creduto, se li compagni chi sono quasi tutti 

inglesi et da Bristo, non testificasserro cio che lui dice essere 

vero. Esso messer Zoanne ha la descriptione dei mundo in una 

carta et anche in una sphera solida che lui ha fatto, et demonstra 

dove è capitate, et andando verso el levante ha passato assai el 

paese del Tañáis. Et dicono che là è terra optima et temperata, 

et estimanno che vi nasca el brasilio et le sete, et affirmanno che 

quello mare è coperto de pessi, li quali se prendenno non solo 

cum la rete ma cum le ciste, essendoli alli^ato uno saxo ad cio 

che la cista se impozi in Taqua, et questo io Rio oldito narrare ni 
29837—2 



18 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

ditto messer Zoanne. Et ditti inglesi suoi compagni dicono che 
portaranno tant i pessi che questo regno non haverá piu bisogno 
de Islanda, del quale paese vene una grandíssima mercantia de 
pessi che si chiamanno stochfissi. Ma messer Zoanne ha posto 
F animo ad magior cosa, per che pensa da quello loco occupato 
andarsene sempre a riva riva piu verso el levante, tanto ch'el sia 
al opposito de un isola da lui chiamata Cipango, posta in la 
regione equinoctiale, dove crede che nascano tut te le speciarie 
del mundo et anche le gioie ; et dice che altre volte esso è stato 
a la Meccha, dove per caravane de luntani paesi sono pórtate le 
speciarie, et domandati quelli chi le portanno, dove nascono ditte 
speciarie, respondenno che non sanno, ma che venghono cum 
questa mercantia da luntani paesi ad casa sua altre caravane, le 
quale ancora dicono che ad loro sono pórtate da altre remote 
regioni. Et fa questo argumento, che se li orientali affermanno 
a li meridionali che queste cose venghono lontano da loro, et 
cosi de mano in mano, presupposta la rotundià de la terra, è 
necessário che li ultimi le tolliano al septertrione verso l'occi- 
dente. Et dicello per modo che non me costando piu como costa, 
ancora io lo credo. Et che è magior cosa, questa Maiestà che è 
savia et non prodiga, ancora lei li presta qualche fede, per che 
dopio ch'el è tornat , li da asai bona provisione, come esso messer 
Zoanne me dice. Et a tempo novo se dice che la Maiestà pre- 
fata armara alcuni navilii, eet ultra li dará tutti li malfatori, et 
andarano, in quello paese ad fare una colonia, mediante la quale 
sperano de fare in Londres magior fondaco de speciarie che non 
sia in Alexandria. Et li principali de la impressa sono de 
Bristo, grandi marinari, li quali hora che sanno dove andaré, 
dicono che la non è navigatione de piu che xv giorni, ne hanno 
mai fortuna como albandonano Ibernia. Ho ancora parlato cum 
uno Borgognone, compagno de messer Zoanne, chi afferma tutto, 
et vole tornarei, per che lo Armirante (che gia messer Zoanne 
cosi se intitula) li ha donato una isola, et ne ha donato una altra 
ad uno suo barbero da Castione Genoese, et intrambi se reputan- 
no conti, ne monsignor l'armirante se estima manco de principe. 
Credo ancora andarano cum questo passagio alcuni poveri frati 
italiani, li quali tutti hanno promissione de vescovati. Et per 
essere io fatto amico de l'armirante, quando volessi andarvi, 
haverei uno Archivescovato, ma ho pensato ch'el sia piu secura 
cosa li beneficii quali Vostra Excellentia me ha reservati, et 
perho supplico che quando vacasserro in mia absentia, la me 
faceia dare la possessione, ordenando fra questo megio dove 
bisogna, che non me siano tolti da altri, li quali per essere pre- 



l PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 19 

senti possonno essere piu diligenti di me 1 , el quale sono redutto 
in questo paese ad mangiare ogni pasto de x o xii vivande, et 
stare tre Lore ad tavola per volta, ogni giorno due volte, per 
amore de Vostra Excellentia. A la quale humilniente me 
recomando. 

Excellentie Vestre 

humillissimus servus, 

RAIMUNDUS. 
Londonie xviii Decembris 1497. 

[Endorsed] Ill mo ac Ex mo Princepi, ' ; : ; 

Duci Mediolani, etc. ; j^^\ 

et Domino meo Colen mo , 



From the Real Archivio di Stato at Milan, Potenze Estere, 
Inghilterra, at the date: original: printed in Annuario Scien- 
tifico ed Industríale, anno secondo, 1865, pp. 700-2 Milano, 
1866; C. Barrera Pezzi, 2 op. cit., 44-6; Desimoni, op. cit., 
229-31 ; Harrisse, Jean et Sébastien Cabot, 324-6 ; Raccolta 
Colombiana, pt. Ill, vol. I, 197-8; Tarducci, op. cit., 328-30; 
and Weare, op. cit., 144-7. 



Xa. 

My most Illustrious and most Excellent Lord. 

Perhaps amidst so many occupations of your Excellency it 
will not be unwelcome to learn how his majesty here 3 has ac- 
quired a portion of Asia without a stroke of his sword. In this 
kingdom there is a lower class Venetian named Master Zoanne 
Caboto, of a fine mind, very expert in navigation, who, seeing 
that the most serene kings, first of Portugal, then of Spain have 
occupied unknown islands, meditated the achievement of a simi- 
lar acquisition for his majesty aforesaid, and having obtained 
royal grants securing to himself the profitable control of what- 

1 Demande usuelle formulée à la fin de chacune des lettres de Soncmo. 
Il avait écrit ce qui sait le 21 octobre: " Supplico V. Ex. se degni prove- 
dere che li beneficii quali me ha concessi, ogni volta che vacarano siano 
mei, ben che io sia absente, cio è la parrochiale de Galignano cremonensis 
diócesis presso Soncino tre milia, el primo canonicato de Piasenza, et lo 
primo de Santo Stefano de Milano ", etc. Voir aussi la fin de sa dépêche du 
6 décembre. 

2 II a été impossible de voir une copie de son Documente inediti italo 
espani. 

3 Henri. VIL 
29837— 2£ 



20 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

ever he should discover, since the sovereignty was reserved to the 
crown, with a small ship and eighteen persons he committed 
himself to fortune and set out from Bristol, a western port of 
this kingdom, and having passed Ireland, which is still further 
to the west and then shaped a northerly course, he began to 
navigate to the eastern parts, leaving (during several days) the 
North star to the right; and having wandered about con- 
siderably, at length he fell in with terra firma, where he set up 
the royal standard, and having taken possession for this king 
and collected several tokens, he came back again. The said 
Master Zoanne, being a foreigner and a poor man, would not be 
believed if the crew, who are nearly all English and from 
Bristol, did not testify that what he says is true. This Master 
Zoanne has a drawing of the world on a map and also on a solid 
globe, which he has made, and shows the point he reached, and 
going towards the east, he has passed considerably the country 
of the Tanais,. 1 And they say that the land is excellent and [the 
air] temperate, and they think that Brazil wood and silks grow 
there; and they affirm that the sea is covered with fish which 
are caught not merely with nets but with baskets, a stone being 
attached to make the basket sink in the water, and this I heard 
the said Master Zoanne relate. And said Englishmen, his com- 
panions, say that they will fetch so many fish that this kingdom 
will have no more need of Iceland, from which country there 
comes a very great store of fish which are called stock-fish. But 
Master Zoanne has set his mind on something greater; for he 
expects to go from that place already occupied, constantly hug- 
ging the shore, further towards the east until he is opposite an 
island called by him Cipango, situated in the equinoctial region, 
where he thinks grow all the spices of the world and also the 
precious stones ; and he says that once upon a time he was at 
Mecca, whither the spices are brought by caravan from distant 
countries, and those who brought them, on being asked where the 
said spices grow, answered that they did not know, but that other 
caravans come with this merchandise to their homes from dis- 
tant countries, who again say that they are brought to them from 
other remote regions. And he argues thus, that if the orientals 
affirm to the southerners, that these things come from a distance, 
and so from hand to hand, presupposing the rotundity of the 
earth, it must be that the last people gets them in the north 
towards the west. And he speaks of it in such a way that not 
costing me more than it does, I too believe him. And what is 

1 Voir The Voyages of the Cahots, par S. E. Dawson, appendice E, 
Ottawa, 1897. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 21 

more, liis majesty here, who is wise and not lavish, likewise puts 
some faith in him; for since his return he makes him a very 
fair allowance, as this Master Zoanne himself tells me. And it 
is said that in the spring his majesty aforesaid will fit out some 
ships, and beside will give him all the malefactors, and they will 
proceed to that country to form, a colony, by means of which 
they hope to establish a greater dépôt for spices in London than 
there is at Alexandria. And the chief men in the enterprise 
belong to Bristol, great sailors, who now that they know where 
to go, say that it is not more than a fifteen days' voyage thither, 
nor do they ever have storms after they leave Ireland. I have 
also talked with a Burgundian, a companion of Master Zoanne's, 
who confirms everything and wishes to return there because the 
Admiral (for thus Master Zoanne now styles himself) has given 
him an island ; and he has given another to a barber of his from 
Genoese Castiglione, 1 and both of them consider themselves 
counts, nor does my Lord the Admiral esteem himself less than 
a prince. I think that on this voyage will also go some poor 
Italian monks who all have promises of bishoprics. And having 
become a friend of the Admiral's, if I wish to go I 
should have an archbishopric, but I have thought the benefices 
which your Excellency has reserved for me a safer thing, and I 
beg indeed that should any become vacant in my absence, Your 
Excellency will see that possession is given to me, making the 
necessary arrangements in the meanwhile that they be not taken 
from me by others, who being on the spot, are able to be much 
more diligent than I, who am reduced in this country to eating 
at every meal ten or twelve courses and to remaining three hours 
at table each time, twice a day, for love of Your Excellency, to 
whom I humbly recommend myself. 

Your Excellency's most humble servant, 

EAIMUNDUS. 

Londres, 18 décembre 1497. 

Also translated in Weise, op. cit., 192-4; Winsor, op. cit., 
Ill, 54-5 ; American History Leaflet, No. 9, 7-9 ; Old South 
Leaflet, No. 115, 2-4; Markham, op. cit., 203-6; Prowse, op. 
cit., 11; Weare, op. cit., 147-50; Beazley, op. cit., 62-5; and 
Bourne, op. cit., 425-9. 

1 Aujourd'hui Sastiglione Chiavarese, au sud-est de Gênes. M. A. W. 
Whitehead a eu la bonté de m'aider à identifier cette place. 



28 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



XI. 

3 février 1498. 

Deuxièmes lettres patentes à Jean Cabot, 
de licencia caboto. 

Rex omnibus ad quos, etc., Salutem. Sciatis quod nos de 
gratia nostra speciali, ac certis consideracionibus nos specialiter 
moventibus, dedimus et concessimus ac per presentes damus et 
concedimus dilecto nobis Johanni Caboto, Veniciano, sufficien- 
tem potestatem et auctoritatem, quod ipse per se deputatum seu 
deputatos suos sufficientes sex naves huius regiii Anglie in 
quocumque portu seu portubus sive aliis locis infra idem 
regnum nostrum aut obedienciam nostram, sic quod dicte naves 
sint portagii ducentorum doliorum vel infra, cum apparatubus 
suis pro salvo conductu earundem navium ad libitum suum 
capiendi et providendi, navesque illas ad terram et insulas per 
ipsum Johannem nuperrime inventas conducendi, solvendo pro 
eisdem navibus et earum qualibet tantum quantum nos sol- 
veremus et non ultra, si pro nostro negoci© et causa capte fuis- 
sent et provise. Et quod idem Johannes per se aut deputatum 
sive deputatos suos sufficientes omnes et singulos marinarlos, 
magistros, pagettos ac subditos nostros quoscumque qui ex eorum 
libera volúntate secum in dictis navibus versus et usque terram 
et insulas predictas transiré et transmeare voluerint, in naves 
huiusmodi et earum quamlibet capere et recipere possit et valeat, 
absque impedimento, impeticione seu perturbacione aliquorum 
officiariorum, ministrorum seu subditorum nostrorum quorum- 
cumque per ipsos seu eorum aliquem prefato Johanni deputato 
sive deputatis suis aut aliis subditis nostris predictis seu eorum 
alicui in comitiva eiusdem Joliannis in navibus predictis 
a d terram et insulas predictas transeuntibus inferen do aut 
attemptari permitiendo. Damus universis et singulis officiariis, 
ministris et subditis nostris presentes litteras nostras visuris et 
audituris absque ulteriori mandato per nos eisdem sive eorum 
alicui faciendo, tenore presencium, firmiter in mandatis, quod 
eidem Johanni ac deputatis suis predictis aliisque nostris subdi- 
tis secum, ut premittitur, transeuntibus in premissis fqciendis et 
exequendis faventes sint consulentes et auxiliantes in omnibus 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 23 

diligenter. In cuius, etc. Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, 
tercio die ffebruarii. 

Per ipsum Regem, et de data, etc. 

From the Public Record Office, Treaty Roll 179, membrane 
1 (old number 6) ; printed m Harrisse, John Cabot, etc., 393-4; 
Weare, op. cit., 158-9 ; and Beazley, op. cit., 270-1. 

XIa. 

3 février 1498. 

[Memorandum quod tercio die ffebruarii anno regni regis 
Henrici septimi xiii° ista billa deliberata fuit domino Can- 
cellario Anglie apud Westm°nasterium exequenda.] 

To the kinge. 

Pleas it your highnesse, of your moste noble and habundaunt 
grace, to graunte to John Kabotto, Venician, your gracious let- 
ters patentes in due fourme to be made accordyng to the tenour 
hereafter ensuying, and he shal contynually praye to God for the 
preservación of your moste noble and roiall astate longe to 
endure. 

H[en]R[icus] Rex. 

To all men to whom thies presentis shall come, send gretyng : 
Knowe ye that we of our grace especiall and for dyvers causis us 
movyng we have geven and graunten and by thies presentes geve 
aud graunte to our wel beloved John Kaboto, Venician, suffici- 
ente auctorite and power that he by hym, his deputie or deputies 
sufficient may take at his pleasure vi englisshe shippes in any 
porte or portes or other place .within this our realme of Eng- 
lond or obeisaunce, so that and if the said shippes be of the 
bourdeyn of cc tonnes or under, with their apparaill requisite 
and necessarie for the saveconduct of the seid shippes, and 
theym convey and lede to the londe and lies of late founde by 
the seid John in oure name and by our commaundemente, pay- 
ing for theym and every of theym as and if we shuld in or for 
our owen cause pave and noon otherwise. 

And that the seid John by hym, his deputie or deputies suffi- 
ciente maye take and reeeyve into the seid shippes and every 
of thevm all suche Maisters, Mnrvners, r>ne;p^ and oUr suhiectes, 
as of their owen free wille woll goo and passe with hym in the 



24 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

same shippes to the seid londe or lies withoute any impedy- 
mente, lett or perturbaunce of any of our officers or ministers or 
subiectes whatsoevir they be by theym to the seid John, his 
deputie or deputies and all other our seid subiectes or any of 
theym passing with the seid John in the seid shippes to the 
seid londe or lies to be doon or suffer to be doon or attempted. 
Yeving in commaundement to all and every our officers, minis- 
tres and subiectes seying or herying thies our letters patentes, 
without any ferther commaundement by us to theym or any of 
theym to be geven, to perfourme and socour the seid John, his 
deputie and all our seid subiectes so passyng with hym accord- 
ing to the tenour of thies our letters patentes, any statute, acte 
or ordenaunce to the contrarye made or to be made in any wise 
notwithstanding. 

From the Public Record Office, Chancery Warrants for 
Privy Seal, February, 13 Henry VII (4th in packet) ; printed 
in Nicholls and Taylor, op. cit., 296; [R. Biddle], A Memoir 
of Sebastian Cabot, etc., 74-5 Philadelphia, 1831 ; J. W. Jones, 
Introduction to the reprint of Hakluyt's Divers Voyages, pp. 
LXXII-III, London, 1850; Desimoni, op. cit., 232-3; Har- 
risse, Jean et Sébastien Cabot, 327-8 ; Markham, op. cit., 
206-7 ; Tarducci, op. cit., 330-1 ; Raccolta Colombiana, parte V,. 
vol. II, 217-8; Weare, op. cit., 156-7; and Beazley, op. cit.,. 
95-6. 

As early as 1589 Hakluyt quoted the Rolls Office Memo- 
randum of these letters patent in his Principal! Navigations, 
511 (London, 1589). Cf also ibid, III, 5-6, London, 1600. 

XII. 

22 février 1498. 

HENRI VII AUTORISE LE PAIEMENT DE LA PENSION DE 
JEAN CABOT. 

Henry by the grace of God King of England and of fTraunce 
and lord of Irland To the Tresourer and Chambrelains of oure 
Eschequier greting: 

Where as We by oure warrant under oure signet for certain 
consideracions have yeven and graunted unto John Caboote xxû. 
[£20] yerely during oure pleasur to be had and perceyved by 
the handes of oure Custumers in oure poorte of Bristowe, and as 
we be enfourmed the said John Caboote is dilaied of his paye- 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 25 

ment bicause the said Ciistumers have no sufficient matier of 
discharge for their indempnitie to be yolden at their 
accomptes before the Barons of oure Eschequier; Wher- 
fore we wol and charge you that ye oure said Treas- 
ourer and Chambrelains that now be and hereafter shallbe, that 
ye, unto suche tyme as ye shall have from us otherwise in com- 
maundement, do to be levied in due fourme ij severall tailles, 
every of theim conteignying xû. upon the Customers of the rev- 
enues in our said poort of Bristowe at two usuell termes of the 
yere, whereof oon taill to be levied at this tyme conteignying xû. 
of the Revenues of oure said poort upon Richard Meryk and 
Arthure Kemys, late Custumers of the same, And the same tail! 
or tailles in due and sufficient fourme levied ye delyver unto the 
said John Caboote to be had of oure gift by way of rewarde 
without prest or eny other charge to be sette upon hym or any 
of theim for the same. And thies our letters shalbe youre 
eufficient warrant in that behalf. Yeven undre oure prive seal 
at oure manour of Chene the xxii th day of fTebruary The 
xiii th vere of oure Reigne. 

BOLMAK 

From the Public Record Office, Exchequer of Receipt, 
Warrants for Issue, No. 82 (8th in packet) : printed in Har- 
risse, John Cabot, etc., 394; Weare, op. cit., 129-30; and 
Beazley, op. cit., 93-4. 

XIII. 

25 mars 1498. 

PAIEMENT DE LA PENSION DE JEAN CABOT. 

Bristollie. 

Yisus computi Arthuri Kemys et Ricardi A Meryk Collec- 
torum Custumarum et Subsidiorum domini Regis in portu ville 
Bristollie et in singulis portubus et locis eidem portui adiacenti- 
bus, videlicet, de huius custumis et subsidiis domini Regis 
ibidem a iïesto sancti Michaelis Archangeli Anno xiii° 
domini Regis nunc Henrici septimi usque ffestum Pasche 
accidens xv^° die Aprilis tunc proximo sequentis, scilicet per 
medietatem unius Anni et xvj dies ut infra. 

Et eisdem — xû. per ipsos solutas Georgio Herbert pro 
Annuitate.sua ad xxû. per Annum sibi per dominum Regem 
per literas suas patentes concessas, solvendas ad duos Anni" 



2b' ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Teinrinos de Custuinis et Subsidiis in dicto portu Bristollie 
provenientes et crescentes, videlicet, pro termino Annunciaci- 
onis beate Marie virginis infra dictum tempus huius visus 
accidentis, per unam acquietancionem ipsius Georgii inde super 
hune visum ostensam et penes dictos collectores remanentem. 

Et eisdem — x£t. per ipsos solutas Johanni Calboto, veni- 
ciano, nuper de villa Bristollie predicta, pro Annuitate sua ad 
xxû. per Annum sibi per dictum dominum Regem nunc per 
literas suas patentes concessas 1 percipendias ad duos Anni Tér- 
minos de Custumis et Subsidiis in dicto portu ville Bristollie 
provenientes et crescentes, videlicet pro Termino Annunciacionis 
beate Marie virginis infra tempus huius visus accidentes, per 
unam Acquietancionem ipsius Johannis inde super hunc visum 
ostensam et penes dictos Collectores remanentem 

From the Public Record Office, Exchequer Q. R. Customs, 
2 %i : printed in Weare, op. cit., 131; and in G. P. Winship, 

Cabot Bibliography, p. 67, London, 1000. 



XIIIa. 

Bristol. View of the account of Arthur Kemys and Richard 
ap Mer yk, collectors of the customs and subsidies of uor lord 
the king in the port of the town of Bristol, and in the separate 
ports and places adjacent to the same port, to wit, of such cus- 
toms and subsidies of the king there from Michaelmas [29 Sep- 
tember] in the thirteenth year of our lord the king now 
Henry VII [1497] until the Feast of Easter happening on 
15 April then next following [1498], to wit, for the moiety of 
one year and fifteen days as above. 

And £10 paid by them to George Herbert for his annuity of 
£20 a year granted to him by our said lord the king by his 
letters patent, to be paid at two tenus out of the customs and 
subsidies arising and growing in the said port of Bristol, to wit, 
for the term of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
[25 March] falling within the time of this view [1498] by a 
quittance thereof of the same George shown upon this view and 
remaining in the possession of the said collectors. 

And £10 paid by them to John Calbot, a Venetian, latp of the 



1 Voir les documents IX et XII, pp. 16 et 24-5. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 27 

town of Bristol aforesaid, for his annuity of £20 a year granted 
to him by our said lord the king by his letters patent, to be taken 
at two terms of the year out of the customs and subsidies aris- 
ing and growing in the said port of the town of Bristol, to wit, 
for the term of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
[25 March, 1498] falling within the time of this view, by a 
quittance of the said John, shown upon this view and remain- 
ing in the possession of the said collectors 

Also translated in Weare, op. cit., 131-2 and in full in ibid., 
appendix C, 333-6. 

XIV. 

25 juillet 1498. 1 

DÉPÊCHE DE PEDRO DE AYALA À FERDINAND ET ISABELLE. 

. . .Bien creo Vuestras Altezas an oído 2 como el rey de Ingla- 
terra ha fecho armada para descubrir ciertas insulas o tierra 
firme que le han certificado hallaron ciertos que de Bristol 
armaron el año passado para lo mismo. Yo he visto la carta 
que ha fecho el inventador que es otro Ginoves como Colon que 
ha estado en Sevilla i en Lisbona procurando haver quien le 
ayudasse a esta invención. Los de Bristol, ha siete años que 
cada año an armado dos, tres, quatro caravelas para ir a buscar 
la isla del Brasil i las Siete Ciudadees con la fantasia deste Gin- 
oves. El rei determino de enbiar, porque el año passado le 
truxo certinidad havian hallado tierra. Del armada que hizo, 
que fueron cinco naos, fueron avituallados por un año. Ha 
venido nueva, la una en que iva un otro Frai Buil aporto a Ir- 
landa con gran t rmenta, roto el navio. El Ginoves tiro su 
camino. Yo, vista la derrota que llevan y la cantidad del cam- 
ino, hallo que es lo que han' hallado o bucan (sic) lo que Vues- 
tras Altezas poseen, porque es al cabo que a Vuestras Altezas 
cupo por la convenencia con Portugal. Sperase serán venidos 
para el setienbre. Hago lo saber a Vuestras Altezas. El Rei 
me a fablado algunas vezes sobrello; spera aver muy gran in- 
teresse. Creo no ai quatro dentas leguas. Lo le dixe, creva 
eran las halladas por Vuestras Altezas, i aun le dia la una 
razón, no lo querría. Porque creo Vuestras Altezas ia tendrán 
aviso de todo esto y ansimismo al carta o napamnindi (sic) que 

1 An sujet d'une dépêche de la même date, supposée de Puebla, voir 
Revue Hispanique, tome XV, 482-5, Paris, 1906. 

2 Les mots en italiques sont écrits en chiffres dans l'original. 



28 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

este ha fecho, io no le enbio aora, que aqui le ai, y a mi ver bien 
falso por dar a entender, no son de las islas dichas. 

De Londres a xxv de Julio. 

From the Archives at Simancas, Tratados con Inglaterra, 
leg. 2 o , fol. 196: original: printed in Desimoni, op. cit., 234-5; 
Harrisse, Jean et Sébastien Cahot, 329-30 ; Tarducci, op. cit., 
332-3 ; Raccolta Colombiana, parte V, vol. II, p. 218 ; and 
Weare, op. cit., 160-1 (from Harrisse). 

XIVa. 



... I think Your Highnesses have already heard how the king 
of England 1 has equipped a fleet to explore certain islands or 
mainland which he has been assured certain persons who set out 
last year from Bristol in search of the same have discovered. I 
have seen the map made by the discorer, who is another 
Genoese like Columbus, who has been in Seeville and at Lisbon 
seeking to obtain persons to aid him in this discovery. For the 
last seven years the people of Bristol have equipped two, three 
[and] four caravels to go in search of the island of Brazil and 
the Seven Cities according to the fancy of this Genoese. The 
king made up his mind to send thither, because last year sure 
proof was brought him they had found land. The fleet he pre- 
pared, which consisted of five vessels, was provisioned for a year. 
News has come that one of these, in which sailed another Friar 
Buil 2 , has made land in Ireland in a great storm with the ship 
badly damaged. The Genoese kept on his way. Having seen 
the course they are steering and the length of the voyage, I find 
that what they have discovered or are in search of is possessed 
by Your Highnesses because it is at the cape which fell to Your 
Highnesses by the convention with Portugal 3 . It is hoped they 
will be back by September. I let ( ? will let) Your Highnesses 
know about it. The king has spoken to me several times on the 
subject. He hopes the affair may turn out profitable. I believe 
the distance is not 400 leagues, I told him that I believed 
the islands were those found by Your Highnesses, and 
although I gave him the main reason, he would not have it. 
Since I believe Yonr Highnesses will already have notice of all 

i Henri VII. 

2 Qui avait suivi Colomb lors de son second voyage. 

8 Le traité de Tordesillas, voir p. 14, note 3. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 29 

this and also of the chart or mappemonde which this man has 
made, I do not send it now, although it is here, and so far as I 
can see exceedingly false, in order to make believe that these are 
not part of the said islands [of Your Highnesses] 

London, 25 juillet 1498. 

Also translated in Bergenroth op. cit., 176-7, No. 210 (the 
sentence about the convention with Portugal being omitted) ; 
Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for 21 Oc- 
tober 1865, 25-6 (from Bergenroth) ; Weise, op. cit., 195-6 
Nicholls and Taylor, op. cit., Ill, 296-7 (from Bergenroth) 
The Historical Magazine, 2nd ser. Ill, No. 3, 134 F, (ditto) 
Markham, op. cit., 208-9; Old South Leaflet No. 115, p. 5 
Prowse, op. cit., 29 ; Weare, op. cit., 161-3 (from Bergenroth) 
Beazley, op. cit., 101-2 ; and Bourne, op. cit., 429-30. 



XV. 

29 septembre 1499. 

Paiement de la pension de Jean Cabot. 

brystolee i the accounptes of the custymers. 

Arthurus Kemys et Ricardus a Meryk, Collée to res Custu- 
marum et Subsidiorum domini Regis lanarum Corriorum et 
pellium lanutarum in portu ville Bristollie a festo sancti 
Michaelis archangeli anno xij mo Regis Henrici vij mi usque 
idem festum sancti Michaelis tune proxime sequens, reddunt 
Computum, etc 

Bristol!. Arthurus Kemys et Ricardus a Meryk, Collectores 
Custamarum et Subsidiorum Regis ibidem a festo Sancti 
Michaelis archangeli anno xiij mo Regis nunc usque idem 
festum Sancti Michaelis tunc proxime sequens reddunt 
Computum de + mcciiii xx ii li. viii. s. xi d. ob. 

De quibus 

Et in thesaurario in una tallia pro Thoma Lovell Milite, c. li. 
Et in thesaurario in una tallia pro Johanne Caboot, xx li. 



nz. 



30 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Bristoll. Arthurus Kemys et Ricardus ap Meryke, Collectores 
Custamarum et Subsidiorum Regis ibidem a festo Sancti 
Michaelis archangeli anno xiiij mo Regis nunc usque idem 
festum Sancti Michaelis tunc proxime sequens, reddunt 
Computum de + mccccxxiiii li. vii. s. x. d. -. 

De quibus 

Et in thesaurario in una tallia pro Johanne Heron, xiii li. 

vi s. viii d. 

Et in thesaurario in una tallia pro Johanne Cabot, xx. li. 

From the Westminster Chapter Archives, Chapter Muni- 
ments 12243, entries nos. 2 and 3 : printed in E. Scott and A. 
E. Hudd, The Customs Roll of the Port of Bristol A.D. U96 
to U99, 11. 2, 3, and 4, Bristol, 1807, with facsimiles; S. E. 
Dawson, The Voyages of the Cabots in the Transactions of 
the Royal Society of Canada, 2nd ser. Ill, s. II, 261, Ottawa, 
1897; Beazley, op. cit., 273-4; and Winship, op. cit., 66-7. 

XVa. 

Arthur Kemys and Richard ap Meryke, collectors of our 
lord the king's customs and subsidies of wool, leather and wool- 
pells in the port of the town of Bristol from Michaelmas [29 
September] in the 12th year of King Henry VII. to the same 

feast next following, render their account 

Bristol. Arthur Kemys and Richard ap Meryk, collectors of 
the king's customs and subsidies there from Michaelmas 
[29 September] in the 13th year of this king [1497] to 
the same feast next following, [29 September, 1498] ren- 
der their account of £1282 8s. llJcL 

Out of which 

And in the treasury in one talley in the name of Thomas 
Lovell, Kt ' £100 

And in the treasury in one talley in the name of John 

Cabot " £20 

Bristol. Arthur Kemys and Richard ap Meryke, collectors of 
the kink's customs and subsidies there, from Michaelma? 
[29 September] in the 14th year of this king [1498] to 
the same feast next following, [29 September, 1499] ren- 
der their account of . . . . £1424 7s. lOid. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 31 

Out of which 

And in the treasury in one talley in the name of John 

Heron £13 6s. 8d. 

And in the treasury in one talley in the name of John 

Cabot '.. £20. 

Also translated in Scott and Hudd, op. cit., leaves 5, 6 

and 7 ; and in Dawson, op. cit., loe. cit. ' 



XVI. 



28 octobre 1499. 



LETTRES PATENTES DU ROI EMMANUEL A JEAN FERNANDEZ. 

Dom Manuel &, A quamtos esta nossa carta virem, fazemos 
saber, que Joham Fermandez, morador em a nosa ilha Terceira 
nos disse que por serviço de Déos e nosso sse queira trabalhar de 
hyr buscar e deescobrir algumas ilhas de nossa conquista aa sua 
custa, e vem do nos seu hõo desejo e prepósito, aalem de lho 
termos em serviço, a nos praz e lhe prometemos por esta de lhe 
darmos como de fecto daremos a capitania de quallquer Ilha ou 
Ilhas, asy povoadas como despovoadas, que elle descobrill e achar 
novamente, e esto com aquellas reñidas, homrras, proveitos e im- 
taresses com que temos dadas as capitanyas das nossas Ilhas da 
Madeira e das outras ; et por sua guarda e nossa lembrança lhe 
mandamos dar esta carta per nos a sinada e assellada com o 
nosso sello pemdemte. Dada em a nossa cidade de Lixboa a 
xxbiij dias de mes doutubro. Andre Fernamdes a fez anno de 
nosso Senhor Ihuu X o de mill iiij LR IX. 

From the Archivo nacional da Torre do Tombo at Lisbon, 
liv. XVI de Dom Manoel, fol. 39, and Livro das Ilhas, fol. 63 v : 
printed in Harrisse, Les Corte-Real, 44, note 1, Paris, 1883; 
Archivo dos Açores IV, 449, Ponta Delgada, 1884; and ibid 
XII, 360, Ponta Delgada, 1893. 

XVIa. 

King Emmanuel, etc., To as many as shall see this grant, 
we make known, that John Ferdandez, dwelling on our island 
of Terceria, has informed us that for God's and our own 
service he was desirous to make an effort to seek out and 
discover at his own expense some islands lying in our sphere 



32 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

of influence and we, in view of this, his priseworthy desire 
and intention, not only thank him for it, but it is our pleasure 
and we hereby promise to grant him. as indeed w T e shall grant 
him, the governorship of any island or islands, either inhabited 
or uninhabited, which he may discover and find anew, and this 
with the same revenues, honours, profits and advantages we 
have granted to the governors of our islands of Madeira and 
the others; and for his protection and as a memorandum to 
ourselves, we order this grant, signed and sealed by us with 
our hanging seal, to be given to him. Given in our city of 
Lisbon on 28 October. Andrew Fernandes made this in the 
year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1499. 

XVII. 

12 mai 1500 1 . 

LETTRES PATENTES À GASPAR CORTE REAL. 

Gaspar Corterreall : Doaçam de qualquer Ilha ou Ilhas ou terra 
firme que ele descubrir ou achar. 

Dom Manuell, etc. A quamtos esta nosa carta de doaçaaom 
virem, fazemos saber, que por quamto Gaspar Corte rreall, 
fidalguo da nosa, os dias pasados, se trabalhou per sy e a sua 
custa, com navyos e homes, de buscar e descubrir e achar com 
muyto seu trabalho e despesa de sua fazemda e peryguo de sua 
pesoa, algumas Ilhas e terra firme, e pelo comsyguymte o quer 
aimda agora comthenuar e por em hobra e fazer niso quamto 
poder por achar as ditas Ilhas e terra, e comsyramdo nos quamto 
noso serviço, homra e acrecemtamemto de nosos Regnnos e Sen- 
horios sera, semelhamtes ilhas e terras serem descubertas e 
achadas por nosos naturaes, e como o dito Gaspar Corte reall 
por o asy querer fazer com tamto trabalho e peryguo he 
merecedor de toda honra e mercê e acrecemtamemto, por tamto 
nos praz que deseobrimdo ele e achamdo alguma Ilha ou Ilhas 
ou terra firme, nos de noso próprio moto, poder reall e asaluto, 
temos por bem e lhe fazemos mercee e doaçaaom, e lhe outor- 
gamos, que em quaes quer ilhas ou terra firme que asy nova- 
memte achar ou descobrir, ele tenha e aja de nos, de juro e de 
herdade pera todo sempre, as capitanyas com as cousas seguimtes, 
a saber, a jurdyçam cyvell e cryme, com toda alçada e soperiori- 

1 Navarrete pensait que Ferdinand et Isabelle avaient Fintention d'en- 
voyer Juan Dómelos ou Dorvelos durant l'été de 1500, visiter les régions 
où les Cabot s'étaient rendus récemment. Collection de los viages, par M. 
F. Navarrete, III, 41-2 et 7-8, Madrid, 1829. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 33 

dade, alta e baixa, sem dele, nem de seus herdeiros e socesores 
poderem apelar nem agravar em nenhum caso, nem comthya que 
seja, pera nos. nem per outra alguma pesoa que noso poder tenha ; 
e queremos que ele e seus herdeiros e em noso nome e de nosos 
socesores tenham asy a governm e rejam a terra ou Ilhas que 
asy achar livrememte a sem limitaçam alguma na maneira que 
dito he, fycando somemte a nos resguardado, quamdo necesario 
nos parecer mamdarmos la huma pesoa nosa que sayba como o 
dito Gaspar Corte rreall husa da dita jurdiçam e governamça da 
terra e nos trazer delo recado, pera que achamdo que nom husa 
ou governa as ditas Ilhas e terra como deve a serviço de Deus e 
noso, nos o castigarmos corno virmos que he rrezam em sua 
pesoa somemte, sem nunca lhe ser tirada a dita jurdyçaaom, nem 
ser dela sospemso ; porem sendo caso que por nom viver asy bem 
como deve, o mamdemos vir a nos, per asy lhe darmos na sua 
pesoa aquele castiguo que merece, como dito he, e emtam ele 
poderá leixar e leixara nas ditas Ilhas a cada huma delas 
ou terra firme pesoa sua que por ele ouça e so chame e 
tenha a manistraçam das cousas da justiça e governamça da terra 
em seu nome e asy como ele per sy o farya, semdo porem tall 
pesoa de que nos sejamos comtemte; e outrosy queremos e nos 
praz que pola dita maneira de juro e herdade, de toda rremda 
que nos hy ouvermos ou ordenarmos que se aja asy em nosso 
tempo como em tempo de nosos socesores, asy por forall, que disto 
prazemdo a Deus fazemos, o fezerem, como per quanquer outra 
maneira que de nosas rremdas e direitos nas taes terras ou 
hylhas ordenarem ou fezerem ou ouverem, per quallquer titollo 
ou nome que tenha, aja o dito Gaspar Corte rreall e seus her- 
deiros a quarta parte livrememte de todo o que asy nas ditas 
Ilhas ou terra em quallquer tenpo podermos aver ; e semdo caso 
que nas ditas Ilhas ou cada huma delas ou terra firme que asy 
descobrir, se abram e achem alguns resgates e tratos, taes que 
nos per nos somemte ou per nosos oficiaes quisermos trautar e 
negocear, em tall caso nos mamdaremos pagar e dar ao dito 
Gaspar Corte rreall e a todos seus socesoros a quarta parte de 
todo aquelo que nos taes trautos e resgates se ouver de ganho, 
tirados os cabedaes e todos os custos que nos taes trautos e res- 
gates fezermos ; e isto mesmo se emtemdera e guardara no caso 
que nos os ditos trautos e resgates aremdemos, ou pera serem 
trautados por outras algumas pesoas, dermos nosas licemças e 
lugare ; ?emdo caso que os ditos trautos e resgates sejam de cali- 
dad? que todas e qnaesquer pesoas asy das ditas Ilhas como terra 



34 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

firme ou de nosos regimos e Senhorios hos ajam e posam trautar 
e negocear asy como nos, emtam nom ficarmos obrigados a pagar 
o dito quarto; somemte lhe daremos aquele direito que as outras 
pesoas ouverem de dar e pagar em nos ditos trautos e resgates, 
lhe for posto e ordenado etc. Outrosy nos praz e queremos que 
ele e seus herdeiros ajam o direito das moemdas, sali e fernos e 
injenhos e setias dagoaa, e todo aquelo que os capitães das outras 
Ilhas ora tem e husaam per nosas doações com suas alcaidarias 
mores e direitos delas, e com todalas outras onras, liberdades e 
preininemceas que por nos lhe sam outorgadas ; e por firmesa 
de todo lhe mamdamos dar esta nosa carta e doaçaaom per nos 
asynada e aselada de noso selo pemdemte, pela quall queremos e 
nos praz rreallmemte com todo noso Reall e asaluto poder, que 
o dito Gaspar Corte reall aja asy as capitanyas das ditas hylhas 
e terra com todallas ditas jurdyçoes, syves e crymes, e sopriori- 
dades e rremdas e direitos e imsyçoees, como nesta carta se com- 
dades e rremdas e direitos e imsycmfwyp shrdl taoin lodaroha 
them, pera ele e todos seus herdeiros e socesores, que dele por 
linha direita mascolina descemderem. E nom avendo hy filho 
baraaom a que todo asy posar 1 (sic) ficar, queremos que fique a 
sua filha maior e nom avemdo hy filho, nem filha, que em figue a 
seu paremte mais chegado, macho ou fêmea, segumdo em cyma 
se comthem, e asy se guarde e rrgylle em esta socesaaom dy por 
diamte pera todo sempre, sem embarguo do ley memtall nem 
de quaesquer lex capitolios de cortes, hordenaçõ, feitas e por 
fazer, que em cfuallquer maneira podesem comtrariar a quallquer 
cousa do que dito he desta nosa doaçaaom, aquall emcomemda- 
mos a nosos socesores, que por nosa bemçaaom a cumpram e 
guardem, como nela he comtheudo. Dada em a nosa villa de 
Symtra a XII dias de maio. Alvoro Fernamdez a fez, Anno 
do nacymemto de noso Senior Jeshu Christo de mill e quynhem- 
tos annos. Nom seja duvida no rrespamcado dyz socessaom por 
que eu scripvam he fiz na verdade. 

From the Archivo nacional da Torre do Tombo, Lisbon, 
Chancery of Dom Manuel, liv. XIII, fol. 26 : idem of Dom. 
João III, liv. XXXV, fol. 3; idem, liv. XLIX, fol. 244; Liv. 
5° dos Misticos, fols. 46-7; and in the Livro das Ilhas, fol. 62. 
These copies do not differ : printed in the Archivo dos Açores, 
III, 406-8, and IV, 407-9, Ponta Delgada, 1881 and 1884: E. 
A. de Bettencourt, D esc orinientos, guerras e conquistas dos 
Portuguezes em terras do Ultramernos séculos XV, e XVI, 

1 On lit Filho baram a que todo assi possa fiscar, dans les lettres pa- 
tentes de 1506 accordées à Vasco Amies Corte Eeal. Voir Alguno Docu- 
mentos. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 35 



137-41, Lisboa, 1881-2; Harrisse, op. cit., 196-9; and in 
Alguns Documentos do Archivo nacional da. Torre do Tombo, 
150-2, Lisbon, 1892. 

XVIIa. 

concession à gaspar corte real de toute ile, toutes iles 

et toute terre ferme qu'll pourra trouver 

ou découvrir. 

King Emmanuel, etc. To as many as shall see this grant of 
ours we make known, that foreasmuch as Gaspar Corte Real, a 
nobleman of our court, has made efforts in the past, on his own 
account and at his own expense, with ships and men, to search 
out, discover and find by dint of much labour and expenditure 
of his wealth and at the risk of his life, some islands and a 
mainland ,and in consequence is now desirous of continuing 
this search, and of setting to w r ork and doing whatever is possible 
in order to discover the said islands and mainland; and we 
taking into consideration how greatly it will redound to our 
service and honour, and to the increase of our kingdoms and do- 
mains, if such islands and mainlands should be discovered and 
found by subjects of ours, and since the said Gaspar Corte Real 
in virtue of his desire to carry this out, at such risk and the ex- 
penditure of so much labour, is worthy of all honour, favour and 
augmentation; for this cause it is our pleasure, and we are 
pleased of our own motion, royal and absolute power, should be 
discover and find any island or islands, or mainland, to grant 
and give him, and we do grant him by right and heredity for 
ever, the governorship of any islands or mainland he may thus 
discover or find afresh with the following privileges, to wit : civil 
and criminal jurisdiction, both high and low, with full power 
and authority, without appeal or redress from him or from his 
heirs and successors in any matter or sum of money, whether for 
us or for any person holding power of us ; and it is our wish 
that he and his heirs, both in our name and in that of our suc- 
cessors, hold, govern and rule the mainland or islands so found, 
freely and without any hindrance whatsoever, in the manner 
above mentioned, agreeing only in regard to ourselves, that when- 
ever it may seem to us necessary, we may send thither one of 
our people to learn how the said Gaspar Corte Real is exercising 
the said jurisdiction and government of the mainland, and to 
bring us information thereof, in order that, should we find he 
does not rule or govern the said inlands and mainland as is 

29837— 3* 



ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



fitting to God's service and our own, we may punish him as we 
think proper, in his person alone, without taking from him 
or relieving him of the said jurisdiction. ^Nevertheless should 
he not conduct himself properly, and should Ave order him' to 
appear before us to receive in his person the punishment he de- 
serves, as has been said, he may and shall leave in the said 
islands and each of them, or on the mainland, one of his people 
to exercise and advance and carry on the administration of 
justice and government in his name and as he himself would. 
if present, such person nevertheless being one agreeable to our- 
selves. And furthermore we desire and it is our pleasure, on 
account of the said right and title, that of all revenues we shall 
receive or order to be raised there both in our time and in that of 
our successors, as w T ell as by register, should it please God we or 
they draw up s,uch, as in any other manner in which they, by 
virtue o fany title or quality whatsoever shall decree, order or 
have our revenues and rights collected in these lands and islands, 
the said Gaspar Corte Real and his heirs receive freely the 
fourth part of all we may thus be able to collect at any time in 
the said islands and mainland ; and should on the said islands 
or on each of them or on the mainland about to be discovered, 
any barter or trade be opened or found, of such a nature that 
we either directly or through our officers should desire to trade 
and barter there, in this case Ave shall order to be paid and given 
to the said Gaspar Corte Real and to all his successors the 
fourth part of what is gained in this trade and barter, after 
payment of the principal and of the charges to which Ave have 
been put in this trade and barter; and this will hold good and 
be carried out in case Ave should farm the said trade and barter 
or should give our licence and authority for them to be carried 
on by others ; and in case the said trade and barter be of a nature 
that all and any persons as Avell of the said islands and main- 
land as of our kingdom and dominions may enjoy them and 
may trade and barter like ourselves, then Ave shall not remain 
under any obligation to pay the said fourth part, but shall only 
give him the same fee that the others are obliged to give and pay 
for our said trade and barter, which will be appointed and 
ordered to him, etc. Furthermore it is our pleasure and Ave 
desire that he and his heirs have the privilge of mills, salt, 
ovens, machines and mill-races and all that the governors of our 
other islands noAV have and enjoy by grants from us, with the 
office and power of governor of a fort and the rights therietb 
pertaining, and with all the other honours, pri- 2 - m d powers 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 37 

that are granted to him by us; and in witness of all we order 
this grant and charter of ours signed and sealed with our hang- 
ing seal to be given to him, by which we desire and it is our 
royal pleasure by virtue of all our royal and absolute power, 
that the said Gaspar Corte Real should thus hold the governor 
ship of the said islands and mainland with all the said civil 
and criminal jurisdictions, powers, revenus, rights and exemp- 
tions set forth in these letters, for him and for all his heirs and 
successors in direct male line. And should he have there no 
son. to whom he could leave all this, it is our wish that he leave 
it to his eldest daughter ; and should he hav thre no son or 
daughter, he may leave it to his nearest male or female relative, 
according as is set forth above, and thus it be observed and car- 
ried out in this succession thenceforward for ever, notwithstand- 
ing any mental law or capital law of the Cortes, or statute 
made or to be made that could in any way run counter to any- 
thing set forth in this grant of ours, which we commend to our 
successors, for the sake of our benediction, to be fulfilled and 
carried out according to the tenour thereof. Given in our town 
of Cintra, 12 May. Alvoro Fernandez made this in the year of 
the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ 1500. Let there be 
no doubt about any erasure in this grant for verily I the notary 
drew it up. 

XVIII. 

27 janvier 1501. 

CONCESSION DU ROI EMMANUEL À JEAN MARTINS. 
JOHAM MARTINZ DA ILHA TERCEIRA PRIVILEGIO. 

Dom Manuel, &c. A todollos nossos capitães, corregedores, 
juizes e justiças de nosos Regnos e senhorios e a quaaes quer 
outros oficiaos e pessoas a que o conhecimento desto pertemcer, 
perquallquer guisa que seja, e esta nosa carta for mostrada, ou 
o trellado delia em publica forma dado per autoridade de justiça 
for apresentado, saúde : sabede que esguardamdo nos ao muyto 
serviço que de Gasgar Corte Reall, fidallguo de nosa casa, temos 
recebido no descobrimento da terra anumciada, e ao deamte 
esperamos receber, pello qual he merecedor de por ello lhe fazer- 
mos toda mercê e acracemtamento e asy aquellos que no dito 
descobrimento ho ajudaram e despenderam, Temos por bem 
e nos praz de tomarmos ora novamente por noso vasallo a Joam 



38 . , ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Martinz, escudeiro, criado de Joham Vaaz Corte Reall, sseu pay, 
e juiz dos horfaãos na villa d'Amgra da Ilha Terceira, o quail 
queremos que daquy em diamte seja escusado, privillegiado e 
guardado que nom pague nem sirva em nem Mas peitas, finitas, 
talhas, pedidas, serviços, emprestidos, nem outros nem hüs 
emcareguos que pello comcelho ou lugar omde morar forem 
lamcados, per qualquer guisa que seja, nem o costramgam, nem a 
seus amoos e caseiros que vaam com presos, nem con dinheiros, 
nem com nem huas caregas, nem sejam titores, nem curadores 
de nem húas pessoas que sejam, salvo seas taães tetorias forem 
lidimas, nem ajam oficio do comcelho comtra suas vomtades. 
Outro sy mamdamos e defemdemos, que nom seja nem hum tam 
ousado, de quallquer estado e comdicam que seja, que lhe pousse 
em suas cassas de morada, adegas, nem cavalariças, nem lhe 
comem seu pam, vinho, roupa, palha, ceevada, lenha, galinhas, 
gadoos, nem bestas de sella, nem dalbarda, nem boys, nem carros, 
n^m caretas, nem navyos, barquos e botes que tenham, nem 
outra nem hüa cousa de seu comtra suas vomtades. E porem 
mamdamos que lhe cumpraes e guardes e façaes muy inteira- 
mente comprir e guardar esta nosa carta como em ella he con- 
theudo sem embarguo de quaaesquer capitólios de cortes e 
ordenaçooes que hy aja em contrario, ssob pena dos nossos 
emcoutos de seis mill ssollidos, que mandamos que pague pera 
nos quallquer que comtra ello fir, os quaães mandamos oa nossa 
almoxarife de cada huü lugar desa coreicam que os receba por 
nos quallquer que comtra ello for, os quaães mandamos oa nossa 
parte ou em todo. E mamdamos ao escripvam do almoxarifado 
que os carregue sobre o dito almoxarife em recepta pera nos 
avermos dele booa recadaçam ssob penna de as pagarem ambos 
de suas casas ; e em caso que lhe alguns contra estra nosa carta 
queiram hyr, Mamdamos a vos, nosas justiças, que lho nom com- 
semtaes, e f azee odo compridamente correger e emmendar como 
for direito e justiça, por que asy he nosa mercê, e que o dito 
Joham Martinz, nosso vassallo, aja todallas homrras, liberdades, 
privilegios e ysemsones que por nos sam outorgados e sse nesta 
nosa carta conthem, Dada em Lixboa aos xxbii dias de 
janeiro. Vicente Carneiro a ífez, anno do nascimento de noso 
senhor Jesus Christo de mill e quinhemtos e hum anos. 

From the Archivo nacional da Torre do Tombo, liv. XVII of 
D. Manoel, foi. 5: printed in the Archivo dos Açores, III, 
195- ;6 Harrisse, op. cit., 199-201; and in Alguns Documentos 
do Archivo nacional da Torre do Tombo, 124-5. 



précurseurs de cartier 39 

XVIIIa. 

privilège accordé à jean martins à i/égard de i/île 
terceira. 

King Emmanuel, etc. To all our governors, chief magis- 
trates, judges and law officers in our kingdoms and dominions, 
andto any other officials 'and persons whatsoever to whom the 
cognisance of this in any way appertains, and these letters of 
ours may be shown, or the copy thereof given in public form by 
judicial authority may be presented, Greeting: 

Know that in consideration of the many services we have 
received from Gaspar Corte Real, a nobleman of our court, in 
the discovery of the land foretold, and of that which we hope in 
future to receive ,on which account he and those who shall aid 
him and spend their wealth in the said discovery are worthy of 
every favour and increase, we are pleased and it is our pleasure 
to receive as our vassal John Martins, Esquire, servant to John 
Vaz Corte Real, his [Gaspar's] father, and judge of the orphans 
in the town of Angra on the island of Terceira, whom hence- 
forth we desire to be exempt, freed and relieved from the pay- 
ment or service of any tributes, imposts, taxes, impositions, 
services, loans or any other charges imposed in any way whatso- 
ever by the council or village where he may dwell, nor shall 
they constrain him or his masters and husbandman to go as 
prisoners, nor with money, nor with any kind of imposts, nor to 
be guardians or trustees of any one whatever, except such guar- 
dianships be legitimate, nor to hold office as counsellors against 
their will. Furthermore we decree and order that no one, of 
whatsoever estate and condition, be so bold as to lodge in their 
dwelling-houses, cellars or stables, nor shall they take their 
bread, wine, clothes, straw, barley, wood, hens, cattle, or saddle- 
horses, nor their pack-saddle beasts, oxen, waggons, carts, ships, 
barques or boats, nor anything else of theirs against their will. 
And furthermore we order that you fulfill and carry out and 
cause to be fulfilltd and carried out In its entirety this grant of 
ours according to the tenour thereof, any law of the Cortes or 
decree to the contrary notwithstanding, on pain of a fin of 
6,000 cts. which we order to be paid to us by any one disobeying 
it, and this sum is to be received for us by our tax-receiver in 
each village of that circumssription from him or them who dis- 
obey this grant of ours in whole or in part. And we order the 
clerk of the receiver's office to debit these moneys to the said 
receiver, to the end that we have a correct receipt from him, 



40 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

on pain of the same being paid by both of them out of their own 
goods. And in case any persons should seek to disobey this decree 
of ours, we order you, our law officers, to present it, and to see 
that all is rectified and amended according to right and justice ; 
for such is our wish ; and that the said John Martins, our vassal, ' 
enjoy all the honours, liberties, privileges and exemptions by us 
granted, and set forth in this our grant. Given in Lisbon on 
27 January. Vicente Carneiro made this in the year of the 
Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ 1501. 

XIX. 

19 mars 1501. 

PÉTITION DE CERTAINS MARCHANDS À HENRI VII POUR OBTENIR 

DES LETTRES PATENTES RELATIVEMENT AUX DÉCOUVERTES 

ET AU COMMERCE. 

Memorandum quod xix die marcii anno regni regis Hen- 
rici septimi xvi° [1501] ista billa deliberata fuit domino eus- 
todi magni sigilli Anglie apucl Westmonasterium exequenda. 1 

To the kyng our sovereyne lord : 

Please it your hignes of your most noble and haboundaunt 
grace to graimt unto your w T elbeloved subiectys Richard Warde, 
Thomas Asshehurst and John Thomas, merchauntys of your 
towne of Bristowe, and to John ffernandus, fïraunces fïernan- 
dus and John Gunsalus, Squyers, borne in the Isle of Surrys 
[sic pro Açores'] under the obeisaunce of the kyng of Portin- 
gale, your gracious Letters patentis under your greate seale, in 
due forme to be made accordyng to the tenour hereafter ensuy- 
ing 2 , and that this byll, signyd with your gracious hand, may be 
to the Reverend fTader in God, Henry, bysshop of Salesbury, 
keper of your gret seale, sufficient and immediate warrant for 
the making, sealying, accomplysshyng of your seyd Letters 
patentes, and they shall duryng ther lyves prav to God for the 
prosperous contynuaunce of your most noble and ryall astate. 

From the Public Record Office, Chancery Warrants for 

Privy Seals, Series II, Xo. 216 (22nd in packet) : printed 

'in [Biddle], Memoir of Sebastian Cabot, etc., appendix 

D. p. 306, whence it was reprinted by Jones in his Introduction 

to Hakluyt's Divers Voyages, p. LXXIII. 

1 Dans l'original ce paragraphe est inséré au-dessous des mots " To the 
King our sovereyne lord " s faute d'espace pour l'insérer au-dessus. 

pour l'insérer au-dessus. 

2 Une copie de ces lettres y était incluse. A l'exception de deux en- 
droits, elles correspondent au n° XX. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 41 

XX. 

19 mars 1501. 

LETTRES PATENTES ACCORDEES À RICHARD WARDE, THOMAS 

ASHURST, JOHN THOMAS DE BRISTOL, JOHN 

FERNANDEZ, FRANCIS FERNANDEZ ET JOHN 

GONZALES DES ACORES. 

PRO CONCESSIONE RICARDO WARDE ET ALUS. 

Rex universis et singulis ad quos presentes litere nostre per- 
venerint, Salutem : Xotum sit vobis et manifestam, quod ex 
certis consideracionibus nos moventibus, de advisamento consilii 
nostri, concessimus et licenciam dedimus, prout per presentes 
eoncedimus et licenciam damus, pro nobis et heredibus nostris, 
quantum in nobis est, dilectis subditis nostris Ricardo Warde, 
Tliome Asshurst et Johanni Thomas, mercatoribus ville nostre 
Bristolli, ac dilectis nobis Johanni fïernaudus, fírancisco 
fïernandus et Johanni Gunsalus, armieris, in Insulis de Surrys, 
[sic pro Açoribus] sub obediencia Regis Portugalie oriundis, et 
eorum eulibet, ac cuiuslibet eorum heredibus, attornatis, f actori- 
bus seu deputatis, ac eis et eorum cuilibet plenam ac liberam, 
auctoritatem, facultatem et potestatem committimus navigandi 
et se transferendi ad omnes partes, regiones et fines maris Ori- 
entalis, Occidentalis, Australis, Borialis et Septemtrionalis, sub 
banneris et insigniis nostris, cum tot et tan tis et talibus navibus 
sive batellis quot sibi placuerint et necessário fuerint, cuiuscum- 
que portagii quelibet navis sive batella existerit, cum magistris, 
contromagistris, marinariis, pagettis aliisque hominibus pro 
gubernacione, salva custodia et defensione navium et batellarum 
predictarum competentibus, requisitus et neeessariis, ad custus 
et onera dictorum Ricardi et aliorum predictorum et pro huius- 
modi salariis, vadiis et stipendiis, prout inter eos poterunt con- 
cordare, ad inveniendum, recuperandum, discooperiendum et 
invstigandum insulas, patrias, regiones sive provincias quas- 
cumque gentilium et infidelium in quacumque mundi parte 
positas lue Christianis omnibus ante hec témpora fuerunt et 
impresenciarum sunt incognite, ac huiusmodi 'banneras et in- 
signia nostra in quacumque villa, oppido, castro, insula seu 
ierra firma a se sic noviter inventis afïigendi, ipsaque villas 
oppida, castra, insulas et terras firmas pro nobis et nomine 
nostro intrandi et capiendi, et ea tanquam vassalli nostri ac 
gubernatores, locatenentes et deputati nostri, eorundem dominio, 
titulo, dignitate et preeminencia eorundem nobis semper reserv- 



42 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

atis, occupandi, possidendi et subiugandi. Et insuper quando- 
cumque imposterum huiusmodi insuie, patrie, terre et provincie 
per prefatos Ricardum et alios prénommâtes adepte, recuperate 
et invente fuerint, tune volumus et per presentes concedimus, 
quod omnes et singule tam viri quam femine huius regni nostri 
ceterique subditi nostri, terras et insulas huiusmodi sic noviter 
inventas visitare et in eisdem inhabitare cupientes et desider- 
antes, possint et valeant licite et impune ad ipsas patrias, insul- 
as et loca, cum eorum navibus, hominubus et servientibus, rebus 
et bonis suis universis, transiré, et in eisdem sub proteccione et 
regimine dictorum Ricardi et aliorum prenominatorum morari 
et inhabitare, diviciasque, fructus et emolumenta terrarum, 
patriarum et locorum predictorum acquirere et optinere, dantes 
insuper et concedentes prefatis Ricardo, Thome et Johanni, 
Johanni, ffrancisco et Johanni, et eorum cuilibet, plenam tenore 
presencium, potestatem et auctoritatem omnes et singulos 
homines, marinarios ceterasque personas ad insulas, patrias, 
provincias, terras firmas et loca predicta, ex causa predicta, se 
divertentes et confluentes, tam in comitiva dictorum Ricardi et 
aliorum prenominatorum, quam in comitiva aliorum illuc im- 
posterum recursum habere contingencium, tam supra mare 
quam in insuliis (sic) , patriis, terris firmis et locis huiusmodi, 
postquam inventa et recuperata fuerint, regendi et gubernandi, 
legesque ordinaciones, statuta et proclamaciones pro bono et 
quieto regimine et gubernacione dictorum hominum, magistro- 
rum, marinariorum et aliarum personarum predictarum faci- 
endi, stabiliendi, ordinandi et constituendi et superinde procla- 
maciones faciendi, ac omnes et singulos quos in hac parte con- 
trarios et rebelles ac legibus, statutis et ordinacionibus predictis 
inobedientes invenerint, ac omnes illos qui furtum, homicidia, 
rapinas commisserint et perpetraverint, aut aliquas minières 
insularam seu patriarum predictarum contra earum voluntatem 
aut aliter rapuerint et violaverint, juxta leges et statuta per 
ipsos in hac parte ordinata castigandi et puniendi. Ac eciam 
concessimus prefatis Ricardo, Thome, Johanni, Johanni, ffran- 
cisco et Johanni, herèdibus et assignatis suis, quod postquam 
alique insuie, patrie, terre firme, regio seu provincia import- 
erum per ipsum Ricardum et alios prenominatos invente fuer- 
int, tune non licebit alicui seu aliquibus subdito seu subditis 
[nostris] 1 , durante termino decern annorum proximo et imme- 
diate seuqencium, ad ipsas villas, patrias, insulas, terras firmas 

1 Les mots entre crochets sont omis dans le registre des patentes, 
mais ils se trouvent dans la copie conforme. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 43 



et loca, causa mercandisandi ac bona acquirendi, absque licencia 
et permissione dictorum Ricardi et aliorum prenominatorum, 
heredum et assignatorum suorum, cum suis navibus frequentare 
aut se divertere, aut in eadem ingredi, seu in eisdem pro aliqui- 
bus bonis acquirendis intromittere ; et post terminum dictorum 
decern annorum, quod nullus ex nostris subditis ad aliquam 
terrain firmam, insulam, patriam seu locum per ípsos Ricardum 
et Thomam et alios predictos sic noviter inventa, navigare et 
frequentare présumât, absque licencia nostra et dictorum 
Ricardi et ceterorum predictorum, sub pena amissionis et foris- 
facture omnium bonorum, mercandisarum, rerum et navium 
quorumcumque ad ea loca sic noviter inventa navigare et in 
eadem ingredi presumencium, videlicet, una medietas inde erit 
ad opus nostrum et alia medietas ad opus dictorum Ricardi et 
aliorum prenominatorum et heredum suorum. 

Et ulterius ex habundanti gratia nostra concessimus et per 
presentes concedimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris, quantum 
in nobis est, prefatis Ricardo, Thome, Johanni, Johanni, 
fïrancisco et Johanni, et eorum cuilibet, heredibus et assignatis 
suis, quod ipsi et eorum quilibet mercandisas et mercimonia, 
aurum et argentum in massa, lapides preciosos, et alia bona que- 
cumque de crescentia patriarum, insularam et locorum predict- 
orum per ipsos sic recuperandorum et inveniendorum, tam in 
dictis navibus et batellis quam aliis quibuscumque navibus 
exteris a dictis patriis, insulis, terris firmis et locis in hoc reg- 
num nostrum Anglie ad quemcumque portum seu alium locum 
eiusdem adducere et cariare, et adduci seu cariari faceré possit 
et valeat, eaque venderé et distribuere ad eorum proficuum et 
avantagium, aliquo statuto, actu, ordinacione, restricione seu 
mandato incontrarium facto non obstante. . 

Ac nos intime considerantes grandia custus et onera que 
circa premissa facienda et perimplenda requiruntur, volentes 
igitur prefatis Ricardo, Thome et aliis memoratis personis 
gratiam proinde faceré specialem, concessimus et per presentes 
concedimus eisdem, heredibus et assignatis suis, quod ipsi et 
eorum quilibet, heredes et assignati sui predicti, de tempore in 
tempus, durante termino quatuor annorum a tempore recupera- 
cionis et invencionis insularam et patriarum predictarum, 
proximo et immediate sequencium, mercandisas et mercimonia 
ceteraque bona in. una navi tantum cuiscumque portagii fuerit 
eskippata et onusta, ac in hoc regnum nostrum Anglie adducenda 
et transportanda, in portu seu loco predicto ad terram poneré, 
eaque venderé, exponere, et pro libito suo distribuere possint, de 



44 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

i 

tempore in tempus, quolibet viagio, Jurante termino dictorum 
quatuor annorum, absque aliquibus custumis, subsidiis, seu 
aliis deveriis pro eisdem bonis, mercimoniis et ceteris premissis 
in dicta unica navi tantum contentis et eskippatis, nobis aut 
heredibus nostris infra dictum regnum nostrum Angiie aliqua- 
liter solvendis. Proviso tamen quod nobis de custumis, subsid- 
iis, pondagiis et aliis deveriis nobis pro ceteris mercandisis, 
mercimoniis et bonis in omnibus aliis navibus contentis debitis, 
juxtra consuetudinem in hoc regno nostro Angiie hactenus 
usitatam, fideliter respondeatur, ut est justum. Et insuper 
volumus et concedimus per presentes, quod quilibet capitalis 
magister, contromagister et marinarius cuiuslibet- navis ad 
aliquam terrain firmam, insulam, patriam, provinciam et locum 
predicta frequentatis et navigantis, habeant et gaudeant et 
percipiant de bonis et mercimoniis a dictis insulis, terris firmis 
et patriis in hoc regnum nostrum Angiie adducendis, custumas 
et subsidia sequencia, videlicet, quod quilibet magister babeat, 
gaudeat et percipiat subsidia et custumas, 4uolibet viagio, 
quatuor doliorum, et quilibet contromagister vel quartermaster 
custumas et subsidia duorum doliorum, ac quilibet marinarius 
custumas et subsidia unius dolii, licet sint carcata et eskippata 
ut bona sua propria aut ut bona alicuius alterius persone cuius- 
cumque ; Et lioc absque aliquibus custumis, subsidiis, debitis 
seu deveriis infra hoc regnum nostrum Angiie ad opus nostrum 
aut heredum nostrorum pro eisdem dolus aliqualiter solvendis 
seu petendis. 

Et si contigat aliquem vel aliquos mercatorem sen merca- 
tores huius regni nostri ad dictas insulas, patrias et loca sub 
licencia dictorum subditorum nostrorum, aut absque licencia 
sua, causa habendi mercandisas et mercimonia, adventare et 
laborare, ac bona et mercimonia ab eisdem partibus in hoc 
regnum nostrum adducere, tunc volumus et concedimus per 
presentes prefatis Eicardo, Thome, Johanni, Johanni, ffran- 
cisco et Johanni, heredibus et assignatis suis, quod ipsi, durante 
termino decern annorum antedicto, habeant de quolibet huius- 
modi mercatore, solutis nobis custumis, subsidiis et aliis deveriis 
nobis in hac parte debitis et consûetis, vicesimam partem 
omnium huiusmodi bonorum et mercimoniorum per ipsos a dic- 
tis insulis, patriis et locis quolibet viagio, durante dicto termino 
decern annorum, in hoc regnum nostrum Angiie traducendorum 
et cariandorum, habendam et capiendam huiusmodi vicesimam 
partem in portu ubi contrigerit dicta bona discarcari et exon- 
erari. Proviso semper quod predicti "Rieardus et alii prerlicti. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 45 

heredes et assignati ¿ni et non alii omnino imposterum, durante 
dicto termino decern annorum, sint factures et attornati in dictis 
insulis, terris firmis et patriis pro quibuscumque huiusmodi 
mercatoribus aliisque personis illuc ex causa predicta confluenti- 
bus, in et pro eorum f actis mercatoriis in eisdem. Proviso eciam 
quod nulla navis cum bonis et mercandisis a dictis partialis sic 
noviter inventis carcata et onusta, postquam in aliquem por turn 
huius regni nostri adducta fuerit, non exoneretur de eisdem 
bonis et mercandisis nisi in presencia prefatorum Ricardi et 
aliorum predictorum, eorumve lieredum seu deputatorum ad hoc 
assignait dorum, sub pena forisfacture eorundem bonorum et 
mercandisarum, unde una medietas ad opus nostrum et alia 
medietas prefatis Ricardo et alus prenominatis et heredibus 
suis applicantur. Et si imposterum aliqui extranei aut alie 
persone ad ipsas partes contra voluntatem ipsorum Ricardi et 
aliorum prenominatorum, causa habendi divicias navigare, et eas 
vi et armis ingredi, ac dictos Ricardum et alios perdictos aut 
heredes suos ibidem insultare, ac eos expeliere et debellare aut 
alias inquietare presumpserint, quod tune volumus, ac eisdem 
subditis 'nostris, tenore presencium, potestatem damus et com- 
mittimus, ipsos extráñeos, licet sint subditi et vassalli alicuius 
Principis nobiscum in liga et amicicia existentis, totis suis viri- 
bus, tarn per terram quam per mare et aquas dulces, expugnandi, 
resistendi. et guerram contra eos levandi et faciendi, eosque 
capiendi, subpeditandi et incarcerandi ibidem, quousque fines 
et redempeiones eisdem subditis nostris facerint moraturos, aut 
alias secundum sanam discrecionem ipsorum subditorum nostro- 
rum et heredum suorum castigandi et puniendi. 

At eciam prefatis subditis nostris ceterisque personis pre- 
dictis plenam, tenore presencium, potestatem damus et committ- 
imus sub se quoscumque capitaneos, locatenentes et deputatos in 
singulis civitatibus, villis, oppidis et locis dictarum insularum, 
provinciarum, patriarum et locorum predictorum, ad regendum 
et gubernandum omnes et singulas personas in eisdem partibus, 
sub regimine et gubernacione dictorum subditorum nostrorum 
ibidem commorancium, ac ,ad justiciam eisdem, secundum 
tenorum et effectum ordinacionum, statutorum et proclama- 
cionum predictorum, debite exequendam et administrandam, per 
literas suas patentes, sigillis eirum sigillandas, faciendi, consti- 
tuendi, nominandi et substituendi. Et insuper concessimus et 
per presentes coñeedimus prefatis Ricardo, Thome, Johanni, 
Johanni, ffrancisco et Johanni, ad terminum vite sue et cuius- 
libet eorum diucius viventis, nfficiunr Admiralli supra mare in 



46 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

• 

qnibuscumque locis, patriis et provincias a se sic noviter inventis 
et imposterum inveniendis et recuperandis, ipsosque Kicardum, 
Thomam, Johannem, Johannem, fïranciscuni et Jo-hanneni et 
eorum quemlibet coniunctim et divisim Admirallos nostros in 
eisdem partibus f acimus, constituimus, ordinamus et deputamus 
per presentes, dantes et concedentes eisdem et eorum cuilibet 
plenam, tenore presencium, potestatem et auctoritatem, ea 
omnia et singula que ad ofiicium admirallitatis pertinent, faci- 
endi, exeroendi et exequendi, secundum legem et consuetu- 
dinem maritimam in hoc regno nostro Anglie usitatam. 

Ac eciam postquam prefati Eicardus Warde, Thomas Ash- 
hurst et Joh-annes Thomas ac Johannes fïernandus, fïranciscus 
fïernandus et Johannes Gunsalus aliquas terras firmas, insulas, 
patrias et provincias, oppida, castra, civitates et villas per 
assistenciam nostram sic invenerint, optinuerint et subjugaver- 
int, tune volumus et per presentes concedimus eisdem, heredibus 
et assignatis suis, quod ipsi et heredes sui habeant, teneant et 
possideant sibi, heredibus et assignatis suis, omnia et singula, 
talia et tanta terras firmas, insulas, patrias, provincias, castra, 
oppida, fortallicia, civitates et villas, qualia et quanta ipsi ac 
homines, tenentes et servientes sui possunt inhabitare, custódire, 
sustinere et manutenere, habendas et tenendas easdem terras, 
insulas et loca predicta sibi, heredibus et assignatis suis et 
cuiuslibet eorum, de nobis et heredibus nostris imperpetuum, 
per fidelitatem tantum, absque aliquo compoto seu aliquo alio 
nobis aut heredibus nostris proinde reddendo seu faciendo, digni- 
tate, dominio, regalitate, jurisdiccione et preeminencia in eisdem 
nobis semper salvis et imnino reservatis. Et ulterius concessi- 
mus prefatis Ricardo, Thame, Johanni, Johanni, fTrancisco, 
Johanni, quod ipsi, heredes et assignati sui dictas terras firmas, 
insulas et patrias, ipsis et heredibus suis predictis, ut premitti- 
tur, sic concessis, postquam invente et recuperate sint, ac cum in 
plena possessione earundem fuerint, teneant, possideant et 
gaudeant libere, quiete et pacifiée, absque impedimento aliquali 
nostri aut heredum nostrorum quorumeumque. Et quod nullus 
ex subditis nostris eos aut eorum aliquem de et super posses- 
sione et titulo suis de et in dictis terris firmis, insulis et patriis 
se aliqualiter contra voluntatem suam expellat quovis modo. 
Promittentes bona fide et in verbo regio nos ratum, gratum et 
firmum habituros totum et quicquid prefati Eicardus, Thomas, 
Johannes, Johannes, fïranciscus et Johannes fc et eorum quilibet 
pro premissiorum complemento fecerint, fierique procuraverint 
in hac parte. Et quod nos aut heredes nostri nullo unquam 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 47 

tempore in futurum ipsos aut eorum aliquem heredesve et assig- 
nâtes suos in jure, titulo et possessione suis inquitabimus, im- 
pediemus, aut molestiam eis faciemus, nee per alios nostros sub- 
ditos aut alios quoscumque, quantum in nobis fuerit, fieri seu 
procuran permittemus seu procurabimus, nee ipsos, heredes et 
assignatos suos pro aliqua causa imposterum emergente seu 
contingente ab eisdem terris firmis, patriis, provinciis et locis 
millo modo ammovebimus aut ammo veri seu expelli per sub- 
ditos nostros procurabimus. 

Et ulterius, ex uberiori gratia nostra speciali et mero motu 
nostro, concessimus et per presentes concedimus, pro nobis et 
heredibus nostris, quantum in nobis est, Johanni ffernandus, 
Francisco fïerandus et Johanni Gunsalus, armigeris, in insulis 
de Surris [sic pro Açoribus] , subditos Regis Portugalie oriund- 
is, et eorum cuilibet, quod ipsi et eorum quilibet ac omnes 
liberi sui tarn procreati* quam procreandi imperpetuum sint 
indigeni et ligei nostri, et heredum nostrorum, et in omnibus 
causis, querelis, rebus et materiis quibuscumque habeantur, 
pertractentur, teneantur, reputentur et gubernentur tanquam 
veri et fidèles ligei nostri infra regnum nostrum Anglie oriundi 
et norf aliter noc alio modo. Et quod ipsi et omnes liberi sui 
predicti omnimodo actiones reales, personales et mixtas in 
omnibus curiis, locis et jurisdiccionibus nostris quibuscumque 
habere, exercere, eisque uti et gaudere, ac eas in eisdem placit- 
are et implacitari, responderé et responderi, defenderé et 
defendi possint, et eorum quilibet possit, in omnibus et per 
omnia sicuti veri et fidèles ligei nostri infra regnum nostrum 
predictum oriundi. Et quod ipsi et eorum quilibet terras, tene- 
menta, redditus, reversiones, servicia et alias possessiones que- 
cumque tarn in dominio quam in reversione infra dictum 
regnum nostrum Anglie ac alia dominia et loca sub obediencia 
nostra perquirere, capere, recipere, habere, tenere, possidere et 
hereditare sibi, heredibus et assignatis suis imperpetuum vel 
alio modo quocumque, ac ea dare, venderé, alienare et legare 
cuicumque persone sive quibuscumque personis sibi placuerit 
libere, quiete, licite et impune possint, et quilibet eorum possit, 
ad libitum siium adeo libere, integre et pacifi.ee sicut possit et 
valeat aliquis ligeorum nostrorum infra regnum nostrum 
Anglie oriundus. Ita tamen quod predicti Johannes ffernan- 
dus, fîranciscus et Johannes Gunsalus et omnes liberi sui pre- 
dicti solvant aut solvi faciant et eorum quilibet solvat seu solvi 
faciat talia custumas, subsidia et alia deveria pro bonis, merci- 
bus, mercandisis et mercimoniis suis in regnum nostrum Anglie 



48 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

adducendis vel etra idem regnum educendis, qualia alienigeni 
nobis solvant aut solvere deberent vel consueverunt. Et quod 
iidem Johannes flernandus, n'ranciscus et Johannes Gunsalus et 
omnes liberi sui predicti de cetero in futuruim colore seu vigore 
alien ius statuti, ordinacionis sive cohcessionis in parliaments 
nostro ant extra parliamentum nostrum facti vel fiendi, non 
artentur, teneantur seu compellantur, nee eorum ali quis artetur, 
teneatur seu compellatur ad solvendum, dandiim, faciendum vel 
supportandum nobis vel alicui heredum nostrorum seu cuicum- 
que alteri aliqua taxas, tallagia seu alia onera quecumque pro 
terris, tenementis, bonis vel personis suis preterquam talia et 
tanta, qualia et quanta alii fidèles ligei nostri infra dictum 
regnum nostrum oriundi pro bonis, terris, tenementis seu per- 
sonis suis solvunt, dant, faciunt vel supportant aut solvere, dare, 
faceré vel supportare concomiter consueverunt et teneantus, and 
quod predicti Johannes flernandus, fïranciscus et Johannes 
Gunsalus et omnes liberi sui predicti habere et possidere valeant 
et possint, et eorum quilibet valeat et possit, omnia et omnimodo 
alia libertates, privilegia, fíranchesias et custumas, ac eis uti et 
gaudere possint, et eorum quilibet possit, infra dictum regnum 
nostrum Anglie, juris dicciones et' dominia nostra quecumque 
adeo libere, quiete, integre et pacifice sicut ceteri ligei nostri 
infra idem regnum nostrum oriundi concomiter habent, utuntur 
et gaudent, aut habere, possidere, uti et gaudere debeant ejt 
valeant, aliquo statuto, actu, ordinacione vel aliqua alia causa, 
re vel materia quacumque non obstante. Proviso semper quod 
prefati Johannes fie rnandus, fTranciscus et Johannes Gunsalus 
homagium ligeum nobis faciant et eorum quilibet faciat ac 
lotto et scotto et aliis oneribus in regno nostro predicto ubilibet 
debitis et consuetis contribuant et eorum quilibet contribuât, 
prout alii ligei nostri infra dictum regnum nostrum oriundi 
faciunt. Proviso eciam quod iiclem Johannes flernandus, fïran- 
ciscus et Johannes Gunsalus solvant et eorum quilibet solvat 
nobis et heredibus nostris tot et tanta custumas, subsidia et alia 
deveria pro bonis et mereandisis suis prout alienigeni nobis solv- 
ere et reddere teneantur. 

Et ulterius, ex uberiori gratia nostra, concessimus prefati s 
Ricardo, Thome, Johanni, Johanni, fTrancisco et Johanni, quod 
ipsi habeant presentes literas nostras in Cancellaria nostra 
absque aliquo fine sen feodo, aut aliquibus finibus sen feodis y>vn 
eisdem Uteris nostris aut aliqua parte earundem aut pro mao-no 
sigillo nostro. ad opus nostrum in hanaperio dicte Cancel! arie 
nostre aliqualiter solvendis. Et volumus et concedimus per pre- 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 49 

bentes quod Reverendissimus in Christo pater Henricus, Epis- 
copus Sanuii, Custos magni sigilli nostri, auctoritate presentís 
concessionis nostre, fieri façiat et sigillari tot et talia brevia, sub 
nagno sia,illo nostro sigillanda, custodi sive elerico hanaperii 
nostri dirigencia, pro exoneracione dictorum finium et feodorum, 
quot et qualia in hac parte necessária fuerint et requisita, absque 
aliquo alio warranto ant prosecueione penes [nos] in hac parte 
faciendis. 

in cuius rei, etc. 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium xix die marcii. 

Per ipsum Regem, et de data predicta, etc. 

Et niandatum est Custumariis sive Collectoribus custum- 
aruni et subsidiorum Regis in portu ville sue Bristollie qui nunc 
sunt et qui pro tempore erunt, quod ipsi prefatos Ricardum, 
Thomam, Johannem, Johannem, fTranciscum et Johannem, et 
eorum quemlibet, heredes et assignatos suos, bona, mercandisas, 
mercimonia quecumque in dicta unica navi contenta, onusta et 
eskippata, euiuscumque portagii fuerit, a dictis insulis, patriis 
et Leis per ipsos, ut predieitur, inveniendis et reeuperandis, in 
dictum portum Bristollie traducen da et transportanda, de tem- 
pore in tempus, quolibet viagio, durante termino dictorum qua- 
tuor annorum a tempore recuperacionis et invencionis insula- 
rum, patriarum et locorum predictorum, absque aliquibus custu- 
mis, subsidiis seu alus deveriis dicto domino Regi seu heredibus 
suis pro eisdem bonis, mercandisis et mercimoniis solvendis in 
potru predicto, ad terrain poneré, eaque venderé, exponere et pro 
libito suo distribuere permittant, juxta tenorem literarum pre- 
dictarum, ipsosque contra tenorem earundem non molestantes 
seu gravantes. 

Toste Rege apud Westmonasterium xix die marcii. 

Et mandatum est prefatis Custumariis sive Collectoribus in 
portu predicto qui nunc sunt et qui pro tempore erunt, quod ipsi 
prefatos magistros, contromagistros, vel quartermasters et mar- 
inarlos cuiuslibet navis ad aliquam terrain firmam, insulam, 
patriam et locum predicta navigantis et frequentatis, et eorum 
quemlibet custumas et subsidia doliorum predictorum, modo et 
forma supraspecificatis, absque aliquibus custumis, subsidiis et 
ali is deveriis dicto domino Regi pro eisdem dolus, seu eorum 
aliquo, aliqualiter solvendis, in et pro quolibet viagio, de tempore 
in tempiis habere, gaudere et percipere permittant, iuxta ten- 

29837— 1 



50 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

orem literarum predictarum, ipsosque aut eorum aliquem contra 
tenorem earundem non molestantes in aliqiio seu gravantes. 

Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium xix die marcii. 

From the Public Record Office, Patent Roll No. 587, 
membranes 20 and 21 ; unpublished. The copy preserved under 
Chancery Warrants for Privy Seals, ser. ii, No. 216 (22nd in 
packet), will be found printed in [Biddle], A Memoir of Sebas- 
tian Cabot, appendix D, 306-14, whence it was copied by Jones 
in his Introduction to Hakluyt's Divers Voyages, LXXIII- 
LXXXY; and reprinted from the same source in the Archivo 
dos Açores, IV o ., 450-63, Ponta Delgada, 1884. 



XXa 1 . 

In regard' to the grant to Richard Warde and others. 

The King to all and singular to whom our present letters 
patent shall come, Greeting: Be it known to you and made 
manifest that we, for certain considerations us moving, by the 
advice of our Council, have granted and given licence, as by 
these presents we grant and give licence for us and our heirs, as 
far as in us lies, to our well-beloved subjects Richard Warde, 
Thomas Ashehurst and John Thomas, merchants of our town 
of Bristol, and to our well-beloved John Fernandez, _ Francis 
Feranndez and John Gonzales, Fsquires, of the Islands of the 
Azores in the dominions of the King of Portugal, and to any 
one of them, and to the heirs, attorneys, factors or deputies of 
any one of them, and to them and any one of them we grant 
full and unrestricted authority, faculty and power to sail 
and transport themselves to all parts, regions and territories of 
the eastern, western, southern, arctic and northern seas, under 
our banners and ensigns, with so many and so large and such 
ships or vessels as may be agreeable to them and may be neces- 
sary, of whatsoever burthen any ship or vessel may be, with 
masters, mates, mariners, pages and other men competent, 

1 Dans les lettres patentes accordées à Alonso de Hojeda, le 8 juin 
1501, lui donnant le pouvoir de visiter de nouveau la côte de Paria et " de 
découvrir toutes îles et terre ferme situées dans l'océan ", se trouve ce qui 
suit : " Item : Que vaes é sigais aquella costa que descubristes, que se 
corre leste-ueste, según parece, por razón que va hacia la parte donde se 
ha sabido que descubrían los ingleses, é vais poniendo las marcas con las 
armas de SS. AA., ò con otras señales que sean conocidas cuales vos pare- 
ciere, porque se conozca como vos habes descubierto aquella tierra, para 
que atages el descubrir de los ingleses por' aquella via ", etc. Navarrete 
sp. cit. III. 86. Vid. la carte de Juan de la Cosa. 



PRÉCURSEURS I)E CARTIER 51 

requisite and necessary for the piloting, safeguard and defense 
of the aforesaid ships and vessels, at the cost and charges of the 
said Richard and of the others aforesaid, and at such salaries, 
wages and pay as they may agree upon among themselves, to 
find, recover, discover and search out whatsoever islands, coun- 
tries, regions or provinces of heathens and infidels, in whatever 
part of the world they may lie, which before this time were and 
at present are unknown to all Christians, and to set up our 
banners and ensigns in any town, city, castle, island or main- 
land by them thus newly found, and to enter and seize these 
same towns, cities, castles, islands and mainlands for us and in 
our name, and as our vassals and governors, lieutenants and 
deputies to occupy, possess and subdue these, the property, title, 
dignity and suzerainty of the same being always reserved to us. 
And furthermore whenever henceforth such islands, countries, 
lands and provinces shall be acquired, recovered and found by 
the aforesaid Richard and the others before-named, then we 
will and by these presents grant, that all and singular as well 
men as women of this our kingdom and the rest of our subjects, 
wishing and desiring to" visit these lands and islands thus 
newly found, and to inhabit the same, shall be allowed and have 
power to go freely and in safety to the same countries, islands 
and places with their ships, men and servants, and all their 
goods and chattels, and to dwell in and inhabit the same under 
the protection and government of the said Richard and of the 
others aforesaid, and to acquire and keep the riches, fruits and 
profits of the lands, countries and places aforesaid ; giving fur- 
thermore and çrantins; to the aforesaid Richard, Thomas and 
John, John, Francis and John, and to any one of them, by the 
tenour of these presents, full power and authority to rule and 
govern all and singular the men, sailors and other persons 
removing and making their way for the aforesaid purpose 
to the islands, countries, provinces, mainlands and 
places before-mentioned, as well in the company of the said 
Richard and of the others aforesaid, as in the company of 
people happening afterwards to betake themselves there, 
both on the sea as well as in these islands, coun- 
tries, mainlands and places after they have been found and re- 
covered, and to make, set up, ordain and appoint laws, ordin- 
ances, sttatutes and proclamations for the good and peaceful 
rule and government of the said men, masters, sailors and other 
persons aforesaid, and also to issue proclamations to chastise 

29837— 4* 



52 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

and punish according to the laws and statutes set up by them 
in that region all and singular those whom they may find there 
hostile and rebellious and disobedient to the laws, statutes and 
ordinances aforesaid, and all who shall commit and per- 
petrate theft, homicide or robberies or who shall rape and viol- 
ate against their will or otherwise any women of the islands or 
countries aforesaid. And furthermore we have granted to the 
aforesaid Richard, Thomas, John, John, Francis and John, 
their heirs and assigns, that when any islands, countries, main- 
lands, region or province shall henceforth be discovered by the 
same Richard and the others aforesaid, then it shall not be law- 
ful for any subject or subjects [of ours], during the term of 
ten years next and immediately following, to visit with their 
ships or to make their way to the same towns, countries, islands, 
mainlands and places, for the purpose of trading and obtaining 
goods, without the licence and permission of the said Richard 
and of the others aforesaid, their heirs and assigns, or to enter 
the same, or to send into the same to obtain any goods ; and that 
after the term of the said ten years, none of our subjects shall 
presume to sail to or visit any mainland, island, country or 
place thus newly found by the said Richard and Thomas and 
the others aforesaid without our licence and that of the said 
Richard and of the others aforesaid, on pain of the loss and for- 
feiture of all the goods, meehandise, commodities and vessels 
whatsoever daring to sail to these places thus newly 
discovered and to enter the same, namely, one-half of the same 
to be for our use, and the other half for the use of the said 
Richard and of the others aforesaid and of their heirs. 

And furthermore of our abundant grace we have granted 
and by these presents grant for us and our heirs, as far as in us 
lies, to the aforesaid Richard, Thomas, John. John. Francis 
and John and any one of them, their heirs and assigns, that 
they and any one of them shall have power and permission to 
bring and transport and canse to he brought or transported 
merchandise and wares, gold and silver in liar, precious stones, 
and other goods whatsoever grown in the countries, islands and 
places aforesaid by them thus to be recovered and found, as 
veil in the said ships and vessels as in other strange ships what 
soever, from the said countries, islands, mainlands and places 
into this our realm of England, to any port whatsoever or other 
place in the same, and to sell and distribute these for their own 
profit and advantage, any statute, act, ordinance, restriction or 
order made to the contrary notwithstanding. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 53 

And we, bearing in mind most especially the heavy costs 
and charges which are required for the performance and exe- 
cution of 'the above, wishing therefore to do special favour in 
like manner to the aforesaid Richard, Thomas and the other 
persons mentioned, have granted and by these presents grant 
to the same, their heirs and assigns, that they and any one of 
them, their heirs and assigns aforesaid, may from time to time 
durign the term of four years from the date of the recovery 
and discovery of the islands and countries aforesaid next and 
immediately following, land in the port or place aforesaid the 
merchandise and wares and other goods, loaded and carried on 
one vessel, of so great tonnage whatsoever she be, and Avhich are 
to be brought and transported into this our realm of England, 
and may sell, expose and distribute these at their pleasure from 
lime to time after any voyage during the term of the said four 
years, without in any way paying to us or to our heirs wùthin our 
said realm of England, any customs, subsidies or other dues on 
the same goods, merchandise and other things aforesaid con- 
tained and carried in the said one vessel only. Provided never- 
theless that with regard to the customs, subsidies, pondages and 
other dues to be paid on the rest of the merchandise, wares and 
goods on board all the other vessels, true answers, as is right, be 
given to us, according to the practice hitherto prevailing in this 
our real of England. And furthermore we will and grant by 
these presents that any chief master, mate and sailor of any 
ship whatsoever visiting and sailing to any mainland, island, 
country, province and place aforesaid, may have, enjoy and re- 
ceive of the goods and wares to be brought from the said islands, 
mainlands and countries into this our realm of England, the 
following customs and subsidies, namely : that any master may 
have, enjoy and receive on any voyage the customs and sub- 
sidies of four tons, and any mate or quartermaster the customs 
and subsidies of two tons, and any sailor the customs and sub- 
sidies of one ton, even though they be loaded and carried as his 
own goods or as the goods of any other person whatsoever; and 
this without any customs, subsidies, dues or duties being in any 
way paid or asked for the same tonnage within this our realm 
of England for our needs or those of our heirs. 

And should it happen that any merchant or merchants of 
this our realm arrive at the said islands, countries and places by 
licence of our said subjects or without their licence, for the 
purpose of obtaining merchandise and wares, and should carry 
on business and bring goods and wares from those parts into 



C4 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

this our kingdom, then we will and grant by these presents to 
the aforesaid Richard, Thomas, John, John, Francis and John, 
their heirs and assigns, that they, during the aforesaid term of 
ten years, may receive from any such merchant, the customs, 
subsidies and other dues having been paid that it is customary 
to remit to us in such case, the twentieth part of all such goods - 
and merchandise brought and transported by the same from the 
said islands, countries and places into this our realm of Eng- 
land on any voyage during the said term of ten years, this 
twentieth part to be had and taken in the port in which it shall 
happen that the said goods are unloaded and discharged. Pro- 
vided always that during the said term of ten years the afore- 
said Richard and the others aforesaid, their heirs and assigns, 
and not any other persons, be the factors and attorneys in the 
said islands, mainlands and countries in behalf of any such 
merchants and other persons repairing there for the aforesaid 
cause in and for the trade carried on there for them. Provided 
also that no vessel charged and loaded with goods and mer- 
chandise from the said regions thus newly found, after she has 
been brought into any port of this our realm, be discharged of 
the said goods and merchandise except in the presence of the 
aforesaid Richard and of the others aforesaid, or of their heirs 
or deputies to be assigned for this purpose, on pain of the for- 
feiture of the said goods and merchandise, whereof one half 
shall be annlied to our needs and the other half be given to the 
aforesaid- Richard and to the others before-named and to their 
heirs. And if afterwards any strangers or other persons should 
presume against the wish of the said Richard and of the others 
before-named to sail to these said regions for the purpose of en- 
riching themselves, and to enter the same by violence, and there 
to insult the said Richard and the others aforesaid or their heirs, 
and to conquer and expel them, or otherwise to disturb them, 
then we will and by the teneur of these presents give and 
grant power to the same subjects of ours, to expel and resist 
with all their force, as well by land as by sea and fresh water, 
these strangers, even though they be subjects and vassals of 
some prince in league and friendship with us, and to wage 
and carry on war against them, and to arrest, bind and place 
them in prison, there to remain until they shall have made 
fine and redemption to our said subjects; or otherwise to 
chastise and punish them according to the sober discretion of 
our said subjects and of their heirs. 

And also bv the tenour of these presents we give and grant 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 55 

full power to our aforesaid subjects, aud to tlie other persons 
aforesaid, to make, constitute nominate and appoint under them 
by their letters patent to be sealed with their seals, any cap- 
tains, lieutenants and deputies whatsoever in each of the states, 
cities, towns and places aforesaid for the administration and 
government of all and singular the persons in those parts, under 
the rule and authority of our said subjects there dwelling, 
and for the due execution and administration of justice in the 
same, according to the tenour and import of the ordinances, 
statutes and proclamations aforesaid. Aud furthermore w r e 
have granted and by these presents grant to the aforesaid 
Richard, Thomas, John, John, Francis and John for the term 
of their lives and of the life of any one of them, the office of 
Admiral at sea in any of the places, countries and provinces 
whatsoever by them thus newly discovered and henceforth to 
be found and recovered; and we make, constitute, ordain and 
appoint by these presents the said Richard, Thomas, John, 
John, Francis and John and any one of them whomsoever, con- 
jointly and separately, our Admirals in the same parts, giving 
and granting to them and to any* one of them whomsoever, by 
the tenour of these presents, full power and authority to do, 
exercise and carry out all and singular the things which 
pertain to the office of Admiral, according to the law and the 
naval custom obtaining in this our realm of England. 

And further after the aforesaid Richard Warde, Thomas 
Ashehurst and John Thomas and John Fernandez, Francis 
Fernandez and John Gonzales shall have thus found, acquired 
aud subdued with our assistance, any mainlands, islands, coun- 
tries and provinces, cities, castles, states and towns, then we will 
and by these presents grant to them, their heirs and assigns, 
that they and their heirs may have, hold and possess for them- 
selves, their heirs and assigns all and singular, such and so great 
mainlands, islands, countries, provinces, castles, cities, fort- 
resses, states, and towns as and as great as they and their 
agents, lieutenants and servants are able to inhabit, take 
possession of, hold and maintain ; the same lands, islands and 
places aforesaid to be had and held by them, their heirs and 
os signs, and by any one of them whomsoever, of us and of our 
heirs in perpetuity by fidelity alone, without any composition 
or anything else being rendered or made to us or to our heirs 
for the same, always excepting the dignity, dominion, regality, 
jurisdiction and suzerainty of the same, wholly reserved to us. 
And furthermore we have granted to the aforesaid Richard, 



50 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Thomas, John, John, Francis and John, that when the said 
mainlands, islands and countries thus made over to them and to 
their heirs aforesaid, as set forth above, have been discovered 
and recovered, and when they are in full possession of the same, 
they, their heirs and assigns may hold, possess and enjoy the 
same freely, quietly and peaceably, without impediment of any 
sort from us or from any of our heirs whomsoever. And that 
none of our subjects shall in any way expel them or any one of 
them from and out of their possession and title to and in the 
said mainlands, islands and countries in any wise against their 
will. Promising in good faith and on the word of a king that 
Ave shall hold ratified, acceptable and stable all and whatsoever 
the aforesaid Richard, Thomas, John, John, Francis and John, 
and any of them whosoever, by way of completing the premises, 
shall do or shall procure to be done herein. And that neither 
we nor our heirs ever nor at any time in the future shall dis- 
turb, hinder or molest them or any one of them or their heirs 
and assigns in their right, title and possession, nor shall w£ 
permit nor cause this to be done or brought about, nor shall we 
cause it to be done by others our subjects, or others whomsoever, 
so far as in us lies ; nor shall we in any way remove them, their 
heirs and assigns from the said mainlands, countries, provin- 
ces and places for any cause afterwards arising or happening, 
nor shall we cause them to be removed or expelled by our sub- 
jects. 

And further of our greater special goodness and very own 
motion w 7 e have granted and by these presents grant for us and 
our heirs, as far as in us lies, to John Fernandez, Francis Fer- 
nandez and John Gonzales, Esquires, of the Islands of the 
Azores, born subjects of the king of Portugal, and to any one of 
them whomsoever, that they and any one of them and all their 
children, as well born as to be born, are for ever subjects and 
lieges of us and our heirs, and in all lawsuits, quarrels, affairs 
and matters whatsoever are to be considered, treated, held, es- 
teemed and governed as our true and faithful lieges born within 
our realm of England, and not otherwise nor in any other way. 
And that they and all their children aforesaid, and any one of 
them whomsoever, may carry on and bring real, personal and 
mixed actions in all courts, places and jurisdictions of ours 
whatsoever in all ways, and may use and benefit by these, and 
may sue and be sued in the same, answer and be answered to, 
defend them and be defended in all things and everywhere as our 
true and faithful lieges born within our realm aforesaid. And 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 



57 



that they, and any one of them whosoever, may examine, take, 
receive, own, hold, possess and inherit for himself, his heirs and 
assigns, in perpetuity or in any other way whatsoever, lands, 
tenements, rents, reversions, services and other possessions 
whatsoever, as well in full ownership as in reversion, within our 
said realm of England and the other dominions and places 
under our obedience, and these give away, sell, alienate and be- 
queath to any person or persons whomsoever, as it may please 
them, freely, quietly, lawfully and safely, and any one of them 
may so do at his pleasure, as freely, fully and peaceably as any 
liege of ours born within our realm of England is able and has 
power to do. In such a way nevertheless that the aforesaid 
John and Francis Fernandez and John Gonzales, and all their 
children aforesaid, pay or cause to be paid, and each of them 
pays or causes to be paid, such customs, taxes and other dues for 
their goods, wares, merchandise and commodities which are to 
be brought into our realm of England or taken out of the same, 
as foreigners pay to us, or ought, or are accustomed to pay. And 
that the same John and Francis Fernandez and John Gonzales, 
and all their children aforesaid, from henceforward under colour 
or in virtue of any statute, ordinance or grant made or to be 
made in our parliament or out of our parliament, be not forced, 
held nor comoelled nor any one of them be forced, held or com- 
pelled to pay, give, render or bring to us or to any of our heirs, 
or to any one else whomsoever, any taxes, tallages or other dues 
whatsoever for their lands, tenements, goods or persons, except 
such and so much as our other faithful lieges, born within our 
said realm pay, give, render or bring, or are accustomed and 
held to pay, give, render or bring generally for their goods, 
lands, tenements or persons ; but that the aforesaid John and 
Francis Fernandez and John Gonzales, and all their children 
aforesaid, and any one of them, may and can have and possess 
all things and all other liberties, privileges, franchises and cus- 
toms, and may use and enjoy them, and any one of them may so 
do, within our said realm of England, our jurisdictions and 
dominions whatsoever, as freely, quietly, fully and peaceably as 
the rest of our lieges, born within our said realm gene- 
rally hold, use and enjoy them, or ought and should hold, pos- 
sess, use and enjoy them ; any statute, act, ordinance, or any 
other cause, affair or matter whatsoever notwithstanding. Pro- 
vided always that the aforesaid John and Francis Fernandez 
and John Gonzales, and each of them does liege homage to us, 
and that they and each one of them aids with lot and scot and 



58 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

with the other dues payable and customary everywhere in our 
aforesaid realm, as our lieges do who are born within our said 
kingdom. Provided also that the said John and Francis Fer- 
nandez and John Gonzales pay, and each of them pays to us 
and to our heirs so many and such customs, subsidies and other 
dues for their goods and merchandise as foreigners are held to 
pay and give to us. 

And further of our greater goodness we have granted to the 
aforesaid Richard, Thomas, John, John, Francis and John, that 
they may have our present letters in our Chancery without pay- 
ment to us of any fine or fee or of any fines or fees for the same 
letters of ours, or far any part thereof, or for our Great Seal in 
any way at the Exchequer of our said Chancer}'. And we will 
and grant by these presents that the most Eeverend father in 
Gocl, Henry, bishop of Salisbury, the Custodian of our Great 
Seal, by the authority of this present grant of ours, shall cause 
to be prepared and sealed so many and such briefs sealed with 
our Great Seal and directed to the custodian or clerk of our 
Exchequer for the discharge of the said fines and fees as and 
such as may be necessary and requisite for the same without 
any other warrant or attendance being made before us in this 
matter. 

In witness whereof, etc. 

Witness ourself at Westminster on the nineteenth day of 
March. 

By the king himself, and at the date aforesaid, etc. 

And the customs' officers, or the collectors of the king's cus- 
toms and subsidies at the port of his town of Bristol, both pre- 
sent and future, are ordered, according to the teneur of the 
aforesaid letters, to allow the aforesaid Richard, Thomas, John, 
John, Francis and John, and anv one of them whomsoever, 
their heirs and assigns to land at the aforesaid harbour whatso- 
ever goods, merchandise and wares contained, loaded and car- 
ried in the said one vessel, of whatsoever burthen she be, which 
are brought and transported from the said islands, countries 
and places to be found and recovered by the same as aforesaid, 
to the said port of Bristol, from time to tiiife on any voyage dur- 
ing the term of the said four years from the date of the recovery 
and discovery of the islands, countries and places aforesaid, 
without payment of any customs, subsidies or other dues to the 
said lord the king or to his heirs for the said goods, merchandise 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 59 

and wares, and to set out, sell and distribute these at their will, 
and not to molest nor oppress the said persons contrary to the 
tenonr of the said letters. 

Witness the king at Westminster on the nineteenth day of 
March. 

And the aforesaid customs' officers, or the collectors in the 
aforesaid port, both present and future, are ordered according to 
the tenonr of the aforesaid letters, to alloAv the aforesaid masters, 
mates or quartermasters and sailors of any ship whatsoever, 
sailing and making its way to any mainland, county or place 
aforesaid, and any one of them whomsoever, to have, enjoy and 
receive from time to time the customs and subsidies of the 
aforesaid tonnage in the form and manner stated above, without 
the payment by them or by any of them whomsoever in any way 
of any customs, subsidies and other dues to the said lord the king 
for the said tonnage in and on any voyage whatsoever, and they 
are not to molest nor oppress them or any one of them in any 
way contrary to the tenonr of these said presents. 

Witness the king at Westminster on the nineteenth day of 
March. 

XXI. 

15-21 avril 1501. 

VIVRES POUR LA DEUXIEME EXPEDITION DE GASPAR CORTE REAL. 

Xos, el Rey, mandamos a vos nosso almoxarife dos fernos do 
bizcoito da porta da -|- [i.e. Cruz] e ao escripvam desseo officio, 
que dees a Gaspar Corterreal, firdalgo de nossa casa, tamto 
bizcoyto quamto ffizerem dez moyos de trigno de campo, os 
qnaaes dez moyos de trigno vos, o dito Gaspar Corterreal, entre- 
gara nos ditos fïernos ; E esto peramte o ditto vosso escripvam 
pera vos carregar os ditos dez moyos de trigno em recepta e em 
despesa o dito bizcoito que lhe assy por elles emtregardes, como 
dito he, por que do fTeitio lhe fazemos merce, e vos cobray délie 
ssen conhecimento, e este pera vossa comta e comprio assy, 
fïeito em Lixboa a xb dias dabril. Gaspar Rodriguez o fez de 
mil e b c e huu. I 

REY + J. 

De CASTEL BRAXCO. 



00 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

He verdade que receby do almoxarife Jacome Diàz setenta 
e dous quintaes e meio por dez moyos de triguo do canpo que de 
mym reçebeo feito a xxj dias dabrill de 1501. 

GASPAR CORTE REALL. 

[Endorsed]. Ao almoxarife dos fornos da porta da + [i.e. 
Cruz] que dee a Gaspar Corterreal tamto bizcoyto quanto 
fezerem x moyos de triguo do campo, os quaaes lhe elle entre- 
gara, e do feito lhe faz vossa senhoria merçee. 

From the Archivo nacional da Torre do Tombo, Corpo chrono- 
]ogico, part I a , mac. 3, no. 52 : printed in Harrisse, op. cit., post- 
scriptum 6-7, with a facsimile of Gaspar Corte Real's receipt ; 
Archivo dos Açores, IV, 585-6 ; and in Alguns Documentos, 
etc., 125-6 with a facsimile of the whole document. 

XXIa. 

We, the king, order you our superintendent of the biscuit- 
ovens at the gate of the Cross 1 , and the clerk of that office, to 
deliver to Gaspar Corte Real, a nobleman of our court, as many 
biscuits as ten moios 2 of country wheat will produce, which ten 
moios of wheat the said Gaspar Corte Real will hand over to 
you at our said ovens ; and this in the presence of your said 
clerk, in order to credit you with the said ten moios of wheat 
and to debit you with the said biscuit which you will thus de- 
liver to him in exchange for them, as already stated, since we 
grant him the expense 'thereof ; and you will obtain from him 
his bill of lading, and this for your account and receipt. Given 
in Lisbon on 15 April. Gaspar Rodriguez made this in 1501. 

THE KING. 

De CASTEL BRANCO. 

It is true that I have received from the superintendent 
James Diaz 72^ quintals in exchange for ten moios of country 
wheat which he received from me. Given on 21 April, 1501. 

GASPAR CORTE REAL. 

Endorsed : To the Superintendent of the Ovens at the Gate 
of the Cross to deliver to Gaspar Corte Real as many biscuits as 
x moios of country wheat, which he is to hand over to him, will 
produce, and his majesty grants him the expense. 



1 Une des anciennes portes de la ville de Lisbonne. 

2 Un moio équivaut à 780 litres. 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 61 

XXII. 

17 octobre 1501. 

DÉPÊCHE D' ALBERT CANTINO DE LISBONNE AU DUC DE FERRARA, 
HERCULE DOESTE. 

Illustrissime et Exeellentissime Princeps et Domine mi 
Singularissime, etc : 

Gia son nove mesi passati che questo Sereníssimo lie mando 
allé parte de Tramontana dui legni ben armati solum per cer- 
chare se possibil fusse che a quella parte vi si possesse ritrovare 
terre on insuie alcune. Cusí hora alli undece del presente salvo 
et con preda, uno de epsi è ritornato; et ha portato gente et 
nove, lequale non me ha parso che sencia sentita de V ostra Ex- 
cellentia debbiano passare, et cusi precisamente tutto quello 
qual fu per il capitán al Re, me presente, r acón tato, qui di sotto 
distinctamente scrivo. In prima racontano che partiti che 
furon del porto di Lisbona, quatro mesi continui sempre per 
quello vento et a quel polo camiarno, ne mai in tutto questo 
spacio heberno vista de cosa alcuna ; et intracti nel quinto mese, 
volendo pure inanti seguiré, dicono che ritrovarno masse grand- 
issime de concreta neve andaré, mosse de l'onde sopra il mare 
a galla, de la summità de lequali, per la potent ia del sole, una 
dolce et chiara aqua se dissolvea, et disciolta per canaleti da 
epsi facti minando al basso gin cadea, onde, che havendo gia le 
nave bisogno de aequa, con li battelli a quelle se acostarno, et 
per quanto fu a lor necessário ne prenderno. Et temendo de 
stare in quel locho per il loro pressente periculo, volseno tornare 
indrieta. ma pur aiutati da speranza, deliberarno como meglio 
pote>seno andaré anchora alexin giorno inanti, et posseronsi al 
viaggio, nel secondo giorno delquale ritrovarno el Mar gelato, 
et eon^trecti lia abandonare la impresa, cominciarno a circon- 
dare verso Maestro et ponente, ove tre mesi sempre con bon 
tempo a quella volta continuarno. Et nel primo giorno del 
quarto mese heberno vista, fra questi dui venti, d'un grandissimo 
paese, alquale con grandíssima allegreza se acostarno, et cor- 
rendo molti et grandi fhimi dolci per quella regione al mare, per 
uno de epsi forsi una legha fra terra intrarno, et in quella dis- 
montati trovarno copia de snavissime et diversi fructi, et albori 
et pini de *i smisurata alteza et grosseza che serebbeno troppo 
per arboro de la pin gran nave che vadi in mare. Ivi non nasce 
biada d'alcnna sorte, ma gli homini di quel paese dicono non viv- 
ere se non de j^escasone et caza de animali, de liquali el paese 
abonda, cioè cervi grandissimi, vestiti de longíssimo pelo, le 



62 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

pelle de liquali usano per veste, ne f anno case et barche ; et cusi 
lupi, volpe, tigri et zebellini. Afîernano esservi, che mi pare 
miraculo, tanti falcuni peregrini, quante passare sono nel nos- 
tro paese, et io ne ho veduti, et sono belletissimi. De gli homini 
et de le donne de questo locho, ne pigliarno circha da cinquanta 
per forza, et hannoli portati al Re, liquali io ho visti, tochi et 
contemplati, et cominciando alla loro grandeza, dico che sono al- 
quanto piu grandi del nostro naturale, corn membre corresponde- 
voie et ben formate. Li capilli de maschii sono longi, quanto 
noi altri usiamo, et pendeno con certe inhanelate volveture, et 
hanno il volto con gram signi segnato, et li segni sono como quel- 
li de li indiani ; gli occhi suoi tranno al verde da liquali quando 
guardano, dona un gram fireza a tutto il viso. La voce non se 
intende ma per cio in se non ha alcuna aspreza, anci piu presto 
è humana. La condictione et gesti loro son mansuetissimi : 
rideno assai e dimostrano summo piacerej et questo è quanto 
alli homini. La dona ha piceole poppe et belissimo corpo, et 
lien un viso assai gentilesco, il coloro de lequale piu presto se 
puo dire biancho cha altro, ma il maschio è assai piu negro. In 
summa, salvo che la terribile guardadura de l'homo, in ogni altra 
cosa mi pareno equali alla imagine et similitudine nostra. Da 
ogni parte sono nudi, salvo che le membre vergognose, che con 
una pelle de sopra dicti cervi se tengan coperti. Non hanno 
arme, ne ferro niuno, ma cio che lavorano et cio che f anno,fanno 
con durissime piètre aguze, con lequale non è cosa si dura che 
non taglino. Questo naviglio è venuto di la a qua in un mese, 
et dicono esservi 2800 milia de distantia. L'altro compagno ha 
deliberate andar tanto per quella costa che vole intendere sé, 
quella è insula o pur terra ferma'. Et cusi il Re con molto de- 
siderio et quello et altri aspecta, liquali venuti che siano, et port- 
ando cosa digna de Vostra Excellentia, subito ne daro notitia a- 
■ quella < 

Me racommando a Vostra Excellentia, 

Illustrissimi et Excellentissimi Ducis D. V. 

Servitor ALBERTUS CANTIKUS ss. 

Lisbone die xbii octobris 1501. 

[Endorsed] Illustrissimo Principi et Excellentissimo 
Domino, Domino Herculi Estensi, Duci Eerrarië, 

dignissimo ac domino meo singlarissimo, 

Eerrarië. 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 63 



From the Archivio di Stato at Modena, Dispacci della Spag- 
na, at the date: original: printed in Harrisse, Jean et Sébas- 
tien Cabot, 262-4;' idem., Les Coste-Real, 204-9; and reprinted 
from the former work in the Archivo dos Açores, IV 424-3. 



XXIIa. 

Most Illustrions and most Excellent Prince, my very singu- 
lar good Lord: 

Nine months have now passed since this most serene mon- 
arch 1 sent to the northern parts two well-equipped ships, for the 
sole purpose of finding out if it were possible to discover in that 
region any lands or islands. Now on the eleventh of the pre- 
sent month one of them has arrived safe and with some booty; 
and has brought people and news, which it appeared to me 
ought not to pass without your Excellency's hearing thereof; 
and thus I have set down here below clearly and exactly all that 
in my presence was told the king by the captain. Eirst of all they 
relate that after setting sail as they did from the port of Lis- 
bon, they made their w r ay for four months continuously, always 
in the same direction and towards the same pole, and never in 
all that time did they see anything at all. Nevertheless in the 
fifth month, still wishing to push on, they say that they met 
huge masses of solid snow floating upon the sea and moving 
under the influence of the waves, from the summit of which 
by the force of the sun's rays a clear stream of sweet water was 
melted and once dissolved ran down in little channels made by 
itself, eating its way splashingly to the base. Since the ships 
now lacked fresh water, the boats approached and took as much 
as was then needed. Fearing to remain in that region by rea- 
son of this present danger, they wished to turn back, but yet, 
spurred by hope, decided to go forward as best they could for a 
few days more, and having got under way, on the second day 
they again discovered the sea to be frozen, and were 
forced to give up the undertaking. They then began to turn 
towards the north-west and the west, in which direction they 
made their way for three more months, always with favourable 
weather. And on the first day of the fourth month they caught 
sight between these tw T o courses of a very large country which 



1 Le roi Emmamnuel I. 



(54 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

they approached with very great delight. And since throughout 
this region numerous large rivers flowed into the sea, by one of 
these they made their way about a league inland, where on 
landing they found abundance of most luscious and varied 
fruits, and trees and pines of such measureless height and girth, 
that they would be too big as a mast for the largest ship that 
sails the sea. No corn of any sort grows there, but the men of that 
country say they live altogether by fishing and hunting animals, 
in which the land abounds, such as very large deer, covered Avith 
extremely long hair, the skins of which they use for garments 
and also make houses and boats thereof, and again wolves, foxes, 
tigers and sables. They [the explorers] affirm that there are, 
what appears to me wonderful, as many falcons as there are 
sparrows in our country, and I have seen some of them and they 
are extremely pretty. They forcibly kidnapped about fifty 
men and women of this country and have brought them to the 
king. I have seen, touched and examined these people, and be- 
ginning with their stature, declare that they are somewhat 
taller than our average, with members corresponding and well- 
formed. The hair of the men is long, just as Ave wear ours, 
and they wear it in curls, and have their faces marked with 
great signs, and these signs are like those of the [East] Indians. 
Their eyes are greenish and Avhen they look at one, this gives an 
air of great boldness to their Avhole countenance. Their speech 
is unintelligible, but nevertheless is not harsh but rather human. 
Their manners and gestures are most gentle; they laugh con- 
siderably and manifest the greatest pleasure. So much for the 
men. The Avomen have small breasts and most beautiful bodies, 
and rather pleasant faces. The colour of these Avomen may be 
said to bo more white than otherAvise, but the men are consider- 
ably darker. In fine, except for the terribly harsh look of the 
men, they appear to me to be in all else of the same form and 
image as ourselves. They go quite naked except for their privy 
parts, Avhich they cover with a skin of the above-mentioned deer. 
They have no arms nor iron, but Avhatever they work or fashion, 
they cut with very hard sharp stones, with which they split in 
two the very hardest substances. This vessel came home thence 
in one month and they say the distance is 2800 miles. The 
other consort decided to make her way far enough along that 
coast to be able to learn Avhether it is an island or yet mainland. 
And thus the king aAvaits with great eagerness both that one 
and others, and when thev have arrived, should they bring 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 65 

anything worthy of your Excellency's consideration, I shall 

immediately send you word of the same 

My respects to your Excellency. 

Your most Illustrious and most Excellent 
Grace's servant, 

ALBEET CÁNTICO. 
Lisbon, 17 October, 1501. 

Also translated in Markham, op. cit., 232-4. A French 
translation will be found in Harrisse, Les Corte-Real, 55-7, 

XXIII. 

18 octobre 1501. 

LETTRE DE PIETRO PASQUALIGO À LA SEIGNEURIE DE VENISE. 

Copia di una lettera scrita in Portogallo a di 18 octubrio 
1501 : ricevuda a di 28 dezembrio 1501. 

A di 9 dil presente arivo qui una di doe caravelle quale 
Taimo passato la Maiestà del dito re mando a discoprir terra 
verso le parte de tramontana, et ha conduto 7 tra homeni et 
femene et puti de terra per quella discoperta. Erra maistro et 
ponente lontan di qui miglia 1800. Questi homeni de aspeto, 
figura et statura somigliano cingani ; hanno signada la f aza in 
diversi logi, chi de piu, chi de mancho segni, vestidi di pelle de 
diversi animali, ma precipite di lodre. El parlar suo è penitus 
alieno da ogni altro che fin horra se sia senito in questo regno, 
nè vien inteso da persona alguna. Sonno benissimo diposti ne 
li membri loro, et hanno faze mansuetissime, ma modi et gesti 
bestialissimi et come de homeni silvestri. Credeno questi di la 
caravella la soprascrita terra esser terra ferma, et conjungerse 
con altra terra, laquai l'anno passato soto la tramontana fu dis- 
coperta da l'altre caravele de questa Maiestà. Licet non potes- 
seno arrivar a quella per esser el mar li agiazato con grandissima 
quantità di neve in modo che monti. Qual terra etiam credeno 
conjungerse con le Andilie, che furonó discoperte per li Reali di 
Spagna, et con la terra dei papaga, noviter travata per le nave 
di questo re che andorono in Calicut. El creder questo se rao- 
veno, prima, perche havendo corsa la costa de dita terra per 
spazio de 600 et piu miglia, non hanno trovato fin alguno; poi, 
perche diceno haver tróvate molte fiumare grosissime, che li 

29837— 5 



G (5 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

meteno in mare. Expetasse di zorno in zorno l'altra caravella 
capetania, da laquai distinctamente se intendera la qualità et 
condition ch'è la sopradita terra, per esser andata piu avanti, 
scorendo per quella costa, per discoprir quanto piu potra di 
quella. De questa nova, questa regia Maiestà ha auto gran 
picaer, perche li par che questa terra sera molto a proposito di 
le cose sue, per piu respeti, ma precipue perche essendo molto 
vicina a questo regno facilmente et in pocho tempo potra haver 
grandissima copia di legnami per fabrication di arbori et antene 
di nave, et homeni schiavi assai, da ogni faticha, imperho che 
dicono quella terra esser populatissima et piena di pini et altri 
legni optimi ; et tanto ha piacuto dita nova a sua Maiestà che li 
ha fato venir volontà de mandar navilii iterum a dito locho, et 
acrescer la nota sua per India, per conquistar piu presto hormai 
cha per discoprir, perche li par che Dio sii con sua Maiestà ne 

le opere sue et mandi ad efïecto ogni suo desegno 

From the Biblioteca nazionale di S. Marco at Venice, MSS. 
Italiani, Cl. 7, No. 422, Diarii di Sanuto, volumen IV, fol. 93 
recto and verso : printed in Diarii di Marino Sanuto, IV, 
200-01, Venezia, 1880; Harrisse, Les Corte-Real, etc., 209-10; 
and in the Archivo dos Açores, IV, 587-8 (from Harrisse). 

XXIIIa. 

Copy of a letter written in Portugal on 18 October, 1501 : 
received on 28 December, 1501. 

On the ninth of the present month arrived here one of two 
caravels which his said majesty 1 sent out last year to discover 
land in the northern parts, and it has brought back seven natives, 
men, women and children, from the land discovered. It was 
towards the north and west, 1800 miles away. These men in 
aspect, appearance and stature resemble gypsies : they have 
their faces marked here and there, some with many, others with 
few signs, [and are] clothed in the skins of divers animals, but 
chiefly of otter. Their speech is utterly different from any 
hitherto heard in this kingdom; nor does any one understand 
it. They are exceedingly well-formed in their limbs, and have 
most gentle countenances, but most bestial habits and manners, 
like wild men. The crew of this caravel believes that the above- 
mentioned land is mainland, and that it ioins another land 
which was discovered last year in the north by other caravels 
belonging to this king. It seems they could not land in that 

1 Le roi Emmanuel I. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 67 

country as the sea there was frozen over with great masses of 
snow, like mountains. They are also of opinion that this land 
is connected with the Antilles 1 , which were discovered by the 
sovereign of Spain, and with the land of the Parrots 2 recently 
found by this king's vessel on their way to Calicut. To this 
belief they are moved in the first place, because after ranging the 
coast of said land for the space of 600 miles and more, they did 
not find it come to an end ; next, because they say they have dis- 
covered many exceedingly large rivers which there enter the sea. 
The other caravel, the captain's, is expected from day to day, and 
from it will be learned positively the nature and condition of 
the above-mentioned land, because she set off to range that 
coast further, in order to discover as much of it as possible. 
This news has given the king here great pleasure, since it seems 
to him that this country will be most useful to his plans in 
several respects, but chiefly because being very near to his king- 
dom, he will be able to secure without difficulty and in a short 
time a very large quantity of timber for making masts and' 
ships' yards, and plenty of men-slaves, fit for every kind of 
labour, inasmuch as they say that this land is very well popu- 
lated and full of pines and other excellent woods. And said 
news has so pleased his majesty that it has made him desirous 
of sending ships again to said region, and of increasing his 
fleet for India, in order to conquer more quickly, now that he 
has discoveries in view ; because it seems to him that God is 
with his majesty in his labours and brings every plan of his to 
fulfilment 

Also translated in Markham, op. cit., 236-8. * 

XXIV. 

15 Janvier 1502. 

RATIFICATION DE LA CONCESSION DE TERRES FAITE PAR GASPAR 
CORTE REAL À SON FRERE MICHEL. 

Dom Manuell, etc. A quamtos esta nosa carta virem, faze- 
mos saber, que Miguell Corte Keall, fidallguo de nossa cassa, e 
nosso porteiro moor, nos disse ora, que vemdo elle como Gaspar 
Corte Keall, seu irmaao, avia dias que partira desta cidade com 

1 Les Indes Occidentales. 

2 Le Brésil. 

29837— h\ 



68 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

tres navy os a descobrir terra nova, de quail ja tinha achada 
parte delia, e como depois de passado tempo vieram dous dos 
ditos navyos aa dita cidade, averiam cinquo messes, e elle nam 
vinha, que elle o queria hyr buscar; e que por quamto elle dito 
Miguell Corte Reall tinha feito muyto gasto e despesa de sua 
f azemda no dito descobrimento, asy nos ditos navyos que ho dito 
seu irmaão pera ella armou per a primeira vez que a dita terra 
achou, e asy desta segumda que ora f oy como com elle ; pelo que 
o dito Gaspar Corte Reall, avenido respeito a isso, lhe prometera 
de partir com elle da dita terra que asy descobrisse asy e na 
maneira que a elle tinhamos outorgada e dada per nosa doaçam, 
da quall coussa o dito Gaspar Corte Reall nos pedio amte de sua 
partida, que lhe mandássemos disso dar 4 hûu nosso alvará, o 
quall lhe demos a seu requerimento, pelo quall nos prouve, que 
toda a terra que lhe elle asy desse e demarcasse fosse sua, asy 
como a elle de nos tinha, e em sua carta era contheudo ; e ora o 
dito Miguell Corte Reall nos pedio que pera sua seguramça o de- 
crarassemos asy e outorgássemos per esta nosa carta, pello quall, 
de nosso moto próprio, certa ciencia, livre vomtade, poder Reall 
e aussoluto nos praz, que de toda a terra firme ou Ilhas que ho 
dito Gaspar Corte Reall atee ora tem achadas, ou descobrir 
daquella parte, que elle denomear e demarcar ao dito Miguel 
Corte Reall por sua, lhe fazemos delia doaçam e merçee, pera 
todo ssempre, como de fecto per esta fazemos, asy e tam cunpri- 
damente, e com aquellas clausuallas e comdiçõoes, direitos, jurdi- 
çam, capitanyas e c°ussas outras comtheudas na doaçam de 
dito Gaspar Corte Reall. 

Outrosy nos praz, avemdo nos isso mesmo respeito ao que 
dito he, e asy aos muytos serviços que temos recebidos, e ao 
diamte esperamos receber do dito Miguel Corte Reall, que 
seemdo casso que elle nom ache o dito sseu irmaão, ou semdo 
falecido, o que Deos nam mande, queremos e nos praz, que toda 
a terra firme e Ilhas que elle per si novamente neste anno de 
quinhemtos e dous descobrir e achar, alem da que o cfito seu 
irmaão tever achada, elle a aja pera sy, e lhe fazemos delia doa- 
çam e merçee, com aquellas jurdicõoes, direitos, capitanyas, 
clausullas, comdiçoões e coussas outras comtheudas e decraradas 
na dita doaçam do dito seu irmaõo, e por firmeza de todo lhe 
mandamos dar esta carta per nos asinada, e sellada do nosso sello 
pendemte. Dada em Lixboa a xb dias de janeiro. Gaspar Rod- 
riguez a fez, anno de nosso Senhor Jhíiu X o de mill e b c e dous 
daquelas terras ou Ilhas que ho dito sseu 1 irmaão asy tever 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 69 

achadas e descobertas, nom lhe fazemos doaçam, ssoomente da- 
quellas que lhe asy nomear como dito he. 

From the Torre do Tombo, liv. IV of Dom Manoel, fol. 
3 V : printed in F. Kunstmann, Die Entdeckung Amerikas, 
etc., 93-4, note 120, Munich, 1859 ; Harrisse, Les Corte-Real, 
214-5 ; the Archivo dos Açores, IV, 508-9 ; and in Alguns Docu- 
mentos, etc., 131-2. 



XXIVa. 

King Emmanuel, etc. To as many as shall see these letters 
of ours, we make known, that Michael Corte Real, a nobleman 
of our court, and our major-domo, has now informed us that, 
forasmuch as his brother Gaspar Corte Real some time ago set 
forth from this city with three ships to discover the new land, 
of which he had already explored a part, and that about five 
months since two of the said ships arrived in the said city, but 
he [Gaspar] did not return, he [Michael] is desirous of going 
in search of him [Gaspar] ; and that inasmuch as he, the said 
Michael Corte Real, has already spent a considerable sum in 
money and goods in the said expedition, as well in fitting out 
the said ships the first time his said brother discovered the said 
land, as in this second attempt in which he [Michael] accom- 
panied him, on which account the said Gaspar Corte Real, hav- 
ing regard thereto, promised to share with him [Michael] the 
said land he should thus discover, in the same manner in which 
we by our letters granted and made it over to him [Gaspar], 
of which concession the said Gaspar Corte Real asked us before 
his departure to give him our letters patent, which at his re- 
quest we granted, by which it was our pleasure that all the land 
he should give and set apart for him [Michael], should be his, 
in the same manner that he [Gaspar] heuld from us, and was set 
forth in his letters patent ; and now the said Michael Corte 
Real has asked us for his safeguard to state this and to grant 
the same by these letters of ours, by which, of our own motion, 
certain knowledge, free will, royal and absolute power, it is our 
pleasure, that whatever portion of the mainland or islands 
hitherto found or discovered in that region by the said Gaspar 
Corte Real, which he has assigned and set apart for the said 
Michael Corte Real, be granted and made over to him for ever, 
as indeed by this grant we now make them over, in the same 
manner and as 'fully and with those clauses and conditions, 



70 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

rights, jurisdiction, governorships and other matters that are set 
out in the grant to the said Gaspar Corte Real. 

Furthermore it is our pleasure having this same regard to 
what is stated, and also to the many services we have received 
and hope in the future to receive from the said Michael Corte 
Real, that should he not find his said brother [Gaspar], or 
should he be dead, which God forbid, we desire and it is our 
pleasure, that he have for himself, and we give and grant him, 
all the mainland and islands which he in this year 1502 may 
discover and find afresh, in addition to what his brother has 
found, with those jurisdictions, rights, governorships, clauses, 
conditions and other matters contained and set forth in the said 
letters patent to his said brother; and in witness thereof we 
order these our letters, signed and sealed by us with our hang- 
ing seal, to be given to him. Given in Lisbon on 15 January. 
Gaspar Rodriguez made this in the year of our Lord Jesus 
Christ 1502. 

And we do not grant him those lands or islands which his 
said brother has found and discovered, but only those we have 
named as alreadv stated. 



XXV. 

9 décembre, 1502. 

LETTRES PATENTES ACCORDEES À HUGH ELIOT ET THOMAS 

ASHURST DE BRISTOL, AINSI Qu'A JOHN GONZALES 

ET FRANCIS FERNANDEZ DES ACORES. 

De licencia inquirendi terrain ignotam. 

Rex, universis et singulis ad quos presentes litere pervener- 
int, Salutem: ISTotum sit vobis et manifestum quod, ex certis 
consideracionibus nos moventibus, de advisa-mento consilii nos- 
tri, concessimus et licenciam dedimus, prout per presentes coii- 
cedimus et licenciam damus, pro nobis et heredibus nostris, 
quantum in nobis est, dilectïs subditis nostris, Hugoni Elyot et 
Thome Asshehurste, mercatoribus ville nostre Bristollie, ac 
dilectis nobis, Johanni Gunsalus et ffrancisco ffarnandus, Armi- 
geris, in Insulis de Surrys [sic pro Açoribus] sub obediencia 
Regis Portugalie oriundis, et eorum cuilibet, ac cuiuslibet 
eorum heredibus, attornatis, factoribus seu deputatis, ac eis et 
eorum cuilibet, plenam et liberam auctoritatem, facultatem et 
potestatem committimus, navigandi et se transferendi ad omnes 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 71 

prates, regiones et tines maris orientalis, occidentalis, australis, 
Jiorialis et septemtrionalis sub Jianneris et insigniis nostris, 
cum tot et tantis et talibus navibus sive batellis, quot sibi pla- 
cuerint et necessarie fuerint, cuiuscumque portagii quilibet 
navis sive batella exstiterit, cum Magistris, Contromagistris, 
Marinariis, Pagettis, aliisque liominubus pro gubernacione, 
salva custodia et defensione navium et batellarum predictarum 
competentibus, requisitis et necessariis, ad custus et onera dicti 
Hguonis et aliorum predictorum, et pro huiusmodi salariis, 
vadiis et stipendiis, prout inter eos poterunt concordare, ad in- 
veniendum, recuperandum, discooperiendum et investigandum 
insulas, patrias, regiones sive provincias quaseumque gentilium 
et infidelium, in quacumque mundi parte positas, ac huiusmodi 
Eanneras et Insignia nostra in quacumque Villa, Opido (sic), 
Castro, Insula seu terra firma, a se sic nov'iter inventis, affigendi, 
ipsaque Villas, Oppida, Castra, Insulas et terras firmas pro 
nobis et nomine nostro intrandi et capiendi, et ea tanquam vas- 
alli nostri, ac Gubernatores, locateneutes et deputati nostri, eor- 
nndem domino, titulo, dignitate et preeminencia eorundem nobis 
semper reservatis, occupandi, possidendi et subiugandi. Pro- 
viso semper quod de terris, patriis, regio nigus sive provinciis 
gentilium aut infidelium per subditos carissimi fratris et con- 
sanguinei nostri Portugalie Regis, seu aliorum quorumeumque 
Principum, amicorum et confederatorum nostrorum prins 
repartis, et in qua rum possessione ipsi Principes jam existunt, 
se nullo modo impediant aut intromittant. Et insuper quando- 
cumque imposterum huiusmodi insuie, patrie, terre et provincie 
per prefatos Hugonem et alios nominatos adepte, recuperate et 
invente fuerint, tune volumus per presentes quod omnes et 
singule tam viri quam femine huius regni nostri ceterique sub- 
diti nostri, terras et Insulas huiusmodi sic noviter inventas 
visitare, et in eisdem inhabitare cupientes et desiderantes. pos- 
sint et valeant, licite et impune, ad ipsas patrias, insulas et loca 
cum eorum navibus, hominibus et servientibus, rebus et bonis 
suis universis transiré, et in eisedem sub protecciont et regimine 
dictorum Hugonis et aliorum prenominatorum morari et in- 
habitare, diviciasque fructus et emolumenta terrarum, patri- 
arum et locorum predictorum adquirere et obtinere. 

Dantes insuper et concedentes prefatis Hugoni, Thome, 
Johanni et ffrancisco et eorum cuilibet plenam, tenore nresen- 
cium, potestatem et auctoritatem omnes et sin^ulos himines. 
marinarios ceterasque personas, ad ínsulas, patrias, provincias, 
terras firmas et loca predicta, ex causa predicta, se divertentes et 



72 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

confluentes, tam in comitiva dictorum Hugoriis et aliorum pre- 
nominatorum quam in comitiva aliorum illuc imposterum re- 
cursum habere contingencium, tam supra mare quam in singu- 
lis patriis, terris firmis et locis huiusmodi, postquam inventa et 
recuperata fuerint, regendi et gubernandi, legesque ordina- 
ciones, statuta et proclamaciones pro bono et quiete regimine et 
gubernacione dictorum hominum, magistrorum, marinariorum 
et aliarum personarum predictarum faciendi, stabiliendi, ordi- 
nandi et constituendi et superinde proclamaciones faciendi, ac 
omnes et singulos quos in hac parte contrarios et rebelles ac 
legibus, statutis et ordinacionibus predictis inobedientes inven- 
erint ,ac omnes illos qui fur turn, homicidia seu rapinas com- 
miserint et perpetraverint, aut aliquas mulieres insularum seu 
patriarum predictarum contra earum voluntatem aut aliter 
rapuerint et violaverint, juxta leges et statua per ipsos in hac 
parte ordinata castigandi et puniendi. 

Ac eciam concessimus prefat'is Hugoni, Thome, Johanni 
et fïrancisco, heredibus et assignatis suis, quod postquam 
alique Insuie, patrie, terre firme, regio seu provincia im- 
posterum per ipsum Hugonem et alios prenominatos in- 
venta fuerint, tune non licebit alicui seu aliquibus sub- 
dito seu subditis nostris, durante termino quadraginta 
annorum proximo et immediate sequencium, ad ipsas villas, 
patrias, insulas, terras firmas et loca, causa mercandisandi 
ac bona acquirend'i, absque licencia nostra regia et dictorum 
Hugonis et aliorum prenominatorum, heredum et assignatorum 
suorum, cum suis navibus frequentare, aut se divertere, aut in 
eadem ingredi, seu in eisdem pro aliquibus bonis acquirendis 
intromittere. Et post terminum dictorum quadraginta annor- 
um, quod nullus ex nostris subditis ad aliquam terram firmam. 
Insulam, patriam seu locum per ipsos Hugonem et Thomam et 
alios predictos sic noviter inventum, navigare et frequentare 
présumât, absque licencia nostra predicta et dictorum Hugonis 
et ceterorum predictorum, sub pena amissionis et forisfacture 
omnium bonorum et mercandisarum, rerum et navium quorum- 
cumque ad ea loca sic noviter inventa navigare et in eadem 
in^redi presumencium, videlicet, una medietas inde erit ad 
opus nostrum, et alia medietas ad opus dictorum Hugonis et 
aliorum prenominatorum et heredum suorum. 

Et ulterius ex habundanti gratia nostra concessimus et per 
presentes concedimus pro nobis et heredibus nostris, quantum in 
nobis est, prefatis Hugoni, Thome, Johanni et ffrancisco et 
eorum cuilibet, heredibus et assignatis suis, quod ipsi et eorum 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 73 



quilibet mercandisas, mercimonia, aurum et argentum in massa, 
lapides preciosos et alia bona quecumque de crescencia patria- 
rum, Insularum et locorum predictorum per ipsos sic recuper- 
andorum et inveniendorum, tam in dictis navibus et batellis, 
quam aliis quibnscumqne navibus exteris a dictis patriis, 
Insulis, terris firmis et locis in hoc regnum nostrum Anglie ad 
quemcumque portum seu alium locum eiusdem adducere et cari- 
are, et adduci seu cariari faceré possit et valeat, eaque venderé et 
distribuere ad eorum proficuum et avantagium, aliquo statuto, 
actu, ordinacione seu provisione inde in contrarium facta sive 
ordinata non obstante. 

Ac nos intime considerantes grandia custus et onera que 
circa premissa facienda et perimplenda requiruntur, volentes 
igitur prefatis Hugoni, Thome et aliis memoratis personis 
gratiam proinde faceré specialem, concessimus, prout per pre- 
sentes concedimus eisdem, heredibus et assignatis suis, quod 
ipsi et eorum quilibet heredes et assignati sui predicti, de tem- 
pore in tempus, durante termino quinqué annorum a tempore 
recuperacionis et invencionis insularum et patriarum predicta- 
rum proximi et immediate sequencium, mercandisas, merci- 
monia ceteraque bona in una navi tantum cuiscumque portagii 
fuerit eskippata et onustata, ac in hoc regnum nostrum Anglie 
adducenda et transportanda, in portu seu loco predicto ad ter- 
rain poneré, eaque venderé, exponere, et pro libito suo distri- 
buere possint, de tempore in tempus, quolibet viagio, durante 
termino dictorum quinqué annorum absque aliquibus customis, 
subsidiis seu aliis deveriis pro eisdem bonis, mercimoniis et 
ceteris premissis in dicta unica navi tantum contentis et esldp- 
patis nobis aut heredibus nostris infra dictum regnum nostrum 
Anglie aliqualiter solvendis. Proviso tamen quod nobis de cus- 
tumis, subsidiis, pondagiis et aliis donariis nobis pro ceteris 
mercandisis, mercimoniis et bonis in omnibus aliis navibus con- 
tentis, juxta consuetudinem in hoc regno nostro Anglie hactenus 
usitatem, fidelitur respondeatur, ut est justum. 

Et insuper volumus et concedimus per presentes, quod qui- 
libet Capitalis Magister, Contromagister et Marinarius cuins- 
libet navis ad aliquam terram firmam, Insulam, patriam, pro- 
viuciam et locum predictos frequentatis et navigantis, habe- 
aut, a'audeaut et percipiant de bonis et mercimoniis a dictis 
Tnsulis, terris firmis et patriis in hoc re<rnum Anglie adducen- 
dis 1 , custumas et subsidia sequencia' videlicet: quod quilibet 

1 On lit adducendos dans le manuscrit tandis que dans Rymer ce mot 
se trouve tel que ci-dessus. 



74 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Magister habeat, gaudeat et percipiat subsidia et custumas 
quolibet viagio quatuor doliorum, et quilibet Contromagister 
vel quarter magister custumas et subsidia duorum doliorum, ac 
quilibet marinarius custumas et subsidia unius dolii, licet sint 
carcata et eskippata ut bona sua propria, aut ut bona alicuius 
alterius persone cuiuscumque. Et hoc absque aliquibus sub- 
sidiis, custumis, debitis seu deveriis infra hoc regnum nostrum 
Anglie ad opus nostrum aut heredum nostrorum pro eisdem 
dolus aliqualiter solvendis seu petendis. 

Et si contingat aliquem vel aliquos mercatorem seu mer- 
catores huius regni nostri ad dietas Insulas, patrias et loca sub 
licencia dictorum subditorum nostrorum, aut absque licencia 
sua, causa habendi mercandisas vel mercimonia adven- 
tare, et laborare ad bona et mercimonia ab eisdem parti- 
bus in hoc regnum nostrum adducere, tune volumus et con- 
cedimus per presentes prefatis Hugoni, Thome, Johanni et 
fïrancisco et heredibus et assignatis suis, quod ipsi, durante ter- 
mino quadraginta annorum antedicto, habeant de quolibet huius- 
modi mercatore, solutis nobis custimis, subsidiis et aliis denariis 
nobis in hac parte debitis et consuetis, vicesimam partem om- 
nium huiusmodi bonorum et mercimoniorum per ipsos a dictis 
Insulis, patriis et locis, quolibet viagio, durante dicto termino 
quadraginta annorum in hoc regnum nostrum Anglie traducen- 
dorum et capiendorum ; habendam et capiendam huiusmodi vice- 
simam partem in portu ubi contigerit, dicta bona discarcari et 
exonerari. Proviso semper quod predictus Hugo et alii predicti, 
heredes et assignati sui, et non alii omnino imposterum, dicto 
termino quadraginta annorum durante, sint factores et attornati 
in dictis Insulis, terris firmis et patriis pro quibuscumque 
huiusmodi mercatoriis aliisque personis illuc ex causa predicta 
confluentibus, in et pro eorum factis mercatoriis in eisdem. 
Proviso eciam quod nulla navis cum bonis et mercandisis a dic- 
tis partibus sic noviter inventis carcata et onustata, postquam 
in aliquem portum huius regni nostri adducta fuerint (sic), 
non exoneretur de eisdem bonis et mercandisis, nisi in presencia 
prefatorum Hugonis et aliorum predictorum, eorumve here- 
dum seu deputatorum ad hoc assignandorum, sub pena foris- 
facutre eorundem bonorum et mercandisarum, unde una medi- 
etas ad opus nostrum et alia medietas prefatis Hugoni et aliis 
prenominatis et heredibus suis applicantur. 

Et si imposterum alfqiii extranei aut alie persone ad ipsas 
partes contra volnntatem ipsorum Hugonis et aliorum prenomi- 
natorum, causa habendi divicias, navigare, et ea vi et armis 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 75 

ingredi, ac dictos Hugonem et alios predictos, aut heredes suous 
ibidem insultare, ac eos expeliere et debellare, aut alias inquiet- 
are presumpserint, quod tune volumus ac eisdem subditis nos- 
tris, tenore presencium, potestatem damus et committimus, ipsos 
extráñeos, licet sint subditi et vasalli alicuius Principis nobis- 
cum in liga et amicicia existentis, totis suis viribus, tarn per 
terrain quam per mare et aquas dulces expugnandi, resistendi 
et guerram contra eos levandi et faciendi, eosque capiendi, sub- 
peditandi et incarcerandi ibidem, quousque fines et redemp- 
ciones eisdem subditis nostris facerint moraturos, aut alias 
secundum sanam discrecionem ipsorum subditorum nostrorum 
et heredum suorum castigandi et puniendi. 

Et eciam prefatis subditis nostris ceterisque personis pre- 
dictis plenam, tenore presencium, potestatem damus et committ-i 
mus, sub se quoscumque Capitaneos, locatenentes et deputa- 
tos in singulis Civitatibus, Villis, Oppidis et locis dictarum 
Insularam, provinciarum, patriarum et locorum predictorum, 
ad regendum et gubernandum omnes et singulas personas in 
eisdem partibus, sub regimine et gubernacione dictorum sub- 
ditorum nostrorum ibidem commorancium, ac ad justiciam 
eisdem, secundum tenorem et effectum ordinacionum, statut- 
orum et proclamacionum predictorum debite exequendam et 
administrandam, per literas suas patentes, sigillis eorum sigill- 
andas faciendi, constituendi, nominandi et substituendi. 

Et insuper concessimus et per presentes concedimus prefatis 
Hugoni, Thome, Johanni et ^Francisco ad terminum vite sue, et 
cuiuslibet eorum diucius viventis, olficium Admiralli supra 
mare in quibuseumque locis, patriis et provinciis a se sic noviter 
inventis, et imposterum inveniendis et recuperandis ; ipsosque 
Hugonem, Thomam, Johannem et fTranciscum et eorum quem- 
libte, coniunctim et divisim, Admirallos nostros in eisdem parti- 
bus facimus, constituimus, ordinamus et deputamus per pre- 
sentes, dantes et concedentes eisdem et eorum cuilibet plenam, 
tenore presencium, potestatem et auctoritatem ea omnia et 
singula que ad officium Admirallitatis pertinent, faciendi, 
exercendi et exequendi, secundum legem et consuetudinem 
maritimam in hoc regno nostro Anglie usitatam. 

Ac eciam postquam prefati Hugo, Thomas, Johannes et 
■ffranciscus aliquas terras firmas, Insulas, patrias et provincias, 
Oppida, Castra, Civitates et Villas per assistenciam nostram 
sic invenerint, optinuerint et subiugaverint, tune volumus et 
per presentes concedimus eisdem, heredibus et assignatis suis, 
quod ipsi et heredes sui habeant, teneant et possideant sibi, 



76 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

heredibus et assignâtes suis, omnia et singula, talia et tanta ter- 
ras firmas, ínsulas, patrias, provincias, Castra, Oppida, fortalia, 
Civitates et Villas, qualia et quanta ipsi ac homines, tenentes 
et servientes sui, possunt inhabitare, custodire, sustinere et 
manutenere, habenda et tenenda eadem terras, ínsulas et loca 
predicta sibi, heredibus et assignatis suis, et cuiuslibet eorum, de 
nobis et heredibus nostris imperpetuum per fidelitatem tantum, 
absque aliquo compoto, seu aliquo alio nobis aut heredibus nos- 
tris proinde reddendo seu faciendo ; dignitate, dominio, regali- 
tate, jurisdiccione et preeminencia in eisdem nobis semper salvis 
et omnino reservatis. 

Et ulterius concessimus prefatis Hugoni, Thome, Johanni 
et ffrancisco quod ipsi, heredes et assignati sui predicti, dictas 
terras firmas, ínsulas et patrias, ipsis et heredibus suis predictis, 
ut premittitur sic concessas 1 , postquam invente et recuperate 
sint, ac cum in plena possesione earundem fuerint, gaudeant, 
teneant et possideant libere, quiete, pacifiée absque impedimento 
aliquali nostri aut heredum nostrorum quorumcumque. Et 
quod nullus ex subditis nostris eos aut eorum aliquem de et 
super possessione et titulo suis de et in dictis terris firmis, 
Insulis et patriis se aliqualiter contra voluntatem suam expellat 
quovis modo. Promittentes bona fide et in verbo regio nos 
ratum, gratum et firmum habituros totem et quicquid prefati 
Hugo, Thomas, Johannes et fïranciscus et eorum quilibet pro 
premissorum complemento fecerint, fierique procuraverint in 
hac parte. Et quod nos aut heredes nostri nullo unquam tem- 
pore infuturum ipsos aut eorum aliquem, heredesve et assignatos 
suos, in jure, titulo et possessione suis inquietabimus, impedi- 
emus aut molestiam eis faciemus, nee per alios nostros subditos 
aut alios quoscumque, quantum in nobis fuerit, fieri seu pro- 
curan permittimus seu procurabimus ; nec ipsos, heredes et 
assignatos suos, pro aliqua causa imposterum emergente seu con- 
tingente, ab eisdem terris firmis, patriis, provinciis et locis, nullo 
modo, amovehimus aut amoveri seu expelli per subditos nostros 
procurabimus. Proviso semper quod si contingat ipsos Hugo- 
nem, Thomam, Johannem et fYranciscum aut eorum aliquem, 
heredes seu assignatos suos, aut eorum aliquem, aliqua loca, 
ïusulas, terras, regiones, provincias et patrias imposterum 
reperire, investigare seu recuperare, que antehac ab aliis sub- 
ditis nostris, aut ab aliquibus heredibus et assignatis suorum, 
potestatem per alias literas nostras patentes sub magno sigillé 

1 Concessas dans le maunscrit, mais tel que ci-dessus dans Rymer. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 77 

1103 tro in ea parte a nobis habentibus, reperta, inventa, investi- 
gata et recuperata non fuerint, quod tune volumus et per pre- 
sentes concedimus, pro nobis et heredibus nostris, prefatis 
llugoni, Thome, J ohanni et fï raneisco, et eorem cuilibet, heredi- 
bus et assignatis suis, quod ipsi et eorum quilibet Insulas, 
patrias, provincias et alia loca predicta cum eorum navibus, 
hoininibus, servientibus et rebus suis quibuscumque ad libitum 
suum ingredi, tenere, exercere, pacifeque secure inhabitare, ac 
inhabitari faceré, et occupare absque contradiccione seu impedi- 
mento nostri aut heredum nostrorum vel aliquorum aliorum 
ligeorum nostrorum quorumeumque possint et valeant. Et 
quod nullus ex aliis nostris subditis ad aliquam Insulam, ter- 
rain, regionem, patriam et provinciam seu locum per ipsos 
Hugonem, Thomam, Johannem et ffranciscum sic noviter 
inventa navigare et frequentare aut in eadem ingredi, causa ac- 
quirendi seu habendi fruetus, meroes et mercimonia in eisdem 
crescencia présumât, absque licencia nostra regia et prefatorum 
Hugonis, Thome, Johannis et ffrancisci optinerent specialem, 
sub pena amissionis et forisfacture omnium bonorum, mercan- 
disarum, rerum et navium quorumeumque ad ea loca sic per 
ipsos noviter inventa navigare et in eadem ingredi presumen- 
cium ; videlicet, una medietas inde erit ad opus nostrum et alia 
medietas ad opus dictorum Hugonis, Thome, Johannis et ffran- 
cisci, heredum et assignatorum suorum. 

Et quamquam per alias literas nostras patentes de data 
decimi noni diei mensis maii 1 , anno regni nostri sextodecimo, 
concesserimus et commiserimus dilectis nobis Richardo Warde, 
Johanni Thomas et Johanni ffarnandus, ac prefatis llugoni 
Eliot, Thome Asshehurst, Johanni Gunsalus et ffrancisco ffar- 
nandus, heredibus, attornatis, factoribus seu deputatis suis, et 
eorum cuilihet, potestatem et facultatem navigandi ad omnes 
partes, regiones et fines maris, ad inveniendum et recuperandum 
et discooperiendum ínsulas, patrias et provincias memoratas, ac 
ad singula alia in eisdem uteris contenta et specificata, juxta 
tenorem et efîectum earundem exercendum et exequendum ; 
nolumus tamen quod iidem Richardus Warde, Johannes 
Thomas et Johannes fïarnandus nec eorum aliquis, heredes seu 
assignati sui, de aut in aliquibus patriis, Insulis, terris, locis 
seu provinciis imposterum de novo sub auctoritate et potestate 



1 II est évident qu'il s'agit du mot mardi dont l'abréviation ordinaire 
est mcii. Les noms correspondent à ceux que l'on rencontre dans le n° 
XX. p. ^1. sauf le noni de Hugh Ellott qui se trouve ici en plus. Impos- 
sible de découvrir de trace des lettres patentes du 19 mai 1501. 



78 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

presencium literarum nostrarum inveniendis^ recuperaudis et 
discooperiendis, nisi primitus a prefatis liugone, Thomâ Asshe- 
hurste, Johanne Gunsalus et lïrancisco licenciam optinuerint, 
aliqualiter se intromittant, nee eorum aliquis se intromittat. 

Et quod in casu quo iidem Iiichardus Warde, Johannes 
Thomas et Johannes n'arnandus, aut eorum aliquis, seu heredes 
aut assignati sui, ad huiusmodi ínsulas, patrias, regiones et alia 
loca predicta, cum eorum navibus et rebus, pro bonis in eisdem 
Insulis, patriis et aliis locis predictis acquirendis se divertere, 
aut aliquem vel aliquos illuc mittere et destinare voluerint, 
decreverint et disposuerint, quod tunc ipsi et eorum quilibet 
omnia et omnímoda custus et onera cum prefatis Hugone, 
Thomâ Asshehurste, Johanne Gunsalus et Francisco circa 
huiusmodi viagium exponenda, videlicet, quilibet eorem juxta 
ratam porcionis sue, prout inter eis poterunt concordare, quo- 
scienscumque aliquod huiusmodi viagium incipient, et ab hoc 
regno nostro ad patrias et alia loca predicta acquirenda et re- 
cuperanda se divertent, de tempore in tempus solvere, dare et 
supportare tenebuntur. 

Et insuper cum inter cetera in prenotatis articulis expressa, 
concesserimus prefatis Hugoni, Thome Asshehurste, Johanni 
Gunsalus et ffrancisco, quod ipsi et eorum quilibet, heredes et 
assignati sui, unam navem, cuiuscumque portagii fuerit, cum 
cmnimodis bonis, mercandisis et mercimoniis de crescencia 
patriarum, Insularum, provinciarum, terrarum et locorum 
quorumcumque sepedictorum carcatam et onustam, in hoc 
regnum nostrum Anglie tociens quociens sibi placuerit, durante 
termino quinqué annorum, absque aliquibus custumis, subsidiis 
et aliis deveriis nobis pro eisdem sol vendis, conduce re et trans- 
portare, ac libitum suum inde faceré possint et valerent ; Nos 
jam animadvertentes laudabilem intencionem prefatorum 
Hugonis, Thome Asshehurst, Johannis Gunsalus et ffrancisci, 
quam ad honorem et utilitatem huius regni nostrique compla- 
cenciam hahent et gerunt, pensantesque eorum grandia custus 
et onera gravia, eciam pericula tarn person arum quam bonorum 
et rerum suorum quorumcumque, in tarn gravi, tempestuoso, 
poricnloso longoque maris negocio que veresimile sunt passuri, 
ex hahundanti gratia nostra coucessimus. et licenciam dedimus, 
pro nobis et heredibus nostris, prefatis Hugoni, Thome Asshe- 
hurste, Johanni Gunsalus et ffrancisco, et eorum cuilibet, heredi- 
bus et assignatis suis, et eorum cuiuslibet, quod ipsi et eorum 
quilibet unam aliam navem, portagii centum et viginti doliorum, 
cum bonis, rebus, jocalibus, auro et argento, ceterisque mercan- 



PRECURSEURS 1>E CARTIER 79 



disis et mercimoniiSj de crescencia patriarum, Insularam, pro- 
vinciarum et aliorum locorum per ipsos sic imposterum noviter 
recuperandum, carcatain et onustam, in hoc regnum , jurisdic- 
ciones et territoria nostra quecumque, tociens quociens sibi pla- 
euerit, durante termino quinqué annorum a tempore recuper- 
acionis Insularum et patriarum predictarum, proximo et imme- 
diate sequencium, conducere et transportare ibidemque discar- 
care, ac de bonis, rebus, mercandisis, jocalibus, ceterisque pre- 
missis, libitum suum faceré possint et valeant, et eorum heredes 
et assignati possint et valeant, et eorum quilibet possit et valeat, 
licite et impune, absque aliquibus custumis, subsidiis seu aliis 
denariis, nobis pro eisdem aut aliqua eorundem parcella nobis 
aliqualiter solvendis; Et absque aliquo impedimento, impeti- 
( ioue, contradiccione, molestacione seu gravamine quocumque 
nostri aut ofíiciariorum seu ministrorum nostrorum quorum- 
cumque. 

Et ulterius cum inter cetera in literis nostris patentibus, 
quarum data est apud Westmonasterium dicto decimo nono die 
maii [sic pro marcii], anno regni nostri sextodecimo, contenta 
et specificata, certis consideracionibus [nos] 1 moventibus, con- 
cesserimus prefatis Johanni Gunsalus et fïrancisco, quod essent 
imperpetuum indigene et ligei nostri et heredum nostrorum, et 
in omnibus causis, querelis, rebus et materiis quibuscumque 
haberentur, pertractarentur, reputarentur et gubernarentur, 
tanquam veri et fidèles ligei nostri infra regnum nostrum 
Anglie oriundi, et non aliter nee alio modo; Quodque iidem 
Johannes Gunsalus et fïranciscus et omnes liberi siri solverent 
aut solvi facerent, et eorum quilibet solveret aut solvi faceret, 
talia custamas, subsidia et alia deveria pro, bonis, mercibus, 
mercandisis et mercimoniis suis in regnum nostrum Anglie 
adducendis, vel extra idem regnum nostrum Anglie educendis, 
qualia alienigene nobis solvant, aut solvere debent vel consue- 
verunt ; Et quod iidem Johannes Gunsalus et ffranciscus sol- 
verent, et eorum alter solveret, nobis et heredibus nostris tot et 
trinta custumas. subsidia et alia deveria pro nobis et mercan- 
disis suis prout alieniírene nobis solvere et reddere tenerentur: 
"Nos tamen, ob certas causas nos jam moventes, prefatos 
Johfmnem Gunsalus et ffranciscum ad custumas et subsidia 
nobis pro eorum bonis, mercandisis et mercimoniis sicuti alieni- 
peno solvenda nolentes, ut predictum est, onerari, set eis et 
cornrn utrique írratiam faceré uberiorem, de grafia nostra spe- 
o\oM dodimns et conco^simus, ac licenciam damns et coneedimus 

1 Mot omis dans le manuscrit mais qui se trouve dans Eymer. 



80 „ ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

per presentes pro nobis et heredibus nostris prefatis Johanni 
Gunsalus et fl'rancisco, quod ipsi et eorum alter, heredes sui aut 
heredes eorum alterius, talia custumas, subsidia et alia deveria 
pro bonis, inercibus, mereandisis et mercimoniis suis quibus- 
cumque in regnum nostrum Anglie adducendisve extra idem 
regnum educendis, qualia alia (sic) ligei nostri infra regnum 
nostrum Anglie oriundi nobis solvant aut solvere deberent et 
consueverunt, dictis Uteris nostris in contrarium inde f actis non 
obstantibus. Proviso sember quod nee predicti Johannes Gun- 
salus aut ffranciscus sub colore aut velamento huius nostri 
indulti seu privilegii aliorum bona sub eorum nominibus tan- 
quam propria in regnum nostrum introducant, sub pena confis- 
cacionis bonorum sic introductorum, et amissionis privilegii nos- 
tri predicti : eo quod expressa meneio de vero valore annuo pre- 
missorum aut de alus donis sive concessionibus per nos eisdem 
Hugoni Elyot, Thome Aysshehurste, Johanni Gunsalus et 
francisco, ante hec témpora factis, in presentibus minime facta 
existit; aut aliquibus statutis, actubus sive ordinacionibus aut 
restriccionibus inde in contrarium factis, editis, ordinatis sive 
provisis aut aliquâ alia re, causa vel materia quacumque in 
aliquo non obstantibus. 

Et ulterius ex uberiori gratia nostra concessimus prefatis 
Hugoni, Thome Asshehurste, Johanni Gunsalus et ffrancisco, 
quod ipsi habeant presentes literas nostras in Cancellaria nostra 
absque aliquo fine seu feodo aut aliquibus finibus seu feodis pro 
eisdem Uteris nostris aut aliquâ parte eorundem (sic) aut pro 
magno sigillo nostro ad opus nostrum in hanaperio dicte Can- 
cellarie nostre aliquater solvendis. 

Et volumus et cincedimus per presentes quod reverendis- 
simus in Christo pater Willelmus, episcopus Londoniensis, Cus- 
tos magni sigilli nostri, auetoritate presentís concessionis nostre, 
fieri faciat et sigillari tot et talia brevia sub magno sigillo nostro 
sigillando, Custodi sive clerico hanaperii nostri dirigenda, pro 
exoneracione dictorum finium et feodorum, quot et qualia iu 
hca parte necessária fuerint et requisita, absque aliquo alio 
waranto aut prosecucione penes nos in hac parte faciendis. 

In cujus, etc. 

Teste rege apud Westmonasterium ix die decembris. 

Per ipsum Regem, et de data, etc. 

From the Public Recird Office, Patent Roll 18 Henry VIL, 
Part II, Doc. 1502, No. 592, membranes 29-30; printed in 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 81 

Rymer 1 , Fœdera, etc., XIII, 37-42, London, 1712; ibid., vol. 
V, pars IV, pp. 186-8 Hagse Comitis, 1741 ; and in Hazard, 
op. cit., 11-19. 

XXVa. 

9 décembre 1502. 

AUTORISATION DE DECOUVRIR DES TERRES INCONNUES. 

The king to all and singular to whom the present letters 
shall come, Greeting: Be it know to you and made manifest 
that we, for certain considerations us moving, by the advice of 
our Council, have granted and given licence, as by these pre- 
sents, we grant and give licence for us and our heirs, as far as 
in us lies, to our well-beloved subjects Hugh Elyot and Thomas 
Asshehurste, merchants of our town of Bristol, and to our well- 
beloved John Gonzales and Francis Fernandez, Esquires, of the 
islands of the Azores, born under the dominion of the king of 
Portugal, and to any one of them whomsoever, and to the heirs, 
attorneys, factors or deputies of any one of them, and to them 
and to any one of them whomsoever, we grant full and free autho- 
rity, faculty and power to sail and transport themselves to all 
parts, regions and territories of the eastern, western, southern, 
arctic and northern seas, under our banners and ensigns, with so 
many and so large and such ships or vessels as may be agreeable 
to them and may be necessary, of whatsoever burthen any ship 
or vessel may be, with masters, mates, mariners, pages and other 
men competent, requisite and necessary for the piloting, safe- 
conduct and defence of the aforesaid ships and vessels, at the . 
cost and charges of the said Hugh and of the others aforesaid, 
and at such salaries, wages and stipends as they may agree upon 
among themselves, to find, recover, discover and search out any 
islands, countries, regions or provinces whatsoever of heathens 
and infidels in whatsoever part of the world placed, and to set 
up our banners and ensigns in any city, town, castle, island or 
mainland by them thus newly found, and to enter and seize the 
said cities, towns, castles, islands and mainlands for us and in 
our name, and as our vassals and governors, lieutenants and 

1. Lors (Tune reunion du Comité des Travaux historiques et scientifi- 
ques, tenue le 8 juin 1892, feu M. Marcel déclara qu'il se trouvait 27 vais- 
seaux de La Rochelle et de la Bretagne sur les bancs en 1502, et cita à ce 
sujet le Fœdera de Rymer. M. Marcel ne put se rappeler avant sa mort 
sur quoi il avait appuyé cette donnée. Voir Bulletin de Geogr. hist, et 
descript., annéa4892, p. 210. 

29*37—6 



82 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

deputies to occupy, possess and subdue these, the property, title, 
dignity and suzerainty of the same being always reserved to us. 
Provided always that they in no wise occupy themselves with 
nor enter the lands, countries, regions or provinces of heathens 
or infidels first discovered by the subjects of our very dear 
brother and cousin the king of Portugal, or by the subjects of 
any other princes soever, our friends and confederates, and in 
possession of which these same princes now find themselves. 
And furthermore whenever henceforth these islands, countries, 
lands and provinces shall be acquired, recovered and found by 
the aforesaid Hugh and the others named, then we will by 
these presents that all and singular, as well men as women, of 
this our realm, and the rest of our subjects wishing and desiring 
to visit these lands and islands thus newly found, and to inhabit 
the same, may and shall have power to go freely and in safety 
to the said countries, islands and places with their ships, men 
and servants and with all their goods and chattels, and to dwell 
in and inhabit the same under the protection and government of 
the said Hugh and of the others aforesaid, and to acquire and 
obtain the riches, fruits and profits of the lands, countries and 
places aforesaid. 

Giving furthermore and granting to the aforesaid Hugh, 
Thomas, John and Francis and to any one of them, by the tenour 
of these presents, full power and authority to rule and govern 
all and singular the men, sailors, and other persons removing 
and making their way to the islands, countries, provinces, main- 
lands and places aforesaid for the aforesaid purpose, as well in 
the company of the said Hugh and of the others aforesaid, as in 
the company of others happening afterwards to betake them- 
selves there, both on sea as well as in each of these countries, 
mainlands and places, after they have been found and recov- 
ered ; and to make, set up, ordain and appoint laws, ordinances, 
statutes and proclamations for the good and peaceful rule and 
government of the said men, masters, sailors and other persons 
aforesaid, and also to issue proclamations, and to chastise and 
punish according to the laws and statutes set up by them in that 
region all and singular those whom they may find there hostile 
and rebellious, and disobedient to the laws, statutes and ordin- 
ances aforesaid and all those who shall commit and perpetrate 
theft, homicide or robbery, or who shall rape and violate any 
women of the islands or countries aforesaid against their will 
or otherwise. 

And also we have granted to the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas, 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 83 

John and Francis, their heirs and assigns, that when any 
islands, countries, mainlands, region or province shall be 
henceforth discovered by the said Hugh and the others afore- 
said, then it shall not be lawful for any subject or subjects of 
ours, during the term of forty years next and immediately fol- 
lowing, to visit with their ships or to make their way to the said 
towns, countries, islands, mainlands and places for the purpose 
of trading and obtaining goods, without our royal licence and 
that of the said Hugh and of the others aforesaid, their heirs 
and assigns, or to enter the same, or to send to the same to obtain 
any goods. And after the term of the said forty years, that none 
of our subjects shall presume to sail to or visit any mainland, 
island, country or place thus newly found by the same Hugh 
and Thomas and the others aforesaid, without our aforesaid 
licence and that of the said Hugh and of the others aforesaid, 
on pain of the loss and forfeiture of all the goods and merchan- 
dise, commodities and vessels whatsoever venturing to sail to 
these places thus newly discovered and to enter the same, 
namely : one half to be for us and the other half for the said 
Hugh and the others aforesaid and for their heirs. 

And furthermore of our abundant grace we have granted and 
by these presents grant for us and our heirs, as far as in us lies, 
to the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas, John anr Francis, and to any 
one of them whomsoever, their heirs and assigns, that they. and 
any one of them may and can bring and transport and cause to 
be brought or transported merchandise, wares, 'gold and silver in 
bar, precious stones, and other goods whatsoever, being the pro- 
duce of the countries, islands and places aforesaid by them thus 
to be recovered and found, as well in the said ships and vessels, 
as in other strange ships whatsoever, from the said countries, 
islands, mainlands and places into this our realm of England, 
to any port whatsoever or other place in the same, and these sell 
and distribute for their own profit and advantage, any statute, 
act, ordinance or provision made or passed thence to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. 

And we, bearing in mind most especially the heavy costs 
and charges which are necessary for the performance and execu- 
tion of the above, wishing therefore to do special favour on that 
account to the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas and to the other persons 
mentioned, have granted, as by these presents we grant, to the 
same, their heirs and assigns, that they and any one of them 
whosoever, their heirs and assigns aforesaid, may, from time 

29837— 6è 



84 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

to time during the period of five years from the date of the re- 
covery and discovery of the islands and countries aforesaid next 
and immediately following, land in the port or place aforesaid 
merchandise, wares and other goods, loaded and freighted on 
one vessel alone, of so great tonnage whatsoever it be, which 
are to be brought and transported into this our realm of Eng- 
land, and these sell, expose and distribute at their pleasure from 
time to time on any voyage during the period of the said five 
years without in any way paying to us or to our heirs within 
our said realm of England, any customs, subsidies or other 
duties upon the same goods, merchandise and other things afore- 
said contained and loaded in the said one vessel alone. Pro- 
vided nevertheless that Avith regard to the customs, subsidies, 
pondages and other payments for the rest of the merchandise, 
wares and goods on board all the other vessels, true answers as 
is right be given to us in conformity with the practice hitherto 
observed in this our realm of England.. 

And furthermore we will and grant by these presents that 
any master, mate and sailor of any ship whatsoever visiting and 
sailing to any mainland, island, country, province and place 
aforesaid, may have, enjoy and receive of the goods and wares 
to be brought from the said islands,, mainlands and countries 
into this our realm of England the following customs and sub- 
sidies, namely: any master may have, enjoy and receive in any 
voyage the customs and subsidies on four tons ; and any mate or 
quartermaster the customs and subsidies .on two tons ; and any 
sailor the customs and subsidies on one ton, even though they 
be loaded and charged as his own goods, or as the goods of any 
other person whomsoever. And this without any subsidies, 
customs, dues or duties being in any way paid or asked for the 
same tonnage within this our realm of England for our needs 
or those of our heirs. 

And should it happen that any merchant or merchants of 
this our realm should arrive at the said islands, countries and 
places under licence of our said subjects, or without their 
licence, for the purpose of obtaining merchandise or wares, and 
should make a business of bringing goods and wares from those 
parts into this our kingdom, then we will and grant by these pre- 
sents to the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas, John and Francis, and to 
their heirs and assigns, that they, during the aforesaid period of 
forty years, may receive from any such merchant, after payment 
to us of the usual customs, subsidies and other moneys due to us 
in such case, the twentieth part of all such goods and merchan- 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 85 

dise to be brought and taken by the same from the said islands, 
countries and places into this our realm of England on any 
voyage during the said period of forty years ; this twentieth part 
to be obtained and taken in the port in which, it shall happen 
that the said goods are unloaded and discharged. Provided 
always that the aforesaid Hugh and the others aforesaid, their 
heirs and assigns, and not any other persons whosoever are 
henceforward the factors and attorneys in the said islands, main- 
lands and countries for any such merchants and other persons 
repairing there for the aforesaid cause during the said period 
of forty years in and for the trade carried on there by them. 
Provided also that no vessel loaded and freighted with goods 
and merchandise from the said regions thus newly found, after 
it has been brought into any port of this our kingdom, shall be 
discharged of these goods and merchandise except in the pres- 
ence of the aforesaid Hugh and of the others aforesaid, or of 
their heirs or deputies assigned for this purpose, on pain of the 
forfeiture of the said goods and merchandise, of which one half 
shall be for us and the other half be given to the aforesaid Hugh 
and the others beforenamed and to their heirs. . 

And if in future any strangers or other persons should pre- 
sume against the wish of the said Hugh and of the others 
beforenamed to sail to those parts for the purpose of enriching 
themselves, and to enter the same by violence, and there to insult 
the said Hugh and the others aforesaid or their heirs, and to 
expel and subdue them or otherwise to disturb them, then it is 
our wish and by the tenour of these presents we give and grant 
power to our said subjects to expel, resist and with all their 
force carry on and wage war, as well by land as by sea and on 
fresh water, against these strangers, even though they be subjects 
and vassals of any prince in league and friendship with us, and 
to arrest, bind and imprison them, there to remain until they 
shall have made fine and redemption to uor said subjects, 
or otherwise to chastise and punish them according to the sober 
discretion of uor said subjects and of their heirs. 

And also by the tenour of these presents we give and grant 
full power to our aforesaid subjects and to the other persons 
aforesaid to make, constitute, nominate and appoint under 
them, by their letters patent to be sealed with their seals, any 
captains, lieutenants and deputies whomsoever in each of the 
states, cities, towns and places of the said islands, provinces, 
countries and places aforesaid, for the administration and gov- 
ernment of all and singular the persons in those parts, under the 



86 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

rule and authority of our said subjects there dwelling, and for 
the deu execution and administration of justice in the same, 
according to the teneur and effect of the ordinances, statutes 
and proclamations aforesaid. . 

And furthermore we have granted and by these presents 
grant to the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas, John and Francis, for the 
term of their lives and of the life of any one of them, the office 
of Admiral at sea in any of the places, countries and provinces 
whatsoever by them thus newly discovered, and henceforth to be 
found and recovered; and we make, constitute, ordain and 
appoint by these presents the said Hugh, Thomas, John and 
Francis and any one of them, conjointly and separately, our 
Admirals in the same parts, giving and granting them and any 
one of them by the tenour of these presents full power and 
authority to do, exercise and carry out all and singular the 
things which pertain to the office of Admiral, according to the 
law and the naval custom practised in this our realm of Eng- 
land. 

And further after the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas, John and 
Francis shall thus have found, acquired and subdued any main- 
lands, islands, countries and provinces, cities, castles, states and 
towns by our assistance, then it is our wish and by these pre- 
sents we give power to them, their heirs and assigns, to have, 
hold and possess for themselves, their heirs and assigns, all and 
singular such and so great mainlands, islands, countries, pro- 
vinces, castles, cities, fortresses, states and towns, as and as 
great as they and their agents, lieutenants and servants are able 
to inhabit, take possession of, hold and maintain ; the said lands, 
islands and places aforesaid to be had and held by them, their 
heirs and assigns, and by any one of them, of us and of our heirs 
in perpetuity by fidelity alone, without any fee or anything else 
being rendered or made to us or to our heirs for the same, 
always ecxepting the dignity, dominion, regality, jurisdiction 
and suzerainty of the same, wholly reserved to us. 

And furthermore we have granted to the aforesaid Hugh, 
Thomas, John and Francis that they, their heirs and assigns 
aforesaid, may enjoy, hold and possess the said* mainlands, 
islands and countries thus conceded to them and to their heirs 
aforesaid as set forth above, after these have been discovered 
and recovered and when they are in full possession of the same, 
freely, uqietly, peaceably, without any impediment if any sort 
from us or our heirs whomsoever. And that none of our sub- 
jects shall in any way expel them or any one of them from and 



PRÉCURSElUw xjxa CARTIER 87 

out of their possession and title to and in the said mainlands, 
islands and countries in any way whatsoever against their will; 
promising in good faith and on the word of a king that we shall 
hold ratified, acceptable and stable all and whatsoever the afore- 
said Hugh, Thomas, John and Francis, and any one of them 
whosoever, by way of completing the premises, shall do or shall 
procure to be done herein. And that neither we nor our heirs 
at any time in the future shall ever disturb, hinder or molest 
them or any one of them ortheir heirs and assigns in their 
right, title and possession, nor shall we permit this to be done, 
nor cause it to be done by others our subjects or others whomso- 
ever, as far as in us lies ; nor shall we in any way remove them, 
their heirs and assigns from the said mainlands, countries, pro- 
vinces and places for any cause afterwards arising or happen- 
ing, nor shall we cause them to be removed or expelled by our 
subjects. Provided always that should it happen that the said 
Hugh, Thomas, John and Francis or any one of them, their 
heirs or assigns, or any one of these find, search 
out or recover in the future any places, islands, lands, re- 
gions, provinces and countries which heretofore have not been 
found, discovered, searched out and recovered by others our sub- 
jects or by any of their heirs and assigns having authority from 
us in that region by other letters patent of ours under our Great 
Sela, then it is our wish and by these presents we grant for us 
and our heirs to the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas, John and Francis, 
and to any one of them, their heirs and assigns, that they and any 
one of them whosoever may and shall have power to enter, hold, 
administer and peaceably and securely to inhabit and cause to 
be inhabited and to occupy at their free will the aforesaid isl- 
ands, countries, provinces and other places with their ships, 
men, servants and chattels whatsoever, without hindrance or im- 
pediment from us or our heirs or from any others our lieges 
whomtoever. And that none of our other subjects shall dare to 
sail to or frequent any island, land, region, country and province 
or place thus newly found by the same Hugh, Thomas, John and 
Francis, or to enter the same for the purpose of acquiring or 
securing the fruits, wares and merchandise produced in the 
same, without obtaining our royal licence and the special one of 
the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas, John and Francis, on pain of the 
loss and forfeiture of all the goods, merchandise, commodities 
and ships whatsoever venturing to sail to and enter these places 
ihus newlv found bv the same, namolv: one half of ihoap to bo 



88 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

for us and the other half for the said Hugh,, Thomas, John and 
Francis, their heirs and assigns. 

And although by other letters patent of ours dated the 
nineteenth day of the month of May \_sic pro March] in the 
sixteenth year of our reign [1501] x , we have given and granted 
to our well-beloved Richard Warde, John Thomas and John 
Fernandez, and to the aforesaid Hugh Eliot, Thomas Asshe- 
hurst, John Gonzales and Francis Fernandez, their heirs, attor- 
neys, factors or deputies, and to any one of them whomsoever, 
power and authority to sail to all parts, regions and boundaries 
of the sea in order to find and recover and discover the islands, 
countries and provinces mentioned, and to pursue and carry out 
each of the other things contained and specified in the same let- 
ters according to the tenour and effect thereof ; nevertheless we 
are. unwilling that the same Richard Warde, John Thomas, and 
John Fernandez or any one of them, their heirs or assigns, should 
in any way enter, or that any one of them should enter or go 
near any of the countries, islands, lands, places or provinces 
found, recovered or discovered anew in the future under the 
authority and licence of these our present letters, unless they 
shall have first obtained leave from the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas 
Asshehurst, John Gonzales and Francis. 

And in case the said Richard Warde, John Thomas and 
John Fernandez, or any one of them, or their heirs or assigns, 
may wish, determine and decide to make their way to these 
islands, countries, regions am 1 other places aforesaid with their 
ships and goods in order to acquire wares in the said islands, 
countries and other places aforesaid, or to send and depute thi- 
ther any person or persons, that they and any one of them 
whosoever shall be obliged from time to time to pay, furnish 
and sustain all and every the costs and charges to be arranged 
at each voyage with the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas Asshehurst, 
John Gonzales and Francis, namely: any one of them according 
to the amount of his share, as they may agree among them- 
selves, as often as they shall undertake any voyage of this kind 
and make their way from this our realm to the countries and 
other places to be acquired and recovered as aforesaid. And 
furthermore since among the other things set out in the above- 
mentioned articles, we have granted to the aforesaid Hugh. 
Thomas Asshehurst, John Gonzales and Francis, that they and 
any one of them whosoever, their heirs and assigns, can and may 

1 Voir note de la p. 77 et le n° XXa p. 50. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 89 

conduct and transport into this our realm of England, as often 
as they please, during a period of five years, one vessel, of what- 
soever burden she be, loaded and freighted with all kinds ol 
goods, merchandise and wares produced in the countries, 
islands, provinces, lands and places whatsoever aforesaid, with- 
out paying to us any customs, subsidies and other dues for the 
same, and freely dispose thereof; we now bearing in mind the 
praiseworthy intention which the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas Ass- 
hehurst, John Gonzales and Francis entertain and practise to the 
honour and utility and contentment of this our realm, and con- 
sidering their great costs and heavy charges, as well as the 
dangers both to their persons as to their goods and chattels what- 
soever, which to all appearances they are about to incur in such 
a difficult, tempestuous, dangerous and distant maritime under- 
taking, of our abundant grace, have granted and given licence 
for us and our heirs to the aforesaid Hugh, Thomas Asshehurst, 
John Gonzales and Francis, and to any one of them whomsoever, 
their heirs and assigns, and to any one of these whomsoever, that 
they and any one of them whosoever may and can conduct and 
transport into this our kingdom, jurisdictions and territories, as 
often as it may please them, a second vessel of one hundred and 
twenty tons burthen, loaded and freighted with goods, commo- 
dities, jewels, gold and silver and other wares and merchandise 
produced in the countries, islands, provinces and other places by 
them thus henceforth newly to be recovered, during a period of 
five years from the date of the recovery of the islands and coun- 
tries aforesaid next and immediately following, and there dis- 
charge her, and deal as they wish with the goods, commodities, 
merchandise, jewels and other things above stated, and the same 
shall be permitted and allowed to their heirs and assigns, and 
to any one of them whomsoever, freely and securely, without in 
any way paying to us any customs, subsidies or other dues for 
the same or any portion of the same. And this without any im- 
pediment, exaction, objection, annoyance or hindrance whatso- 
ever from us or from our officers or servants whomsoever. 

And furthermore since among the other things contained 
and set forth in our letters patent dated at Westminster on the 
said nineteenth of May [i.e. March], in the sixteenth year of 
our reign [1501], we, for certain considerations us moving, have 
granted to the aforesaid John Gonzales and Francis, that they 
should be for ever subjects and lieges of us and of our heirs, 
and in all lawsuits, quarrels, matters and affairs whatsoever 
should be held, considered, treated, and governed as our true 



90 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

and faithful lieges born witliin this our realm of England, and 
not otherwise nor in any other manner; and that the same 
J ohn Gonzales and Francis and all their children should pay or 
cause to be paid, and any one of them whosoever should pay or 
cause to be paid such customs, taxes and other dues for their 
goods, wares, merchandise and commodities brought into this 
our realm of England or carried out of this our said realm of 
England, as foreigners pay or are bound or accustomed to pay to 
us; and that the said John Gonzales and Francis should pay 
and either of them should pay to us and our heirs as many and 
as large customs, subsidies and other dues for their goods and 
merchandise as foreigners are bound to pay and deliver to us. We 
therefore for certain reasons us now moving, being unwilling 
that the aforesaid John Gonzales and Francis should be charged 
the customs and subsidies payable to us as foreigners for their 
goods, merchandise and wares as above stated, but wishing to 
shew them and each of them a further favour, of our special 
grace have given and granted and by these presents give and 
grant licence for us and our heirs to the aforesaid John Gonzales 
and Francis, that they and either of them, their heirs or the heirs 
of either of them pay such customs, subsidies and other dues for 
their goods, wares, merchandise and commodities whatsoever to 
be brought into this our realm of England or to be taken out of 
the same realm, as pay or are bound and accustomed to pay 
others our lieges born within our realm of England, our said 
letters patent made thence to the contrary notwithstanding. 
Provided always that the aforesaid John Gonzales and Francis 
under colour or cover of this concession or privilege of ours shall 
not introduce into our kingdom under their own names the 
goods of others as their own goods, on pain of the confiscation of 
the goods so introduced and of the loss of our aforesaid privi- 
lege ; although express mention of the true annual value of the 
above or of the other gifts or concessions made by us before this 
time to the said Hugh Elyot, Thomas Aysshehurst, John Gon- 
zales and Francis is in no wise set out in these presents, or any 
statutes, acts or ordinances or restrictions made, published, 
ordained or provided thence to the contrary, or any other cir- 
cumstances, cause or matter whatsoever in any way notwith- 
standing. 

And a^ain of our further favour we have granted to the 
aforesaid Hugh, Thomas Asshehurst, John Gonzales and Fran- 
cis our present letters patent in our Ohancerv without payment 
to us of anv fine or fee or of any fines or fees for the same or 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 91 

any part thereof or for our Great Seal in any way at the Ex- 
chequer of our said Chancery. 

And we will and grant by these presents that the most Rev- 
erend father in God, William, bishop of London, custodian of 
our Great Seal, by the authority of this our present grant, shall 
cause to be prepared and sealed as many and such briefs, sealed 
with our Great Seal, and directed to the custodian or clerk of 
our Exchequer, for" the discharge of the said fines and fees as 
and such as may be necessary and requisite for the same, with- 
out any other warrant or attendance being made before us in 
this matter. 

In witness whereof, etc. 

Witness ourself at Westminster on the ninth of December. 

By the King himself and at the date, etc. 

XXVI. 

6 décembre 1503, 

CRÉDIT ACCORDÉ POUR PAYER LA PENSION DE FERNANDEZ 
ET DE GONZALES. 

Henry, by the grace of God King of England and of ffraunce, 
and lord of Irland, To the Tresourer and Chambrelains of oure 
Eschequier, greting: Where as We by our letters undre oure 
prive seal bering date at oure manour of Langley the xxvi th 
day of septembre, the xviii th yere of oure Reigne [1502], 
gaf and graunted unto oure trusty and welbeloved subgiettes, 
ffraunceys ffernandus and John Guidisalvus, squiers, in con- 
sideración of the true service which they have doon unto us to 
oure singler pleasure as Capitaignes into the newe founde lande, 
unto eithre of them ten poundes yerely during oure pleasure to 
be had and perceyved of the Revenues of oure Custumes com- 
myng and growing within oure poort of Bristowe, by the handes 
of the customers there that now be and hereafter shalbe, at the 
festes of Estre and Michaelmes, by even porcions, And foras- 
moche as Richard Meryk and Arthure Kemys, late Custumers in 
oure said poort of Bristowe, have paide unto the said ffraunceys 
ffernandus and John Guidisalvus twenty poundes for oon hool 
yere ended at the fest of Saint Michell tharchaungell last past 
[29 Sept., 1503], for the which they have no maner of discharge 
to be Alleged at theire aecomptes before the Barons of oure 
Eschequier, Wherfore we wol that ye in due and sufficient 



92 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

fourme doo to be levied for thesaid firaimceys ffernandus and 
John Guidisalvus a taille or tailles conteignying the said summe 
of xx£¿. upon Richard Meryk and Arthure Kemys, late Cus- 
tumers in oure said poort, of the revenues of thesame, And fur- 
thermore we wol that ye fromhensforth from tyme to tyme and 
y ere to y ere, doo to be levied se ver all tailles conteignyng thesaid 
summe of xxû. upon the Customers of oure said poort that 
nowe be and hereafter shallbe, unto the tyme ye shall have from 
us otherwise in commaun dement by writing, And thesaid taille 
or tailles in due and sufficient fourme levied upon thesaid Cus- 
tumers at the festes beforesaid, we wol that ye delyvere unto 
thesaid firaunceys ffernandus and John Guidisalvus, or unto 
the bringer herof in theire names, to be taken of oure gyfte by 
way of rewarde without preste or eny othre maner of charge to 
be set upon them or eny of them for thesame, And thies oure 
letters shalbe youre sufficient warrant in that behalf. Yeven 
undre oure prive Seal at oure Citie of London the vi th day of 
Décembre, the xix th yere of oure Eeigne [1503]. 

R. BOLMAK 

From the Public Record Office, Exchequer of Receipt, War- 
rants for Issue, No. 8-i, No. I ; printed in Harrisse, John 
Cabot, etc., 397-8. 



XXVII. 



17 septembre 1506. 



RATIFICATION DU TRANSPORT DES LETTRES PATENTES DE 
GASPAR CORTE REAE À VASCO ANNES CORTE READ. 

A Vaasqueanes Corte Reall doaçam e comfirmaçam da doa- 
çam que foy feita a Gaspar Corte Reall, seu Irmaao, das terras 
que descubrió com suas limitacooes e declaraçooes nella comteu : 
das. 

Dom Manuell, etc. A quantos esta nossa carta de comfir- 
maçam & doaçam virem, fazemos saber, que por parte de Vas- 
queanes Corte Reall, de nosso comselho & veador de nossa casa. 
nos foy apresentado huua nossa carta de doaçam, per nos asm- 
ada & asseelada de nosso sello do chumbo, que fezemos a Gas- 
par Corte Reall, fidalgo da nossa casa, seu irmãao, das terras 
que elle descubdrio, da quail ho theor tall he : Dom Manuell, per 
graça de Deus, Rey de Purtugall & dos Algarves, daquem & 
dallem mar em Africa, Senhor de Guiñee, & da comquista, 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 93 

navegaçam & commerçio d'Etiopia, Arabia, Persia & da Yindia, 
a quantos esta nossa carta de doaçam virem, fazemos saber, que 
por quanto Gaspar Corte Eeall [etc., as in No. XVII, p. 32]. 

Pidimdonos ko dicto Vaasqueanes Corte Eeall por merçe, 
que por a dieta doaçam vir e traspassar a elle per fallecimento 
do dicto seu irmãao, segundo forma delia, lhe mandássemos dar 
nossa carta de comfirmaçam em forma, & visto por nos seu 
requerimento, & avemdo respecto & lembramça como ho dicto 
Gasnar Corte Reall, seu irmãao, foy o primeiro descubridor 
das dietas terras a sua propria custa & despessa, como muito 
trabalho & risco de sua pessoa, & como finalmente com muitos 
criados & homes, que comsigo levava, nisso acabou; & assi 
mesmo como despois Miguell Corte Eeall, seu irmão, que 
foy nosso porteiro moor, ymdo em busca do dicto seu irmãao 
com navios & gente, qut a sua propria custa & despessa armou, 
no que gastou muito de sua fazemda, por buscar &achar & remir 
o dicto seu irmãao, & assi por nos servir no descubrimento das 
dietas terras, em que trabalhou quamto possivell foy, no que 
outrosi, opôs ho dicto seu himãao, falleceo & acabou, & com 
elle muytos criados de seu pai & seus & do dicto Vasqueanes que 
comsigo levava; & esguardamdo isso mesmo como em todo este 
feito ho dicto Vaasqueanes com sua propia fazemda, criados & 
homes seus sempre ajudou ahos dictos seus irmaãos & aimda 
oje em dia de sua fazemda paga & satisfaz as dividas & carregos 
& obrigaçõoes que por esta cassusa hos dictos seus hirmãaos leix- 
aram, pollos quaaes respeictos, dividamente he razam que o 
louvor & merecimento dos serviços em que hos dictos seus 
irmãaos suas vidas acabaram, fique perpetuado no dicto Vaas- 
queanes Corte Eeall & nos que delle descenderem, nos, per esta 
presemte carta declaramos por soccesor da dieta nossa doaçam 
aho dicto Vaasqueanes Corte Eeall & a todos seus herdeiros & 
soccessores, segumdo forma da dieta doaçam, da quall em todo & 
por todo hussara, & assi seus soccessores, como ho fizeram os 
dictos Gaspar Corte Eeall em sua vida, & per seu fallecimento 
seus filhos, herdeiros & soccessores, a que por linha dereicta a 
dieta doaçam devera vir, & assi & como na dieta doaçam he com- 
teudo & declarado, & com todalas clausullas em ella comtheudas, 
assi como se propiamente no primeipio fora feita ao dicto Vaas- 
queanes Corte Eeall. E queremos que agora & em todo tempo 
se regulle & emtemda nelle sem embargo de quaaesquer lex & 
hordenaçõoes, dereytos, eustume, opiniones, façanhas, capitolios 



94 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

de cortes, ley mentall & qualquer outra coussa que em comtrairo 
disso seia ou possa seer, em quallquer maneira ; por que toda 
cassamos, anulamos & avernos por nenhuua & de nihû vigor & 
força. E queremos que comtra a dicta doaçam feita ao dicto 
Gaspar Corte Reall, & comtra esta nossa carta de comfirmaçam 
& declaraçam, & comtra o todo comteudo nella, nom ajam lugar 
em todo nem em parte, & soprimos aqui de nosso reall & absoluto 
poder todo & quallquer defeito & de dereicto que seia neçesareo 
pera mayor firmidam de todo o que dicto lie, posto que possa 
ser clausola tall de que se devera fazer expressa mençam. E por 
seguramça do dicto Vaasqueanes Corte Reall & de todos seus 
herdeiros & soccessores, a que esta doaçam dereictamente ouver 
de vir, lhe mandamos dar esta nosa carta per nos asinada & 
asselda do nosso seello de chumbo, a quall mandamos que em 
todo se cumpra & guarde, como em ella he comteudo; & quere- 
mos & nos praz que por esta mesma carta, sem mais outra 
auctoridade de justiça, elle dicto Vaasqueanes Corte Reall 
mande tomar a posse reall, auctuall, de toda a dieta terra & 
cousas na dieta doaçam comteudas, & assi hos que delle decem- 
derem, porque asi he nosa merçee. Dada em a cidade de Coim- 
bra, a desesete dias do mes de septembro. Andre Piriz a fez, 
anno do naçimento de nosso Senhor Jhu X o de mill & quin- 
hentos e seis. 

From the Archivo nacional da Torre do Tombo, Livro quinto 
dos Misticos fols. 46-7 ; also in liv. XXXV of D. João III, fols. 
2 y -3 v , and in liv. XLIX. of same, fol. 243 T . Printed in Har- 
risse, Les Corte-Real, 220-2 ; Archivo dos Açores, IV, 499-501 ; 
and in Alguns Documentos, etc., 150-3. 



XXVIIa. 

transport et ratification de la concession accordee 

à gaspar corte real, à son frere vasco annes 

corte real. 

King Emmanuel, &c. To as many as shall see this confir- 
mation and grant of ours we make known, that there was pre- 
sented to us by Vasco Annes Corte Real, one of our Council and 
the Comptroller of our Household, a grant of ours signed by us 
and sealed with our leaden seal, which we made to his brother 
Gaspar Corte Real, a nobleman of our court, of the lands dis- 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER Uf) 

covered by him, the tenour of which is as follows: King Em- 
manuel, by the grace of God, king of Portugal and of the 
Algarves, on this and that side of the ocean in Africa, lord of 
Guinea, and of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of 
Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, to as many as shall see this 
grant of ours, we make known [etc., as in No. XVIIa, p. 35]. 
Since through the death of his said brother the said grant, 
according to the tenour thereof, comes and passes to him, the 
said Vasco Annes Corte Real, he asks us as a favour to order our 
letters of confirmation to be given to him in due form, and in 
view of his request, and considering and remembering how his 
brother, the said Gaspar Corte Reall, was the first to discover 
the said lands, at his own expense, and at the expenditure of 
much labour and at the risk of his life ; how finally he perished 
therein with many servants and men whom he had taken with 
him ; and likewise how afterwards his brother Michael Corte 
Real, who was our major-domo, on searching for his said 
brother with men and ships, fitted out at his own expense, 
wherein he expended much of his patrimony in order to look 
for, find and recover his said brother, and also in order to serve 
us in the discovery of the said lands, at which he laboured as 
far as was possible, likewise died after his said brother, and lost 
his life therein, and with him many of his father's, his own and 
the said Vasco Anne's servants, whom he had with him; 
and we bearing this in mind and also how in all this the 
said Vasco Annes always assisted his said brothers with his own 
property, servants and men, and even to this day pays and 
liquidates with his money the debts, charges and obligations 
left behind on account of this by his said brothers ; for 
which reasons it is right and proper that the reward and praise 
for the services in which his said brothers lost their lives, should 
be perpetuated in the said Vasco Annes Corte Real and in his 
descendants : We by these present letters patent assign the suc- 
cession of our said grant to the said Vasco Annes Corte Real and 
to all his heirs and successors, according to the tenour of the 
said grant, of which he and his successors shall everywhere 
make as. complete use as did the said Gaspar Corte Real during 
his life, and on his death, his sons, heirs and successors to whom 
by direct descent the said grant ought to come, and in the form 
and manner stated and declared in the said grant, and with all 
the clauses therein contained, in such a manner as if it had been 
reallv drawn up for the said Vasco Annes Corte Real in the first 
instance. And we desire that, both now and at all times, it bo 



96 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

so followed and construed in spite of any law, ordinances, 
rights, custom, pretentions, debated questions, decrees of the 
Three Estates and mental law and anything else whatsoever 
that might or could run in any way to the contrary ; for we 
revoke, annul and declare all such invalid and without force 
and effect. And we desire that there be no opposition in whole 
or in part to the said grant made to the said Gaspar Corte Real, 
or to these letters of confirmation and declaration, or to the 
whole contents thereof ; and of our royal and absolute power, we 
here supply any and every defect and authority that may be 
necessary for the greater stability of all the above, no/fcwith^ 
standing there be a clause of which special mention should be 
made. And for the security of the said Vasco Annes Corte Real 
and of all his heirs and successors, to. whom this grant should of 
right come, we order these letters patent of ours, signed by us 
and sealed w r ith our leaden seal, to be given, which we direct to 
be carried out in full and to be fulfilled according to the tenour 
thereof. And we desire and it is our pleasure, that in virtue of 
these letters patent, without further judicial authority, the said 
Vasco Annes Corte Real and his descendants order real and 
actual possession to be taken of all the said land and matters set 
forth in the said grant; for such is our pleasure. Given in the 
city of Coimbra on 17 September. Andrew Piriz made this 
in the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1506. 

XXVIII. 

14 octobre 1506. 

DROIT IMPOSE AU PORTUGAL SUR LA MORUE DE TERRE-NEUVE. 

Trelado de hüa Carta del Rey, nosso Senhor, açerqua da 
Dizima dos bacalhaos. 

Diego Branda, Nos el Rey vos emviamos buyto saudar: 
Nos soubemos agora como nos portes do mar dessa comarqua 
dantre Doutro (sic) & Minho, ou em aigus délies dada a posse 
das dizimas do pescado que vem das pescarias da Terra 
Nova, aquelles que tem de nos as dizimas dos pescados, & isto 
per algüas sentenças que fora dadas pellos Juizes dos dreitos 
reaes em favor dos que tem as ditas dizimas. E por que esta 
cousa releva muyto a nosso serviço, & nã ha de passar assi livre- 
mente, Vos mandamos, que logo que esta pos for dada, saybaees 
os logares em que assi he dada a dita posse, e aquelles que 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 97 

achardes que a tem, nã leixees delia usar, & a day a posse a 
nossos ofîiçiaes pera nos arrecadare dizimas, até neste caso 
se dar final despacho, per homde & como deve, & nã se dará a 
posse a nenhüa pessoa, salvo per sentença que seja dada em a 
nossa corte, & asinada do nosso próprio sinal, e nã em outra 
maneira. E esto da dita posse fazei assi nos logares em que ja 
estever algüs como naqueles em que aimda dada não for, em 
todos os portos do mar dessa comarqua day este recado & o pro- 
vede como dito he. E fazendo o com grande diligencia porque 
assi compre muito a noso servirço (sic). Escrita em Leiria a 
xiiii dias doutubro. Antonio Carneiro, de quinhentos & seis 
años. 

Trelladada per Diego Pinto recebedor. 

From the Archivo nacional da Torre do Tombo at Lisbon, 
register of the Customs at Oporto, entitled Livro dos Registos 
del Rei noso sñor, das cartas & alvarás, mandados & outras 
cartas que o dito Sñor manda a esta Alfandega, fol. 46. 

XXVIIIa. 

copie d'une lettre de notre seigneur le roi, relative au 
droit sur la morue. 

Diogo Branda, We, the king, send you many greetings : 
We have learned at this time how in the sea-ports of that 
district between the Douro and Minha, 1 or in some of them, a 
grant of possession was made of the tithes on the fish that come 
from the fisheries of Newfoundland to those who hold fishing- 
tithes from us, and this by virtue of some verdicts given by the 
Judges of the royal Customs in favour of those who hold the 
said tithes. And since this is a matter of great importance to 
our service and must not thus pass without control, We order 
you, as soon as this reaches you, to find out the towns in which 
the said possession has been thus granted, and not to allow those 
who hold it to make use thereof ; and you are to give possession 
to our officers, in order that they may collect tithes in our behalf 
until a final decision has been reached in this case in the proper 
place and manner. And possession shall not be granted to any 
one, except by verdict given in our court and signed with our 
siffn-manual and not in anv other manner. And into this said 



1 Vianna en est le principal port. Voir Memories económicas de 
Academia des sciencias de Lisboa tomo IV, 328 Lisboa 1&12. 
29837—7 



98 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

matter of possession you are to inquire as well in the towns in 
which some of these exist, as in those in which none has been 
granted ; you are to give an account thereof in all the sea-ports 
of that district and to provide therefor as already stated. And 
show great care in this because it is most important for our 
service. Written in Leira on 15 October. Antonio Carneiro, 
1506. Copied by Diogo Pinto, collector. 



XXIX. 

1506. 

VOYAGE DE PIERRE DE BARCEELOS ET DE JEAN FERNANDEZ. 

. . . Respondo eu, Pedro de Barcellos, a este requerimento em 
caso que não era necessário agradecer, he digo que as terras e 
biscoitos hum Rodrigo Chamorro, meu antecessor, ouve as ditas 
terras e biscoutos juntamente por carta de dada d'Affonso do 
Amarall 1 , ouvidor que foi em esta ilha com carrego de capitem ; 
entam que as ditas terras socederõ a mim, Pedro de Barcellos, da 
dito Rodrigo Chamorro; eu as tornei aver por carta de nova 
reformação 2 dos almoxarifes, as terras e biscoitos todo junta- 
mente ; nas quaes terras eu fiz em ellas muitas roças he bemfei- 
torias, tendo terras aproveitadas que bem podiam levar xiiij ou 
xb moyos de pam, em semeadura ; estando asi em posse d'ellas ho 
dito tempo, ouve hum mandado delrrey nosso, nosso senhor, 
para hir a descobrir, eu e hum Johã Fernandes, llavrador, no 
quaJl descobrimento andamos bons tres anos, e cando tornei a 
dita ilha, achei ha minha jente fora das ditas terras, e achei em 
posse delias hus filhos de Johã Velladam 3 , enlleandoas e tres- 
passandoas em outras muitas pessoas," etc. 

From an application in the Archives at Ponta Delgada, 
Azores, fol. 9: printed in the Archivo dos Açores, XII, 369, 
with a facsimile. 



1 Concession en date du 21 août 1456 qui fut ratifiée le 18 juin 1488* 
Voir Archivo dos Acores, XII, 869, note 1. 

•' Concession accordée le 19 octobre 1490 et renouvelée le 14 avril 1495; 
Voir, ibid, 370. 

8 1»a première concession à ceux-ci fut faite le 30 janvier 1495 et renou-, 
veiee le 14 avril 1502— ibid, 371. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 99 



XXIXa. 



... To this application, I, Peter de Barcellos, in case it be 
not necessary to approve thereof, make reply and say that my 
ancestor, a Rodrigo Chamarro, held the said lands and biscuits 
jointly, by a grant from Alfonso do Amarall, formerly auditor 
in this island with the commission of captain: that next, the 
said lands passed from the said Rodrigo Chamarro to me, Peter 
de Barcellos. I received again the lands and biscuits jointly by 
a fresh grant of discharge from the receiver of the king's cus- 
toms, on which lands I made many clearings and betterments, 
possessing cultivated lands which could easily produce from 
corn-fields 14 to 15 moios 1 of bread. Being thus at the said date 
in possession of these, I received a command from the king, our 
master, to go on a voyage of discovery, I and a John Fernando? > 
proprietor, on which discovery we were absent three good years ; 
and when I returned to the said island, I found my people 
driven from the said lands, and some sons of John Velladam in 
possession thereof, who were conveying and transferring them 
to many other people, etc. 



XXX. 

1509. 

RECIT ANONYME DU VOYAGE DE CABOT ET DE i/ ARRIVE DE 
SAUVAGES DE TERRE-NEUVE. 

Cronicón regnum Anglie et Series Maiorum et vicecomiïum 
Civitatis London ah anno primo Henrici tertii ad annum 
pr'unmn Henrici octavi, etc. 

1497 2 , William Purchas, jBartholemew Reed} Anno xiij°. 
mercer. | Thomas Wyndoutej 

This yere the kyng, at the besy request and supplicacion of a 
Straunger venisian, which by a caart made hym self expert in 
knowyng of the world, caused the kyng to manne a ship w* 
vvtaill and other necessaries, for to seche an Hand wheryn the 
said straunger surmysed to be grete comodities, w* which ship 
by the kynges grace so rygged went \\\ or iiij moo owte of 

1 Voir p. 60, note 2. 

2 Année qui commença apparemment le 15 septembre 1497 et se termi- 
na le 14 septembre 1498. Voir Chronicles of London par C. L. Kingsfor^ 
note, 327-330. I/année du règne commençait le 22 août. 

29837—71 'i ■ ! 



"avïen^ 



100 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Bristowe, the said straunger beyng Conditor of the said fílete, 
wheryn dyvers merchauntes aswell of London as Bristow aven- 
tured goodes and sleight merchaundises, which departed from 
the west cuntrey in the begynnyng of somer, but to this present 
moneth came nevir knowledge of their exployt.. 

Sir John Shaa, |Sir Laurence Aylmer] . .. n 

aurifaber. |Henry Hede ' \ Ann0 XV1 J ■ 

III men were brought from the newe Ilond. 

This yere 1 three men were brought out of an Hand founde 
by merchauntes of Bristow forre beyonde Irelond, the which 
were clothed in Beestes skynnes and etc raw fflessh, and rude in 
their demeanure as Beestes. 

From the British Museum, MS. Cotton, Vitelus A XVI, 
fols. 168 v , 173, 183 v and 204; printed in the Proceed- 
ings of the American Antiquarian Society for April 25, I860, 
37, Boston, 1860; the same Proceedings for October 21, 1865, 
22, Cambridge, 1866 ; but better in the Proceedings of the meet- 
ing at Boston on 21 October, 1881, p. 440, Worcester, 1881; 
Harrisse, Jean et Sébastien Cabot, 316 ; Tarducci op. cit., 347 ; 
John Fiske, The Discovery of America, II, 5, note I, Boston, 
1893 (from Harrisse) ; Weare, op. cit., 164-5 ; Beazley, op. cit., 
98-9 ; Winship, op. cit., 47 ; and C. L. Kingsford, Chron- 
icles of London, 224 and 258, London, 1905. 

XXXI. 

RÉCOMPENSE POUR UN VOYAGE AUX REGIONS DU NORD. 

7 juin 1509. 

Carta de privilegio a Diogo de Barcellos, filho de Pero de 

Barcellos 2 . 

Dom Manuell, etc., a quamtos esta nosa carta virem [faze- 
mos saber] 3 , que avemdo nos respeito aos serviços que temos 
recebidos de Pero de Barcelos, ja finado, morador que foy [na] 3 
nosa ilha Terceira, narmaçam 4 e descubrimento da parte de 

1 15 septembre 1*501 au 14 septembre 1502. 

3 Voir Archivos dos Acores, XII, pp. 96-99 et 366. 

3 Ces mots sont omis dans l'original. 

4 Voir Découverte et évolution cartographique de Terre-Neuve, Her- 
ri sse, 41, note 3. 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 101 

norte, e queremdo por ello fazer graça e merçe a Dieguo de Bar- 
celos, morador na dita Ilha, seu filho, temos por bem e o toma- 
mos por noso vasallo, e queremos que daquy em diamte seja 
privilegiado, escusado e gardado, que nam pague, nem sirva em 
nenhuüos preitos, timtas, talhas, pididos, serviços, emprestidos, 
nem outros nenhuns encaregos que pelo concelho ou lugar onde 
morar forem lamcados per quall quer guisa que seja, nem o cos- 
trangam nem mamdem costranger que va com presos nem com 
dinheiros, nem com nenhuüos caregos, nem seja titor nem 
curador de nenhuúas pesoas que sejam, salvo se as teturias forem 
lidimas, nem aja oficio de concelho comtra sua vomtade; outro 
sy mandamos e defemdemos que nom seja nenhuü tam ousado, 
de quall quer estado e comdicam que seja, que lhe pousem em 
suas casas de morada, adegas, nem cavalariças, nem lhe tomem 
delas seu pam e vinho, roupa, palha, ceveda, lenha, galinhas, 
gados, nem bestas de sella nem dalbarda, nem bois, caros, nem 
caretas, nem nenhuns navios que tenha, nem outra cousa de seu 
comtra sua vomtade. E porem mamdamos etc. 1 , em forma. 
Dada em a nosa cidade d'Evora aos bij d.ias do mes de junho. 
Afonso Mexia a fez, ano de b c e biiij annos ; e deste privilegio 
goçara e nsara o dito Dieguo de Barcelos somente e outro nen- 
huü seu nam. 

From the Torre do Tombo, Chancel, de Dom Manuel, liv. 
XXXVI, fol. 21: printed in Sousa Viterbo, Trabalhos náuti- 
cos dos Portuguezes nos séculos XVI e XVII, parte II a , 136-7. 
Lisboa, 1900. 

XXXIa. 

privilège accordé à diogo de barcellos, fies de pierre de 

barceleos. 

King Emmanuel, &c. To as many as shall see this grant of 
ours [we make known], that in consideration of the services we 
have received from Peter de Barcellos, formerly an inhabitant 
of our island of Terceira, now deceased, in the expedition sent 
to discover in the northern parts ; and being desirous on this 
account to show kindness and favour to his son, Diogo de Bar- 
cellos, dwelling on the said island, we are pleased to accept him 

1 Voir n° XVIII, p. 38. 



102 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

as our vassal; and it is our wish that henceforth he be freed, 
excused and protected from payment or service in any lawsuits, 
taxes, dues, tributes, obligations, loans or other charges imposed 
in any way whatsoever by the council or town wherein he dwells, 
nor shall they force or order him to be forced to bring prisoners 
or money or any imposts, or to be guardian or trustee of any 
persons whatsoever, except the guardianship be legitimate, nor 
to be councillor against his will. Furthermore we order and 
decree that no one, of whatsoever estate and condition, be so bold 
as to lodge in his dwelling-house, cellars or stables, nor there- 
from to take his bread and wine, clothing, straw, barley, wood, 
hens, cattle or saddle or pack animals, nor his oxen, waggons, 
and carts, nor any ships belonging to him, nor anything else of 
his against his will. And furthermore we order, etc. 1 Given in 
our city of Evora on 7 June. Alfonso Mexia made this in the 
year 1509. And the said Diogo de Barcellos only and not any 
other member of his family is to enjoy and use this privilege. 



XXXII. 

8/ 
2g f octobre 1511. 

LA REINE JEANNE AUTORISE JEAN DAGREMONTE À CONCLURE 

UN ARRANGEMENT AVEC LE ROI FERDINAND AU SUJET 

D^UN VOYAGE À TERRE-NEUVE. 

Sobrecarta del Asiento que se tomó a Juan de Agramonte 
que va a saber el secreto de la tierra nova. 

Doña Juana etc. 

Por quanto por parte de vos, Juan de Agramonte, catalan, 
natural de Lérida, 2 que es en el reyno de Cataluña, me fué hecha 
relación quel Rey, my Señor é Padre, mandó tomar é tomó cierto 
concierto é asiento con vos, par que vos avais de yr, é vays, á 
vuestra costa é mysyon, à descobrir cierta Tierra Neuva en los 
límites que á Nos pertenesçen, segund en el dicho asyento é con- 
cierto se contiene, su tenor del cual dicho asyento es este que 
se sygue: 

El Rey 

El asyento que por mi mandado se tomó é asentó con vos, 

1 Voir n° XVIIIa p. 39. 

' Près de Barcelone. C'est la deuxième ville de la Catalogne. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 103 

Juan de Agramonte, catalan, natural de Lérida, para ir á saber 
el secreto de la Tierra Nueva es este: 

Primeramente, que vos podays jr é vays con doss navios del 
grandor que vos paresçiere, que sean de nuestros vasallos, súb 
ditos é naturales, é asymismo la gente que llevárdes sean natur- 
ales de estos reynos, ecobto que dos pilotos que llevárdes sean 
Bretones, ó de otra nación que allá ayan estado, á vuestra costa 
é mysyon á la dicha Tierra Nova, por la costa ó parte que mejor 
hos pareciere á vos é á los marineros que con vos llevárdes para 
el dicho viaje, no tocando en la parte que pertenesçe al Sereny- 
simo Rey de Portugal, nuestro hijo 1 , y entiéndese aquellas que 
estovieren dentro de los limites que entre Nos y él están 
señalados 2 , y que vos seays obligado de fletar é bastecer los dichos 
navios para el dicho viaje á vuestra costa é misyon ; é para los 
cargar é fletar Yo vos doy licencia que los podays fletar y cargar 
en los puertos de Laredo é Santander 3 , ó qualquier dellos ; é 
para que en ello no se vos ponga ynpedimiento vos doy cor la 
presente, provision para los concejos é justicias de las dichas 
villas é puertos, que vos lo dejen é consyentan hazer; para el 
qual dicho viaje soy s obligado de partyr lo antes é mejor que 
pudierdes. 

Ytem: Que Yo vos aya de dar é dé licencia, é por la presante 
vos la doy, para que todas las cosas que ovierdos menester para 
fornimiento de los dichos navios, é de algunas mercaderyas que 
serán nescesarias para rescatar en la dicha Tierra Nova, que las 
podays comprar é cargar en los dichos navios, sin pagar derec hos 
algunos de los que á Nos pertenesçieren de las dichas cosas que 
cargárdes, jurando vos ante las justicias que seguyreys vos ellos 
el dicho viaje. 

Ytem: Que por quanto vos aveis de yr por los pilotos, que 
con vos han de yr al dicho viaje, á Bretaña, que teneys voluntad 
de proveeros de allí de vinos é harina é carne, para lo traer al 
dicho puerto de Laredo ó Santander, que Yo vos aya de dar é 
dé licencia é provisyon para que de la entrada con los dichos 
navios é harina é carne no pagueys derechos de los a Nos per- 
tenesçientes, ni se os hagan descargar, no embargante qualquier 
costumbre ó premáticas que en contrario aya, para lo cual se 
vos dio la provision necesaria. 

Ytem: Que de todo lo que rescatárdes é oviérdes en qu?I- 
quier manera en el dicho viaje, nos avais de dar é deys, sncadas 

1 Emmanuel avait épousé les filles de Ferdinand, Isabelle et Mane. 

2 Par le traité de Tordesillas, signé le 7 juin 14&L Voir p. XIV de l'in- 
troduction. 

• Deux ports de la baie de Biscay près de la frontière française. 



104: ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



vuestras costas, la sesta parte de todo lo que allí oviérdes, é que 
todo lo otro sea para vos, é que esta sesta parte que asy Nos 
oviéremos de aver, seays obligado de la traer é trayays do quier 
que Nos estuviéremos, á vuestra costa é mysyon. 

Ytem : Que Yo vos dé licencia, é por la presente vos la doy 
para que los marineros que con vos fueren en el dicho viaje pue- 
dan llevar é lleven en sus caja (sic) la ropa é mercaderías que 
a vos líos paresçiere, para rescatar en la dicha Tierra Nova, con 
tanto que al tyempo que lo cargaren, lo registren ante el escri- 
bano del dicho viaje, é que de lo que con ello rescateren é se 
oviere en qualquier manera, nos sean obligados á dar la sesta 
parte, como vos soys obligado en el capítulo de suso contenido, 
é que vos seays obligado en su nombre a lo asy complir, é que lo 
que no registraren lo ayan perdido é pierdan, é que sea para la 
nuestra cámara é fisco. 

Ytem : Que trayéndonos vos buena nueva de la dicha Tierra 
Nova, é hallando en ella buena muestra de oro é otras cosas de 
que Nos seamos servidos, Yo vos mandaré resçibir por contino 
é criado de nuestra casa, é asentar en los libros della el acosta- 
miento que fuere razón, é á nuestro .servicio convenga, é que sea 
a vuestra honra segund la nueva que vos traxeredes, para que 
vos sea pagado por todos los dias de vuestra vida. 

Ytem: Que Yo vos aya de dar, é por la presente prometo 
que vos mandaré dar é daré previllejo en forma para vos é para 
vuestros herederos é subcesores para svenpre jamas, de la docena 
parte del oro que se hallare é oviere en la dicha Tierra Nova. 
como con la ayuda de Dios esperamos, vos mandaré dar é daré 
el dicho previllejo. 

Ytem : Que descubierta la dicha Tierra Nova, é haziéndose 
en ella población en nuestro nombre, segund se ha hecho en la 
dicha ysla Española, por la presente vos prometo de hos hazer 
merced, é sy necesario es, desde agora hos la hago, del alguasy- 
ladgo mayor de la dicha Tierra Nova para vos é para vuestros 
herederos é subcesores. 

Ytem: Que hasyéndose casa de contratación en la dicha 
Tierra Nova que asy vos descubriérdes ó hallárdes, por la pre- 
sente vos prometo de hacer merced de la tesorería della á Juan 
Criado, para quiem vos me lo suplicasteis. 

Ytem: Que hasyéndose casa de la dicha fundición en la 
dicha Tierra Nova, por la presente prometo de hazer merced del 
oficio de escovilla della a Cristóbal Vasques, por quien vos me 
lo suplicasteis. 

Ytem : Que sy á la ida 6 á la venida que vos aveys de yr á 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 105 

la dicha tierra, yendo derechamente á ella por los términos é 
partes é navegación que vos será señalado por un memorial fir- 
mado del obispo de Falencia 1 , mi capellán mayor é de nuestro 
consejo, é de Lope Conchillos, nuestro secretario, é no á otra 
parte ni partes algunas, fuérdos tomado é detenido á ystancia 
de algund rey cristiano, que hasyendomelo vos saber, Yo 
sea obligado de os sacar á pas é á salvo del dicho término é 
presyon, lo qual digo é prometo que say guardaré é cumpliré sin 
falta alguna. 

Ytem: Que trayendo vos Dios á salvamento del dicho viaje, 
vos aya de dar licencia, é por la presente vos la doy, para que 
podays, al tiempo que viniérdes con la nueva de la dicha Tierra 
Nova la primera vez, entrar é surgir en qualquier puerto de 
Galicia ó Vizcaya do Regardes é el tiempo os traxere, con tanto 
que seáis obligado al tiempo que Regardes, antes que desembar- 
queis vos ny ninguno de los que vinieren en los dichos navios de 
la dicha Tierra Nova, ni saquen dellos cosa alguna, de note- 
ficar á la justicia del dicho puerto donde asy llegárdes, como 
venis por nuestro mandado del dicho viaje, é de magnifestar 
antellos todo el oro é cosas que, plaziendo á Dios, se traxeren en 
qualquier manera, é que todo se ponga en registro por ante escri- 
bano, que la justicia del dicho lu^ar nombrare é señalare para 
ello. 

Ytem : Que hasyéndose la casa de contratación de la dicha 
Tierra Nova acá en España, Yo haya de hazer merced, é por la 
presente, hasyéndose la dicha casa, desde agora la hago del 
oficio de nuestro fator de la -dicha casa á Ponce, nuestro cantor 
é capellán, é primo de vos, el dicho Juan de Agramonte, por 
quien vos me lo suplicates. 

Para todo lo qual hago mi capitán á vos, el dicho Juan de 
Agramonte, de los dos navios é gente que en ellos fuere, é vos doy 
asy por la mar, como llegado á la dicha Tierra Nova, hasta ser 
vuelto á Nos con la nneva della, poder complido é juridiçion 
civil é criminal, con todas sus yncidencias é dependencias, 
anexidades é conexidades, durante el dicho tiempo, quedando la 
apelación de todo para ante Nos al nuestro consejo ; é mando á 
todas las personas que en los dichos navios fueren, é á cada uno 
dollos, que como á nuestro capitán vos obedezcan é vos dexen é 
consyentan usar el dicho oficio é jurisdicion, civil é criminal. 

Por lo cual todo que dicho es, é cada cosa é parte dello, has- 
vendo vos, el dicho Juan de Agramonte, las diligencias suso- 
dichas contenvdas, é que para la dicha navegación é viaje con- 

1 Fonseca. 



106 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

viene, por la presente prometo de vos mandar guardar é complir 
todo lo en esta capitulación contenido, é cada cosa é parte dello, 
p sy necesario es, por la presente mando á todos los corregidores, 
asystentes, alcaldes, alguasyles, merinos é otras justicias quales- 
quier de todas las çibdades é villas é lugares destos reynos é 
seáorios, que vean esta dicha capitulación, é todo lo en ella con- 
tenido, é vos la guarden é cunplan en todo é por todo, segund que 
en ella se contienen, é contra el tenor é forma della vos no vayan 
ny pasen por alguna manera, so pena de la my merced é de 
10,000 maravedis para la nuestra cámara é fisco, á cada uno que 
lo contrario fisiere. Fecha en la çibdad de Burgos á viii dias 
del mes de otubre de mil é quinientos é honzo años. Yo el Rey. 
Por mandado de su alteza Lope Conchillos. Señalada del obispo 
de Palencia. 

Suplicastesme que porque mejor el dicho asiento é concierto 
vos fuese guardado é conplido, vos mandase dar mi sobrecarta 
del, por que vos con el ayuda de Dios entendiades de nos haser 
mucho servicio en el dicho viaje, é Yo, por hazer bien é mer- 
ced, acatando la voluntad y deseo con que vos aveys movido a 
nos servir en lo suso dicho, tóbelo por bien é por la presente con- 
firmo é apruevo el dicho concierto é asyento de suso contenido, 
é vos prometo é doy mi palabra Real, que vos será guardado é 
complido en todo é por todo, segund que en ella se contiene, 
ha siéndose por vos el dicho viaje é cosas de suso declaradas, de 
la manera que con vos se asentó, é no hasiendo cosa no devida, 
porque segund las leyes destos reynos debriades ser privado de 
la dicha merced, é contra el no se vos yrá ny pasará en tienpo 
alguno, ny por alguna manera ; é por esta mi carta mando al 
principe don Carlos, mi muy caro é muy amado hijo, é à los del 
mi consejo, alcaldes, alguasyles de la mi casa, corte é chan- 
cellen a, é á todos los concejos, corregidores, asystentes, alcaldes, 
alguasyles, merinos é otras justicias qualesquier de todas las 
çibdades, villas é lugares de los mis reynos é señoríos, que vos 
guarden é cunplan el dicho concierto é asiento suso contenido, 
en todo é por todo, segund que en el se contiene, é contra el no 
vos bayan, ni pasen en tienpo alguno, ni por alguna manera; é 
los unos, ni los otros non fagades ni fagan ende al, por alguna 
manera, etc. Dada en Burgos a xxix de otubre de mili é 
quinientos é honse años. Yo el Rey. Yo Lope Conchillos, sec- 
retario de la Reyna, nuestra señora, la fiz escrivir por mandado 
riel Rey, su padre. Obispo de Palencia concertada. 

From the Archives at Simancas, Registro general del sello, 
octubre, 1511: printed in part in Navarrette, Colección de los 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 107 

viages y descubrimientos, III, num. XXXI, 122-5, (Madrid, 
1829) ; and in the Colección de documentos inéditos relativos 
al descubrimiento de America, XXXI, 202-8, Madrid, 1883. 

XXXIIa. 

AUTORISATION AU SUJET d'üN ARRANGEMENT CONCLU AVEC JEAN 
DE AGRAMONTE À i/eFFET DE DECOUVRIR LE SECRET DE 
TERRE-NEVUE. 

Queen Joanna, etc. 

Whereas I have been informed by you, John de Agramonte, 
Catalonian, of the town of Lérida, which is in the kingdom of 
Catalonia, that the king, my lord and father, ordered to be 
drawn up and made a certain contract and agreement with you, 
by which you were to go and should go at your own cost and 
charges to discover a certain Newfoundland within our sphere 
of influence, according as it is stated in the said agreement and 
contract, the tenour of which said agreement is as follows : 
The King. 

The agreement which at my order was made and concluded 
with you, John de Agramonte, Catalonian, born in Lérida, in 
order to go and discover the secret of the Newfoundland is this : 

First, that you may and do go with two vessels of the 
size that appears to you proper, provided they belong to our 
vassals and subjects, and also that the people you take with you 
be inhabitants of these kingdoms, (txcept that two of the 
pilots may be Bretons or belong to some other nation which 
has been there) , at your own cost and charges, to the said New- 
foundland, along the coast or region which shall seem best to 
you and to the sailors you take with you on the said voyage, not 
touching at that part which belongs to the Most Serene King of 
Portgual, our son, and this is understood to mean those portions 
which are within the limits marked out between ourselves and 
him ; and that you are to fit out and provision the said ships for 
the said voyage at your own cost and charges ; and in order to fit 
them out and load them, I give you licence so to do in the ports 
of Laredo and Santander or in either of them ; and in order that 
you be not impeded in this, I give you by these presents an 
order for the town-councils and authorities of the said towns 
and ports to permit and allow you to do this; on which said 
voyage you are to set sail as early and in the best state you can. 

Likewise, that I am to and do give you licence, and by these 
presents give it to you, to buy and load in the said vessels every- 



108 ARCHIVES CANADIEN ES 

thing necessary for the fitting out of the said ships, and any 
wares necessary for bartering in the said Newfoundland, with- 
out paying any of the dues collectible by us on the said goods, 
taking an oath before the authorities that you will indeed make 
the said voyage. 

Likewise, that whereas you have to go to Britanny for the 
pilots who are to accompany you on the said voyage, and desire 
to provide yourself there with wines and flour and meat, and to 
bring them to the said port of Laredo or Santander, I am to and 
do give you licence and authority, that on arriving with the said 
ships and flour and meat, you do not pay the dues collectible by 
us, nor are you to be made to unload these goods, any custom or 
decrees to the contrary notwithstanding; for all which the 
necessary authority has been given to you. 

Likewise, that you are to and do give us, after your costs 
have been deducted, the sixth part of all you may barter or 
obtain in any manner whatsoever on the said voyage ; and that 
all the remainer be yours ; and that you are to bring this sixth 
part, which we are thus to have, and do bring it to us wherever 
we mav be, at your own cost and charges. 

Likewise, that I am to give permission and by these pre- 
sents do give it to you, that the sailors who may go with you 
on the said voyage be allowed to carry and do carry in their 
chests the cloth and merchandise that may seem proper to you 
to barter in the said Newfoundland, with the understanding 
that at any time they put it on board, they register it before the 
notary of the said expedition ; and that of whatever they "barter 
or obtain with the same, in any manner whatsoever, they give us 
the sixth part, as you are obliged in the paragraph above 
to do; and that you are under obligation to carry this out in 
their name ; and that whatever is not registered be lost, and they 
lose it, and it be given to our exchequer and treasury. 

Likewise, that should you bring us a favourable report of 
the said Newfoundland, and find there good samples of gold and 
other things of use to us, I shall order you to be received as 
Confino 1 and servant of our house, the salary which is just and 
proper for our service and which will be to your honour Accord- 
ing to the information vou may bring us, being entered upon 
the books of the same, in order that you may receive payment 
thoreof all the davs of your life. 

Likewise, that T am to ¿rive von and bv these presopts pro- 



1 Un des cent-gardes choisie pour protéger la personne du Toi et leí 
palais. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 109 

mise that 1 shall order you to be given and will give you a grant 
in due form for yourself and your heirs and successors for ever 
of the twelfth part of the gold that may be found and collected 
in the said Newfoundland, as with God's help we hope I shall 
order you to be given and will give you the said grant. 

Likewise, that after the said Newfoundland shall have been 
explored, should a colony be sent there in our name, as has been 
done in the said island of Hispaniola [Hayti], I promise by 
these presents to grant you, and if it be necessary henceforth 
grant you the office of chief constable in the said Newfoundland, 
for you and for your heirs and successors. 

Likewise, that should a trading factory be set up in the said 
Newfoundland, which you are thus to explore and discover, I 
promise you by these presents to grant the office of treasurer of 
the same to John Criado, for whom you have asked it of me. 

Likewise, that should a smelting foundry be set up in the 
said Newfoundland, I promise by these presents to grant the 
office of sweeper in the same to Christopher Vasques, for whom 
you have asked it of me. 

Likewise, that in case on the way to or from the said land, 
going there direct by the route, track and course that will fee 
shown to you in a document signed by the bishop of Palencia, 
my chief chaplain and one of the members of our council, and 
by Lope Conchillos, our secretary, and not making your way to 
any other place or places whatever, you should be seized and 
detained at the instance of any Christian king, should you in- 
form me of this, I am under obligation to free you effectually 
and without injury from the said place and prison, which I 
declare and promise I shall fulfil and carry out without fail. 

Likewise, that should God bring you back safe from the said 
voyage, I am to give you licence, and by these presents give it 
to you, that you may, on arriving the first time with news from 
the said Newfoundland, enter and cast anchor in any port what- 
soever of Galicia or Biscay where you may arrive and the weath- 
er carry you, on condition that on your arrival, before you or 
any one of those who have come in the said ships from the said 
Newfoundland disembarks, or they unload anything from the 
ships, you notify the authorities of the said port where 
you thus arrive, how you come from the said voyage by our 
order ; and you are to declare before them all the gold and goods 
which, God willing, shall in any manner be brought back; and 
that all be entered in a register before the notary whom the* 



110 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

authorities of the said port shall appoint and nominate for that 
purpose. 

Likewise, that should a trading factory for the said New- 
foundland be set up here in Spain, I am to appoint and by these 
presents, if the said factory be set up, henceforth do appoint 
Ponce, our chorister and chaplain, Factor of the said factory, 
who is your, John de Agr amonte' s, cousin, for whom you asked 
it of me. 

For all which I appoint you, the said John de Agramonte, 
captain of my two ships and of the people in them, and grant 
you, as well at sea as on your arrival in the said Newfoundland, 
until your return with news of the same, high justice and civil 
and criminal jurisdiction, with all its incidents and dependen- 
ces, annexed and connexed, during the said period, with appeal 
in every case "before us in our Council ; and I order all the 
people on board the said vessels and each of them to obey you 
as our captain, and to allow and permit you to exercise the said 
office, and civil aud criminal jurisdiction. 

In regard to all the above and to each part and parcel 
thereof, should you the said John de Agramonte perferm all 
the duties therein set forth, and those which are proper to the 
said navigation and voyage, by these presents I promise to give 
orders that all contained in this grant and each part and par- 
cel thereof be carried out and fulfilled, and if it be necessary, 
by these presents do give orders to all magistrates, chief justices, 
mayors, constables, superintendents and other authorities what- 
soever of all the cities and towns and places of these kingdoms 
and dominions, that they read this said grant and all set forth 
in the same, and carry out and fulfil it for you absolutely, 
according to its contents, and do not proceed nor depart from 
the tenour and form thereof in any way in your case on 
pain [of the loss] of my favour and of 10,000 maravedis for 
our exchequer and treasury from each who shall do the con- 
trary. Given in the city of Burgos on 8 October, 1511. I the 
King. By order of His Highness Lope Conchillos. Signed by 
the bishop of Palencia. 

You have entreated me in order that the said agreement and 
contract be the better fulfilled and carried out, to give you my 
warrant for the same, since, with God's aid, it is your design to 
do us much service on this said voyage, and I, in order to show 
you goodwill and favour, in acknowledgement of the wish and 
desire by which you have been moved to serve us in the above, 
have deigned to order and by these presents confirm and approve 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 111 

the said contract and agreement set forth above, and promise 
you and give you my royal word, that it shall be fulfilled and 
executed for you absolutely according to its tenour, you car- 
rying out the said voyage and the things set forth above in the 
manner agreed upon, and not doing anything wrong for which 
by the laws of these kingdoms you should be deprived of the said 
favour; and nothing will be done to you or enacted against it 
at any time nor in any way ; and by these letters of mine I com- 
mand the Prince Don Carlos 1 , my very dear and much beloved 
son, and the members of my Council,, the mayors, constables 
of my house, court and chancery and all the councils:, 
magistrates, chief- justices, mayors, constables, superintendents 
and other authorities whatsoever of all the cities, towns and 
places of my kingdom and dominions, to fulfil and execute 
for you the said contract and agreement set forth above 
absolutely, according to its tenour, and not to move nor pro- 
ceed against it at any time or in any way; and neither 
you, nor they are to do the contrary of what is desired 
in any way, etc. Given in Burgos on 29 October, 1511. I the 
King. I, Lope Conchillos, secretary of the Queen, our lady, had 
this written out by order of the king, her father. Agreed to by 
the bishop of Palencia. 

XXXIII. 

29 ( ?) octobre 1511. 

LETTRES PATENTES DE LA REINE JEANNE RATIFIANT LA NOMI- 
NATION d'aGRAMONTE COMME CAPITAINE DE 

l'expédition. 

De Oficio, Ott° XI. 
Doüa Juana, etc. 

Por quanto en cierto asyento é concierto que por mandado 
del Rey, my Señor é padre, é myo, se tomó con vos, Juan 
de Agramonte, catalan, natural de Lérida, para que vos 
ayais de yr, é vays con los navios é con la gente que vos 
paresçiere, á vuestra costa é myson, á descobrir é hallar 
una tierra que se llama Terranova, por la via é derrota que vos 
será señalado por my mandado por un memorial, firmado del 
obispo de Palençia, mi capellán mayor é del mi consejo, é por 
Lope Conchillos, mi secretario é del mi consejo; é en la dicha 
capitulación é asyento que ansy con vos se dio, está asentado que 

1 Plus tard Charles V. 



112 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

vos avais de ser é seays nuestro capitán de la diclia gente, ansy 
por mar, como por la tierra que vos allí descubriérdes, é fasta 
ser vuelto con la nueva de lo que ansi íallárdes é descubriérdes ; 
por ende compliendo lo que ansy con vos fué asentado, y entend- 
iendo ser ansv complidero al servicio de Dios, nuestro Señor, 
é á la execucion de nuestra justicia, é á lo que conviene para el 
dicho viaje, es mi merced é voluntad, por la parte que á my sy 
toca, que vos, el dicho Juan de Agramonte, tengays por nos la 
capitania, ansy por mar como por tierra, de la gente que fuere 
con vos el dicho viaje, fasta ser vuelto é desembarcado con la 
nueva de lo que en la dicha Tierranova f aliardes, é que como tal 
capitán podays usar é useys por vos é vuestros lugartenyentes 
el dicho oficio, segund é de la forma é manera que se contiene en 
un capítulo de la dicha capitulación que con vos se asentó sobre 
lo susodicho, su tenor del cual es este que se sygue 1 : 

E por esta my carta ó por su treslado, sygnado de escribano 
público, mando á todas é qualesquier personas que en los dichos 
dos navios que vos ansí llevárdes, fueren, é en la dicha Tierra- 
nova asentaren é estovyeren, fasta ser vos vuelto é desembarcado 
con la dicha nueva, que vos ayan é tengan por nuestro capitán 
de todo ello, é vos obedezcan é dexen é consyentan usar é exercer 
el dicho oficio, y executar la nuestra justicia, ansy en la mar 
como en la tierra, todo el dicho tiempo, por vos ó por vuestros 
lugartenientes; é podays oyr é librar é determinar, é oyays é 
libres é determines todos los pleitos é caubsas, ansy civiles como 
cremynales, que en la dicha mar é tierra se movieren durante el 
dicho tiempo ; é podays llevar é lleveys vos é los dichos vuestros 
lugartenyentes, los derechos é salarios al dicho oficio anexos é 
pertenesçientes, segund é por la forma é manera que fasta aqui 
se ha llevado é lleva por los otros nuestros capitanes que han 
ydo á semejantes cosas, é que como tal capitán podays fazer é 
fagays qualesquier pesquisas en los casos de derecho permisas, é 
todas las otras cosas al dichi oficio pertenecientes, é que vos 
entendays que á nuestro servicio é a la execucion de la nuestra 
justicia é al bien del dicho viaje cumple; é que para usar e 
exercer el dicho oficio, é complir é executar la nuestra justicia, 
todos se conformen con vos é vos den é fagan dar todo el favor 
é ayuda que les pidiérdes é menester oviérdes, conforme al dicho 
capitulo que de suso va encorporado, é que en ello, ny en parte 
dello, embargo ny contrario alguno vos non pongan, nin consveu- 
tan poner, ca Yo por la presente vos recibo é he por recibido ni 
dicho oficio de nuestro capitán, é al uso é exercício del, e vos dov 

1 Omis dans le manuscrit. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 113 

poder complido para lo usar y exercer, é complir é executar la 
nuestra justicia, ansy por mar como por tierra por el dicho 
tiempo, en la forma suso dicha, con todas sus yncidencias é 
dependencias, anexidades é conexidades, con tanto que vos ni las 
otras personas que con vos fueren, ny ninguno dellos, podays nin 
puedan rescatar cosa alguna, syno por antel nuestro escribano 
del dicho viaje, so pena de lo aver perdido lo que por el tal 
rescate se oviere, é sea para nuestra cámara é fisco; é ansy 
mismo por esta my carta mando al my almirante mayor de la 
mar, é á todos los otros capitanes que andan ó anduvieren en 
ella, é á todos los concejos, justicias, regidores, caballeros, escu- 
deros, oficiales é ornes buenos de todas las ciudades é villas é 
lugares é puertos é abras de la mar, donde vos fuérdes, apor- 
tardes con la dicha gente é navios, que vos ayan é tengan por 
nuestro capitán délia, é vos dexen é consientan usar el dicho 
oficio, según d é como dicho es, é que en ello nin en cosa alguna, 
ni en parte dello embargo nin ympedimento alguno vos non 
pongan, nin consyentan poner, é los unos nin los otros, etc. 

From the Archives at Simancas, Registro general del sello, 
octubre 1511; printed in Xavarrette, op. cit., Ill, num. 
octubre 1511; printed in Xavarrete, op. cit., Ill, num. 
XXXII, 125-7 ; and in the Colección de Documentos inéditos 
relativos al descubrimiento, etc., XXXIX, 208-11. 

XXXIIIa. 

Queen Joanna, etc. 

Whereas in a certain agreement and contract which by order 
of the king, my lord and father, and by my own, was made with 
you, John de Agramonte, Catalonian, born in Lérida, by which 
you are to go anc^ should go with the ships and men that to you 
seem proper, at your own cost and charges, to discover and 
find a land called Newfoundland, by the route and course which 
will be disclosed to you at my order in a document signed by 
the bishop of Palencia, my chief chaplain and one of the mem- 
bers of my council, and by Lope Conchillos, my secretary and 
one of my council ; and in the said stipulation and agreement 
thus made with you, it is agreed that you shall be and are our 
captain over the said people, as well by sea as on the land that 
you discover there, and until you return with news of what you 
have found and discovered ; wherefore in fulfilment of that 
which was agreed upon with you, and desiring to be helpful to 
the service of God, our Lord, and to the execution of our justice, 
and to all that pertains to the said voyage, it is my pleasure 

29837—8 



114 AKCHIVES CANADIENNES 

and will, in so far as concerns myself, that you, the said John de 
Agramonte, hold the capitainship for us, as well by sea as on 
land, over the persons who may go with you on the said voyage, 
until your return and disembarkation with the news of what 
you find in the said Newfoundland, and that as such cap- 
tain you may and do exercise by yourself and through your 
lieutenants the said office, according and in the form and man- 
ner which is contained in an article of the said contract which 
was agreed upon with you in regard to the above, the tenour of 
which is as follows 1 : 

And by these my letters or by a copy of the same, signed 
by a notary public, I command all and whatsoever persons you 
thus take with you in the said two vessels, who may go and settle 
in the said Newfoundland, and who may be there until your 
return and disembarkation with the said news, to hold and con- 
sider you as our captain over all, and to obey you and to allow 
and permit you to fill and exercise the said office, and by your- 
self or your lieutenants to execute justice for us as well by sea as 
on land for the whole of the said period ; and that you may hear 
and despatch and determine, and do hear and despatch and deter- 
mine all the lawsuits and cases, as well civil as criminal, which 
may arise on the said sea or land during the said period ; and 
that you and your said lieutenants may and do exact the fees and 
salaries annexed and belonging to the said office, according to 
and in the form and manner in which they have hitherto been 
exacted and are exacted by our other captains who have gone on 
similar expeditions ; and that as such captain you may and do 
hold all kinds of investigations permitted in law-cases, and per- 
form all other things belonging to the said office, and which in 
your opinion are fitting for our service, and for the execution of 
our justice and for the welfare of the said voyage ; and that in 
order to fill and exercise the said office and carry out and exer- 
cise our justice, all submit to you, and give and cause you to be 
given all the favour and aid you may ask them and may need, 
according to the said article set forth above, and that they 
neither place nor allow to be placed any hindrance or impedi- 
ment in this or in any part thereof; because I by these presents 
receive and have received you into the said office of our captain 
and into the employment and exercise of the same, and give you 
full power to use and exercise it and to administer and execute 
our justice, as well by sea as on land during the said period, in 
the form aforesaid, with all its incidents and dependence?, 

1 Cet article est omis dans le manuscrit. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE .CARTIER 115 

annexed and connexed, on condition that neither you nor the 
other persons with you, nor any one of them barters anything 
except in the presence of our notary for the said expedition, on 
pain of the loss of whatever be obtained bv such barter, which 
will be handed over to our exchequer and treasury; and likewise 
by these my letters I command my first admiral of the sea and 
all the captains that sail or may sail on the same, and all the 
councils, authorities, prefects, noblemen, esquires, clerks and 
good men of all the cities and towns and places and ports and 
harbours of the sea where you may go and land with the said 
people and ships, to hold and consider you as our captain of 
the same, and to permit and allow you to exercise the said office 
in the form and manner stated ; and that neither in this nor in 
anything or any part thereof, they place or allow to be 
placed any hindrance or impediment; and neither the one nor 
the other, etc. 

XXXIV. 

13 septembre 1512. 

SÉBASTIEN CABOT CONSULTÉ AU SUJET DE TERRE-NEUVE. 

El Rey — Sebastian Caboto. Ya sabeis como el Reverendo in 
Christo Padre Obispo de Palencia, my capellán mayor e del my 
Consejo, e Lope Conchillos, my secretario é del my Consejo, vos 
halbaron de my parte en la ciudad de Burgos ciertas cosas 
sobre la navegación de las Indias e Isla de los Bacallaos, e 
quedó entre vos e ellos que, escribiendo yo a mylor de Ulivi, 
vue&tro capitán, que os dejase venir á my corte, que luego 
verniades ; agora yo le escribo rogándole que os deje venir, 
como por la cédula que para ello le envio vereis : por ende, yo 
vos ruego y encargo que luego, en dandovos la dicha licencia el 
dicho mylor de Ulivi, os vengáis doquier que yo estoviere, 
porque, venido, se entenderá en lo que conviene sobre lo que los 
dichos Obispo de Palencia e Secretario Conchillos vos hablaron, 
y en esto no pongáis dilación, que en ello me servireis. — De 
Logroño, á trece dias del mes de Septiembre de quinientes é 
doce años — Yo El Rey. — Por mandado de Su Alteza — Lope 
Conchillos. — Señalada del Obispo de Palencia. 

From the Archivo de Indias at Seville, est. 139, caj. 1, leg. 
5, libro IV, fol. 19 v : printed in J. T. Medina, El veneciano 
Sebastian Caboto al servicio de España, etc., tomo 1, pp. 2-3. 
Santiago de Chile, 1908. Cf. Harrisse, Jean et Sébastien 
Cabot, 313-2. 

39837—8* ; • ' 



116 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



XXXIVa. 



The King 1 : Sebastian Cabot. You are already aware how 
the Rev. father in Christ, the bishop of Palencia [Fonseca], 
my chief chaplain and one of my Council, and Lope Con- 
chillos, my secretary and one of my council, spoke to you on 
my behalf in the city of Burgos in regard to the navigation to 
the Indies and island of the Codfish, and it was agreed between 
you and them that on my writing to Lord Willoughby [de 
Broke], your captain, to allow you to come to court, you would 
come at once. I am now writing to him as you will see by the 
enclosed paper, 2 asking him to allow you to come. Wherefore I 
beg and charge you that, on Lord Willoughby giving you the 
said permission, you come wherever I may be, in order that on 
your coming a proper agreement may be drawn up in regard to 
the matters whereof the said bishop of Palencia and Secretary 
Conchillos spoke to you ; and do not delay, for in this you will 
do me a service. From Logroño, 13 September 1512. I the 
King. By order of His Highness, Lope Conchillos. Counter- 
signed by the bishop of Palencia. 

XXXV. 

Janvier 1513. 

PARDON ACCORDÉ AU MAITRE PILOTE EN SECOND d'un VAISSEAU 
DE PÊCHE DE TERRE-NEUVE. 

Loys, etc à toux présens et advenir, savoir faisons, nous avoir 
receue l'humble supplicacion et requeste des parens et amys de 
nostre poure subgect Guillaume Dobel, fils Jehan Dobel, de la 
parroisse de Pleneut 3 en l'évesché de Sainct-Brieuc, contenant 
que comme ainsi soit, que à ung jour de lundy au moys de sep- 
tembre, l'an mil cinq cens dix, Guillaume de Brejehan ( ?) Ber- 
trán Menyer, Mathelin Picart, X. Dobel, Rolland Le Roux, 
Gilles Regnault, Allain Hercouët, Lorans Balaine, Anthoine 
Thomas et ung nommé Pierres Riou, autrement appelle 
RicaiTan, Guillaume Avoué, bastard, Allain Helliguen, sieur de 
Mauny, Guillaume Garroche et ledit Guillaume Dobel fussent 
en ung navire du havre de Daouet 4 , appelle la Jacquette, dudit 
havre, duquel navire ledit Bertram Menyer estoit maistre après 
Dieu, et ledit Guillaume Dobel contremaistre, partirent le 
matin d'ycelny jour audit navire du havre de Sainct Aulbin de 

1 Ferdinand d'Aragon. 

2 Voir Medina, op. cit., I. 4, où ce document a été imprimé. 

8 Aujourd'hui Pléneuf dans le département des Côtese-du-Nord. 
4 Dahouët, petit port situé près de Pléneuf. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 117 

Quillebeui 1 en la ripviere de Senne, venans de la ville de Rouan, 
où lesdits nommez avoint vendu du poysson qu'ilz avoint esté 
quérir et pescher es parties de la Terre-Ñeusfve. Et comme ilz 
furent desplacez et esloignez dudit havre de Sainct-Aulbin, en- 
viron une lieue et demye, ayante la voille au vent, tirans leur 
route pour s'en venir descendre audit havre de Daouet, ledit 
Mathelin Picart dist qu'il convenoit ranger la boueste. Sur- 
quoy ledit Guillaume Dobel, quel a lors avoit la charge de gou- 
verner et conduyre ledit navire, dist que ledit navire avoit trop 
de treff, et que ledit Picart n'estoit que un diot. Et comme 
ledit Guillaume Garroche, qui lors gouvernoit ledit navire o le 
heaulme et gouvernail d'yceluy navire, commancza à parler du 
mareaige dudit navire, ledit Guillaume Dobel luy dist, qu'il 
n'estoit pas pour en parler et qu'il n'estoit que ung veau. Et sur 
celles parrolles et que ledit Garroche laissa ledit gouvernail et 
entra sur le tillac, ou derrière d'yceluy navire, disant par telles 
parrolles ou semblables : " En effet le tout est jeu que de frap- 
per " , ledit Guillaume Dobel lui donna ung coup de sa main sur 
le vissaige, et par en prés, voyant que ledit Garroche murmuroit 
contre luy, et qu'il avoit abandonné ledit gouvernail dudit na- 
vire, ce luy Guillaume Dobel tira ung pongnat et courte dague, 
qu'il avoit à son costé, et commencza à marcher vers ledit Gar- 
roche. Quel Garroche cuydant obvier audit Dobel, s'en partit à 
grant haste dudit lieu où il estoit, et yssit par le dehors dudit 
navire, se tenant o les mains au bort dudit navire. Et lors ledit 
Dobel, estant au dedans dudit navire, pourchassant celuy Gar- 
roche, ayant sadite dague mise en sa main, ledit Garroche cuy- 
dant tous jours obvier et se garantir dudit Dobel, lascha les mains 
dudit [bord?] 2 , chemynant vers le derrière dudit navire, de 
sorte qu'il tomba et cheut en la mer. Et tout incontinant l'un 
desdits mariniers, qui lors descendoit de la hune dudit navire, 
commencza à crier à haulte voicz par telles parróles : " Sauffve 
¡'homme " , en parlant dudit Garroche. Et à celle heure ledit 
Guillaume Dobel sortit ou petit bateau dudit navire, quel estoit 
amarré au bout d'yceluy navire, couppa une corde, appellee la 
housse, o laquelle ledit bateau estoit amarré, et luy ledit Ber- 
trán Menyer et Lorans Belyane, queulx pareillement sortirent 
audit bateau, nagèrent ledit bateau à grant dylligence droict 
audit Garroche, qui nageoit sur l'eau, cuydant le recouvrer et 
sauffver ; ce que ne peurent faire. Et fut ledit Garroche noyé 
et couvert tout incontinant en la mer. Et ce voyant ledit Guil- 
laume Dobel, et qu'il avoit esté cause de la mort dudit Garroche, 

1 Aujourd'hui Saint-Aubin sur Quillebeuf, faubourg de Quillebeuf à. 
Fembouchure de la Seine. 

2 Espace en blanc dans le manuscrit. 



118 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



de conrreux et desplaisir qu'il en eut, dist en luy mesme, qu'il ne 
retourneroit point audit navire, nagea ledit bateau droict à 
terre, et sortit hors dudit bateau, et dist adieu audits nommez. 
Et craignant estre accusé et aprehende de justice dudit cas, n'a 
dempuy osé ledit Dobel s'en venir, ne se tenir audit pays. 

Remanstrant oultre, que ledit Guillaume Dobel est jeune 
homme soubz l'eaisge de trente-deux ans, l'un des bons mariniers 
de ce pays et duché, et homme puor servir à la chose publicque, 
tant ou f aict de la guerre que autrement, de bon rest et honneste 
gouvernement, et lequel, auparavant ledit cas, n'avoit jamays eu 
haygne, ne consceu inimitié avecques ledit Garroche, mays par 
cas de fortune estoit ledit cas advenu, et que puis l'an avoit esté 
par lesdits parrens et amys dudit Dobel faict appoinctement o 
3a veuftVe dudit Garroche, en son nom et tutrice de son filz en 
elle procrée par ledit defïunct Garroche, son mary, et luy faict 
satisfacion pour son droict et interest, et en obtenu quictance 
par décret de court et consentement desdits parens et amys 
dduit deffunct ; nous suppliant qu'il nous plaise de notre grace 
et auctorité royalle lui impartir noz graces, remission et pardon 
dudit cas, tres humblement, le nous requérant. Pourquoy etc., 
pourvu qu'il, en personne, présentera cestes présentes lettres de 
grace aux prochains ou seconds généraux plectz de notre court 
et barre, de par devant celuy de noz juges 'qui les expedira, notre 
procureur dudit lieu et parties complaignantes, s'aucunes sont, 
pour faire verificación de ce que dessus. Donné à Vennes, ou 
moys de janvier, l'an de grace mil cinq cens doze, et de nostre 
règne le quinzième. Ainsi signé sur le replict ; visa, par le Roy, 
et à la relación de son conseil, Leleureux. 

From the Archives du département de la Loire-Inférieure 
at Nantes, série OM. B. 21, fols. 15-6, whence the above copy 
was kindly taken by M. L. Maître, the archivist of the Depart- 
ment. This document was first published by the late M. A. de 
La Borderie in his Mélanges d'histoire et d'archéologie breton- 
nes, II, 153-6, Rennes et Paris, 1858. Cf. also Annales de Bre- 
tagne, IX, 435-7, Rennes, 1894. 

XXXVI. 

14-17 décembre 1514. 

ARRANGEMENT CONCLU ENTRE LES MOINES DE t/ ABBAYE DE 
BEAUPORT ET EES HABITANTS DE l'ÎLE DE BRÉHAt\ DANS 
LEQUEL IL EST FAIT MENTION DE LA MORUE DE TERRE- 
NEUVE. 

Transaction entre l'abbé et convent de Beauport d'une part, 
et les habitants de l'isle de Bréhat d'autre, par laquelle lesdicts 

1 Ile de la côte française près de Paimpol. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 119 

habitans, pour demeurer quittes de 18 deniers nionoie qu'ils 
paioint par an pour droit de dixme de poësson par chaque habi- 
tant audessus de 18 ans se ineslant de pesche, et 9 deniers mon- 
noie par chaquun audessous dndict age, s'obligent de faire au- 
dict abbé et convent assiette de 100 soubz, monnoie de rente, aux 
paroisses de Plounez, Plouézec, Kériti ou Plouballanec, 1514. 
(Laquelle assiette fut faitte à l'abbaie de Beauport par acte de 
Tannée 1521 sur fond des pièces de terres de Goazriou en la 
paroisse de Plouézec 1 , faisans les hérittages de l'art. 3 du bail- 
lage en Plouézec). 2 

Sur l'action [et different qui] 3 estoit [meu et en espoir de] 
grandement mover et enssuir, tant par la court de monsieur le 
déan de Doul à Penpoul que aultrement, entre révérand père 
en Dieu, Jehan, ab [bé de l'abbaye Nostre] Dame de Beauport 
et le couvant dudict lieu, d'une part, et les parossiens desmor- 
antz et habitans en l'isle de Bréhat d'aultre partie, sur et en ce 
que lesdicts abbé et couvant et chacun avoint diet et propossé 
ou entendoint [dire] et proposser à l'ancontre desdicts habittans 
en ladicte ysle de Béhat (sic), que touz et checun les homes 
malles de ladicte ysle qui eussent excédez l'asgre de dix ouyct 
ans et qui peschassent en la mer o rays, ayns ou aultres engins à 
prandre poësson, de quelque sorte de poësson que ce fuct, tant 
congres, morues, merlux que aultres poëssons, en quelque part 
que ce soipt, tant en la coste de Betaigne (sic), la Terre-Neuffve, 
Islandre, que ailleurs, debvoint et estoint subgectz poyer et faire 
avoir ausdicts abbé et couvant de Beauport, leurs rescepveurs, 
commis et depputtez, pour debvoir de desme de leur poësson et 
pescherie, dix ouyct deniers monnoie; et ceulx soubz l'aisgue 
desdicts dix ouyct ans, neuff deniers monnoie, par checun an, à 
checun jour et terme de monsieur sainct Michel Montegargan, 
et queque soipt une foays l'an ; quel debvoir de desme de poës- 
son avoint lesdicts desmourantz en ladicte ysle de Bréhat, et 
leurs prédécesseurs de paravant eulx, faict possession de poyer 
par an, deux, troys, quatre, cincq, dix, vingt, trante, quarante, 
cinequante, sexante ans, et dedans approuver à suffire, et queque 
soipt par tant de tamps que valloit pour possession maintenir et 
garder en l'advenir ; et ce estre vroy et notaire, et lesdicts habit- 
fans en avoir esté cognoissans et confessans approuver à suffire, 
dont en avoint lesdicts abbé et couvant quis et demandé, ou en- 
tendoint querré et demander respons desdicts faietz envers les- 

1 Village près de Saint-Brieuc, département des Côtes-du-Nord. 

2 L'écriture du titre est du 17e siècle, tandis que celle des mots renfer- 
més entre parenthèses est du 18e. 

3 Pour remplacer les mots du manuscrit qui font défaut, les mots entr« 
crochets sont substitués conjecturalement. 



120 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



diets desmourantz en ladicte ysle et cheeun, concluantz ou en- 
tendoint conclure leurs diets cogneuz ou prouvez, aíñn qu'ilz fus- 
sent et soipnt condampnez, contraintz et compellés poyer et con- 
tinuer le temps futur, cheeun d'eulx respectivement, lesdicts dix 
ouyct et neuff deniers monnoie, cheeun an, pour ledict debvoir 
de desme, comme diet est, saufï droit des levées, despans, misses 

et intérestz ; lesquieulx desmourantz en ladicte ysle 1 

entendoint protester d'impertineneze desdicts faietz et d'alléger 
leurs péremtoères et deffanses, et au parenssus desdire avoir 

faict aulcune possession de poyer , ne ce estre notaire, et 

ne ilz en avoir esté cognoissans vers lesdicts abbé et couvant, et 
du parenssus dire n'en sçavoir rien. 

Sur desbat de quoy, pouroint tourner sur grande [contan- 
cion], o procès et pléderies, à leur grand préjudieze, soinpt et 
domaige ; et pour y obvier et meptre fin, pays, amour, et union 
entreulx nourir en l'advenir à cause de ce, saichent tous, que 
par nostre court du ressort de Goëllou, et auxi par celle 
de Penpoul 2 en Goëllou, et par checune et l'une 
Fexecucion de l'une ne impeschante l'autre, ains pour- 
ont concurre ensembles, et checune pour soy, ont esté 
présentz en droit davant nous, et personnellement estab- 
liz lesdicts révérand père en Dieu Jehan, abbé de 
ladicte abbaye et le couvant dudict lieu, sçavoir est: maistre 
Vincent Du Rochier, prieur de ladicte abbaye, fraire Jehan 
Huect, soubz prieur, fraire Almaury de La Cuisine, ballif, 
fraire Henry Gervaisse, fraire Bertram Brousse, Jacques Gué- 
zou, Rolland Saoulect, Phélippes Le Gricquer et plusseurs anl- 
tres religieux de ladicte abbaye, congrégez ensembles à son de 
campane en chapittre, en leur manière acoustumée, pour trecter 
et disposser de leurs négoces et affaires, auquel couvant à sa 
requeste ledict révérand père en Dieu a donné et donne auc- 
torite et pouër quant à tout le contenu en cestes et qui enssuyet, 
faire gréer, fournir et tenir, d'une part; et Nicolas Martin, 
Rolland Le Paige, aultrement Huon, Laurens Méryen, Rolland 
Le Brigant, Jehan Bourssoul et cheeun, de l'isle. de Bréhat, tant 
en leurs noms que comme procureurs o pouër esprès de et pour 
les aultres desmorantz en ladicte ysle, quant et affin de trans- 

siger et appointer touchant ladicte cause et mattière 

o et aveseque lesdicts abbé et couvant, ainsi et de la forme que 
si les habitans et desmourantz en ladicte ysle eussent esté pré 
sentz en personnes, et eussent peu faire et aultrement, sellon au 
dessir de l'acte de procuration présentement aparue, dabtée du 

1 Le manuscrit est illisible aux endroits indiqués par des points. 
■ Paimpol. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 121 

dixiesme jour de décembre, présent moays, passée de Jehan Du 
Vieuchastel et Kolland Bocher, notaires soubscriptz, et scellée ; 
et d'abondant lesdicts procureurs sur nommez desdicts habi- 
tants, et chacun en leurs privés noms, trouveront les aultres par- 
rossiens, demourantz et habitantz en ladicte ysle, dedans quinze 
jours prouchains venantz, à ratiffier et avoir agréable cest ap- 
poincté et quy enssuyct, à la paine de vingt escuz d'or ; quelle 
ratification vauldra en absance comme en présence desdicts abbé 
ec couvent, d'aultre. part; se submectantz et se submectent d'une 
part et d'aultre, o touz et checun leurs biens et par leurs 
sermentz, aux destroict, juridicion, seigneurie et oboissance de 
nostres dictes courtz et checune, quelles ont prorogées et proro- 
gent sur eulx et leursdicts biens, quant audict contenu en cestes 
et qui enssuyct, faire gréer, fournir, tenir et acomplir. Et ce 
faict, ont lesdictes parties et checune respectivement, sur les 
chosses et mattières dessus présuppossées, leurs secquelles et 
deppandances, transsigé, paciffié, pacté, appoincté et accordé, et 
par cestes présentes transsigent, appointent, pactent, paciffient 
et accordent par forme, que pour lesdicts Nicolas Martin, Hol- 
land Huon, Laurens Méryen, Jouhan Bourssoul, Rolland Le 
rBigant, et checun et esdicts noms, estre et demorer quietes, eulx, 
leurs hers et successeurs, à jamès, envers lesdicts abbé et couvant 
de Beauport dudict debvoir de desme de poësson, et ilz et checun 
en estre franc et exans à pescher en la mer, la part là où ils vou- 
ront et bon leur semblera, tant congres, morues, merlux que toutz 
aultres manières de poëssons, sans en poyer aulcune chosse aus- 
dicts abbé et couvant pour ledict debvoir de desme, ne pour aul- 
tre debvoir, à cause de la pescherie qu'ilz y feront et faczent 
faire ; ont lesdicts sur nommez et esdicts noms promis et se sont 
obligés, sur l'obligacion de touz et checun leurs biens, meubles 
et immeubles, présentz et f licteurs, et par leurs sermentz, bailler, 
libvrer et assoair, bailleront, libveront et assoëront en fons de 
héritaige, en bon lieu et valable, là où le seillon d'assiepte vaul- 
dra pour le moins 1 deniers, monnoie d'assiepte, aus- 

dicts abbé et couvant acceptantz, nully contredissant, la somme 
et nurabre de cent soubz, monnoie de rente de levée, sans desché, 
dedans six ans prouchains venantz, en l'une ou checune des par- 
roësses de Ploézec, Kériti, Ploénez ou Ploéballannec à esgart de 
prisageur ou prisageurs que choëssiront entreulx agréablement, 
et, au desport de ce, faire poyer la levée r>ar main ausdicts abbé 
et couvant, checun an, à checun jour et feste de monsieur sainct 
Michel Montegargan, à comanezer le premier poyement à la 
Saint Michel prouchaine venante, quelle levée, pendant faire 

1 Espace en blanc dans le manuscrit. 



122 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

ladicte assiepte, poyeront lesdicts Nicolas Martin, Rolland 
Huon, Laurens Méryen, Jehan Bourssoul et Rolland Le Brigant 
en leurs privez noms, sans que lesdicts abbé et couvant soibnt 
subgectz en faire action ne demande vers nulz aultres que vers 
eulx d'icelle levée. Auxi est diet, divissé et condicionné entreulx, 
que lesdicts révérand père en Dieu et sondict couvent ne seront 
subgict prandre en leur assiepte piecze de terre quelle ne vaille 
aulmoains troys boesseaulx froment de rente de levée, à la mes- 
sure de Goëllou, sy plus ne vault. Et par. tant fournissant ce 
que dessus est diet de la part desdicts Martin, Brigant, Huon, 
Méryen et Bourssoul et esdicts noms, sont et desmeurent quietes 
les ungntz vers les aultres desdictes parties, et checune respec- 
tivement, à cause de ce que dessus est supposé, en principal, 
levées, misses et intérestz, tant du desmaigne de la cause que 
aultrement, généralement et entièrement. 

Quelles chosses et checune dessus dictes, lesdicts nommez et 
checun pour ce que lui touche ont voullu, promis et juré par 
leurs sermentz, et sur 1' obligación de tous et checun leurs biens, 
présentz et advenir, tant meubles que héritaiges, ainsi tenir, 
fournir et acomplir, sans jamès encontre venir, et sans terme de 
parlier, jour, juge, exoine, plégement querré, avoir ne demander. 
A quoy et à toutes aultres dilacions, cavillacions, subterfuges 
quieulxconques, ilz et checun d'eulx ont renuncié et renunezent, 
et par leurs diets sermentz impeschant ou retardant l'effet, 
substaneze et entérineneze de cestes. Et nous, de leurs assente- 
mentz ad ce tenir et fornir, les avons condampnez et condamp- 
nons. 

Donné tesmoign le scel estably aux contraetz de nousdictes 
courtz et checune y appossez, à la relación des notaires et tabel- 
lions cy soubzcriptz, à leurs prières et requestes. Ce fuct faict 
et grée prins audict lieu de Beauport et oudict chapittre, le 
quatorziesme jour de décembre, l'an mil cinq centz quatorze. 
En interligne esiabliz approuvé et en cancelle ledict et rep- 
prouvez. Donné comme dessus. 

G. Folvays, passe. R. Bocher, passe. 

J, Du Vieuchastel, passe. 

Dampuiz l'escript cy dessus, le dimanche dix-septiesme jour 
dudict moays de décembre, l'an mil cincq cents quatorze, au 
pronne de la grande messe domynicalle célébrée en l'esglise par- 
rocielle de l'ysle de Béhat (sic), les parrossiens desmourantz et 
habitantz en ladicte ysle congrégez et ensembles pour ouyr le 
service divin, et trecter de leurs négoces et affaires populaires, 
et que que soit la plus saine et mère somme d'iceulx, sçavoir est : 

Les mots en italique ont été raturés dans le manuscrit. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 123 



Arthur Le Pellec, Gillect Elbin, Nicolas Palou, Yvon Guillou, 
Jouhan Leconiffle,. Yvon Le Pellec, Jacques Estiemble, autre- 
ment Séré, Olivier Le Bornyc, Juher Le Bras, Olivier Le Bri- 
gant, Thomas Prigent, Gillect Le Guern, Jouhan Le Brigant, 
Guillaume Le Dreuannec, Guillaume Le Lès, Guillaume Le 
Chenis, Thomas Kaërenbellec et plusseurs aultres, lesquieulx 
parrociens et checun d'eux, et comme que soit la mère voulx 
d'iceulx, amprès la lecture leur avoir esté présentement faicte 
de la transsaction et appoincté cy dessus escripte, dabtée du 
xiiii e jour de cest présent moays de décembre, passée des 
notaires soubzcriptz, y rescours, enssuy entre révérand père en 
Dieu, Jehan, abbé de l'abbaye Nostre Dame de Beauport et le 
couvant dudict lieu, d'une part, et Nicolas Martin, Jouhan 
Bourssoul, Rolland Huon, Laurens Méryen, Rolland Le Brigant 
et checun d'eulx, procureurs à celle fin desdicts parrociens des- 
mourantz et habitantz en ladicte ysle et pour checun d'eulx, 
d'aultre partie, et icelle transsaction et appoinctement avoir 
esté descleré et donné à antendre de moult à aultre, o tout son 
effect et sustancze ausdicts parrossiens, lesdicts parrossiens des- 
mourantz et habitantz en ladicte ysle, nully contredisant, ont 
ratiifie, loué et eu agréable, ratifient, louent et ont agréable la- 
dicte transsaction et appoincté, voullantz et veullent qu'il tienne 
et sorte son effect, ainsi et de la forme que si ilz et checun d'eulx 
eussent esté présentz audict appointement faire, promectantz, 
promectent et jurent par leurs sermentz, et sur l'obligacion de 
touz et checun leurs biens, meubles et immeubles, présentz et 
fucturs, ladicte transaction tenir, fournir et accomplir de point à 
aultre, sans jamès en contre venir, et cetera. Gréé et juré en 
toute mère fourme des contractz et o parailles renunciations que 
audict transsact sur dabté; submission, prorogation de juridic- 
tion, et cetera, par nosdictes courtz du ressortz de Goëllou, Pen- 
poul, et par checune et l'une, et le grée prins audict lieu les- 
dicts jour et an. Il y a en cancelle elle repprouvé. 

R. Bocher, passe. J. Du Vieuchastel, passe. 

From the Archives of the Department of the Côtes-du-Nord, 
série H, fonds de l'abbaye de Beauport: printed in the Annales 
de Bretagne, IX, No. 2, 176-82. Rennes, Janvier, 1894. The 
present copy was kindly collated with the original by Monsieur 
Tempier, the archivist of the Department, who himself first 
made known this document at a meeting of the Historical and 
Archeological Society of the Cotes-du-Nord held on 11 June, 
1886. Cf. Mémoires de la société archéologique des Côtes-du- 
Nord, 2 e série, vol. II, p. XXXIII, Saint-Brieuc, 1885-6. 



124 AKCHIVES CANADIENNES 

XXXVII. 

18 février 1520 1 . 

VAISSEAU DE BAYONNE QUI DOIT PARTIR POUR TERRE-NEUVE. 

A Vos, Tres Honorables Seinhors, Mess rs Los Loctenent de 
moss or Lo Maire, Esclevins et Conseilh de Baionne: 

Supplicque humblement Pes de le Lande, disen que a inten- 
ción, au plaser de Diu, tremecte son nabiu, aperat le Senct Pe, 
a Terre Nave, auquoau en ledite ciutat a cargat partide de quet, 
et sere content cargar le reste, si lodit nabiu pode bonemens pas- 
sar les passes, so que no luy sere possible, a cause que lodit 
nabiu trey grande aiguë. So considérât, pregue lodit suppli- 
cant que de vostres gracis vos placi luy donar congiit et liccenci 
de poder peracabar le cargue deudit nabiu au dejus Capbreton, 
chens prejudici deus establimens de ledite ciutat; et feratz bien. 

Viste la presente requeste, es estât autreyat congiit audit 
supplicant de poder peracabar sa cargue au dejus Capbreton, et 
asso de graci speciau, chens prejudici deus establimens et ediit 
deu Rey nostre seinhor. Feyt en conseilh, lo xviij e jorn de 
fevrer mil V e XIX. 

From the Archives Municipales de Bayonne, Registres de 
Délibérations en gascon du Corps de Ville, BB. 6, fols. 95-6 : 
printed in Archives municipales de Bayonne, Délibérations du 
Corps de Ville, Registres gascons, II, 242, Bayonne, 1898. 

XXXVIIa. 

. To you, most Honourable Lords, Messrs. the Lieutenant of 
the Mayor, Sheriffs and Council of Bayonne: 

Pes de Le Lande makes humble petition, setting forth that 
it is his intention, at God's pleasure, to send to Newfoundland 
his ship called the St. Peter, which is already partly loaded in 
the said city, and he would be willing to load the remainder, if 
the said vessel could easily pass the channels, but this will not 
be possible, for the reason that the said vessel draws much water. 
In consideration of this, the said petitioner begs that of your 
goodness you will be pleased to grant him permission and 

1 Dans ses Recherches historiques sur la pêche de la morue et la 
découverte de Terre-Neuve. (Pau. 1893) p. 55, M Ducéré fait mention d'un 
document remontant à 1512. L'auteur a fait savoir depuis que cette date 
était le résultat d'une erreur de la part de l'imprimeur et qu'il s'agissait 
de 1520. Voir Archives municipales de Bayonne. Délibérations du Corps 
de Ville, Roles gascons, vol. I, p. XXV. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 125 

licence to be allowed to complete the cargo of the said vessel 
below Capbreton, 1 without prejudice to the regulations of the 
said city; and you will do well. 

The present request having been read, permission has been 
granted to the said petitioner to be allowed to complete his cargo 
below Capbreton, and this by special favour, without prejudice 
to the regulations and edict of the king, our lord. Given in 
council, 18- February, 1519 (n. st. 1520). 

XXXVIII. 

6 mars 1521. 

UN VAISSEAU DE BAYONNE EN PARTANCE POUR TERRE-NEUVE. 

A Monseinhor lo Loctenent de Monseinhor Lo Maire, Es- 
clevins et Notable Conseilh de Baionne : 

Supplicquen humblement los seinhors Miqueu de Segure et 
Mathieu de Biran, disen que, au plaser de Diu, an délivrât 
tremecte lor nabiu ente Terre Nabe, a le pesque, et lor combien 
grand quantitat de bitailhes, Et enter autres causes lo nombre 
et quantitat de quorante pippes de pomade, de les meilhors que 
se puisquen trobar. Et sie aixi, que lodit de Segure a ung ver- 
ger en son vourdiu a Senct Esteben, lo quoau fey cultivar a sons 
despens, et aye certan nombre de pomades de quet; et aussi lodit 
de Biran aye certans deutes a Seinhanxs, deusquoaus luy com- 
bien predne son paguement en pomades. So considérât, pre- 
guen, supplicquen et requeren losditz supplicans, que vous placi 
lor baiihar congiit, de graci speciau, et chens prejudici deus 
establimens de ledite ciutat, de cargar audit nabiu quoarante 
pipes de pomades estranges, partide deu bordiu deudit de Se- 
gure et lo surplus de Seinhanx, per la provision et abitailhement 
deudit nabiu ; et feratz bien. 

Aixi signât: M. de Biran. 

Viste le presente requeste et aquere en conseilh comunicade, 
ordenat es estât que losdits supplicants, ampres que an jurat 
enter les mangs de Monseinhor lo Loctenent, que lor sera licit et 
permes cargar en lordit nabiu, per habitailhement de quet, le 
mitât de les pomades ad aquet neoessari deu crescut de le ciutat, 
et l'autre mitât de les deusditz supplicans. Et asso de graci 
speciau, considérât lo viadge que lodit nabiu a près, et chens pre- 
judici deus establimens de le ciutat fasens mention deus vins et 
pomades et autres restrinctions et edict deu Rey, nostre seinhor, 

1 Petite ville sur la baie de Biscaye, au nord de Bayonne. 



126 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

quoant aux portz, cargues et descargues. Et si sou trobatz f asen 
lo contrari, incorrerau l'amende de cent livres tornes, applicque- 
deyres aus affars de ledite ciutat Feyt en conseilh, lo vj e jorn 
de mars, l'an mil V e et vingt. 

DAYMAR. 

From the Archives Municipales de Bayonne, série BB. 6, 
fol. 189 ; printed in Archives municipales de Bayonne, Délibé- 
rations du Corps de Ville, Registres gascons, II, 281. 



XXXVIIIa. 

To My Lord the Lieutenant of My Lord the Mayor, Sher- 
iffs and Notable Council of Bayonne : 

Messrs. Michael de Segure and Matthew de Biran make 
humble petition, setting forth that they have decided, at God's 
pleasure, to send their vessel as far as Newfoundland to fish, 
and they need a large quantity of provisions, and among other 
things the number and quantity of forty butts of cider, of the 
best that can be found. And this being so, that the said de 
Segure has an orchard on his farm at St. Stephen, which is 
worked at his expense and from this he has a certain amount of 
eider ; and also the said de Biran has certain debts at Seinhanx 1 , 
for which he is willing to take payment in cider. In considera- 
tion of this, the said petitioners beg, supplicate and ask that 
yuo will be pleased to grant them permission, by special favour 
and without prejudice to the regulations of the said city, to load 
on board the said vessel forty butts of outside cider, part from 
the farm of the said de Segure and the surplus from Seinhanx, 
for the provision and victualling of the said vessel ; and you will 
be doing well. 

Signed: M. de Biran. 

The present request having been read and considered here 
in council, it has been ordered that the said petitioners, after 
they have taken oath before My Lord the Lieutenant, shall be 
allowed and permitted to load cider in their said vessel for the 
provisioning of the same, half the amount necessary thereto 
being grown in the city, and the other half being that belong- 
ing to the said petitioners. And this by special favour, in 
consideration of the voyage the said vessel is to make, and with- 
out prejudice to the regulations of the city making mention of 

1 II s'agit peut-être de Cénac dans le département de la Gironde. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 127 

wines and ciders, and to other restrictions and edict of the king, 
our lord, relating to the ports, loading and unloading. And 
should they be found doing the contrary, they will incur a ñne 
of one hundred livres tournois, to be applied to the affairs of 
the city. Given in council, 6 March, 1520. 



DAYMAK 1 . 



XXXIX. 



13 mars \ 

22 mai ] 



1521. 



RATIFICATION DES LETTRES PATENTES ACCORDEES A FAGUNDES. 

Saibam quantos este estormento de trellado de doaçam, dado 
em pubrica forma per mandado e autoridade de justiça, virem, 
que no anno do nacimento de nosso Senhor Jesu Christo de mill 
V e XXI annos, aos xxii dias do mes de mayo, em a praça da 
villa de Viana de foz de lima, perante Affonso Lopez, vereador 
e loguo tente de juiz em a dita villa, em ausencia do doutor 
Francisco Méndez, juiz de fora com alçada em a dita villa e 
seu termo por elrrei, nosso Senhor etc. pareceo Joam Alvarez 
ffagundez, cavaleiro da casa do dito Senhor, e apresentou, e 
per mim, taballiam, leer e pubricar ffez ao dito loguo tente de 
juiz huma carta de doaçam, escripia em purgaminho e assinada 
com o próprio sinall delrrey, nosso Senhor, e aseellada do sseu 
seello pendente, da quall o trellado, de verbo a verbo, tall he 
como sse ssegue : 

Dom Manuel, per graça de Deus, Rey de Purtuguall e dos 
Álguarves, daaquem e daalem mar em Affrica, Senhor de Guiñee, 
e da conquista, navegaçam, comercio d'Etiopia, Arabia, Persia, 
e da India etc., a quantos esta nosa carta virem, ff azemos saber, 
que nos demos a Joam Alvarez Fagundes, cavaleiro da nosa 
casa, huum nosso alvará em que sse contem, que sintindo nos, 
asy por servyço de Deus e nosso, e por lhe ffazermos mercee, nos 
praz, que indo elle descobrir terras, lhe darmos e ffazermos mer- 
cee da capitania de todas aquellas ilhas e terras que elle des- 
cobrisse, asy e pella maneyra que sam dadas aos capitães das 
nossas Ilhas da Madeira e Açores ; e asy nos prazya, por quanto 
elle nom tinha ffilho macho, ssenam huma ffilha, que a dita sua 
filha e todos sseus ssocessores, asy por linha mascolina como 
ffeminina, podessem herdar a dita capitania, ssem embarguo 
da ley mentall, e que isto sse emtendesse naquellas cousas de que 
ja nom ffosse pasada alguma carta de mercee. E que nom po- 

1 Secrétatire. 



128 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

desse ir, nem sse entendesse esta mercee da primeira terra do 
Brasill, da banda do norte des contra o sull, ssenam pera o norte, 
ssegundo vimos per o dito alvará ; por bem do quall alvará elle 
fïoy a descobrir terras e ilhas haa dita parte nelle conteúdo, e 
ora nos fifez certo per testemunhas dinas de ffee, que elle achara 
as terras e ilhas sseguintes, a saber : a terra que sse diz ser ffirme, 
que he des a demarcaçam de Castella, que parte de banda do 
sull com a nossa demarcaçam, atee viir partir com a terra que 
os Corte rreaes deescobrirom, que hee da banda do norte ; aas tres 
ilhas na baya d'auguoada, na costa de nordeste e sudueste ; e as 
ilhas a que elle pos nome ffagumdas sam estas, a saber: sam 
Joam e sam Pedro, e santa Ana e santo Antonio ; e as ilhas do 
arçepelleguo de sam Panteliom com a ilha de Pitiguœm, e as 
ilhas do arçepelleguo das honze mill virgeens ; E a ilha de santa 
Cruz, que esta no pee do banco; e outra ilha que sse chama 
tanbem de santa Ana, que foy vista e non apadroada : das quaes 
terras e ilhas lhe ffazemos doaçam e mercee da capitania delias, 
asy e pella maniera que teemos dadas as capitanias da nosa ilha 
da Madeira e das outras ilhas, com todas as craussolas e condi- 
ções, declarações, graças e mercees, privilegios e liberdades con- 
teudas e declaradas nas cartas das ditas capitanias, asy no que 
toca haa jurdiçam como aas rendas, E em todo o mais nellas con- 
teúdo. E quanto ha ssocesam, avella ha como no dito alvará fiiz 
mençam: e mais nos praz de lhe Afazermos mercee E doaçam 
pella mesma maneyra ssobredita das saboarias, brancas e pretas, 
de juro e derdade, das ditas terras e ilhas. E porem mandamos 
aos veedores da nosa ffazenda, e a todollos nossos corregedores, 
juizes e justiças, contadores, vizinhos e moradores das ditas 
ilhas e terras, que ora sam e ao diante forem, que cunpram e 
guoardem e ffaçam em todo comprir e guoardar esta nosa carta 
ao dito Joam Alvarez ffagundez e a sseus ssocessores, et o 
metam em posse delias, ssem lhe nisso poerem duvida nem era- 
barguo algum, por que asy he nosa mercee, a vendo rrespeyto a 
sseus sserviços, E como o ssua propria custa e despesa elle des- 
cobrio as ditas terras e ilhas, e ffez nisso muyto gasto e despesa; 
E por ffirmeza de todo, lhe mandamos dar esta carta per nos asy- 
nada, E asseellada de nosso sseello pendente. Dada em a nosa 
muy nobre e ssempre leall cidade de Lixbõa, aos xiii dias de 
março. Manuell da Eonsseca a ffez, anno do nacimento de 
nosso Senhor Jesu Christo de mill V e XXI. E quanto haa 
jurdiçam que toca ao civill, emtenderssea que a aja e que usara 
delia asy e na maneira que ora usam os capitães da ilha da 
Madeira, e lhe he limitado por nos. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 129 

A quail carta asy apressentada, o dito Joam Alvarez rre* 
quereo ao dito loguo tente de juiz, que lhe mandasse delia dar 
o trellado em pubrica forma, por que lhe era necesario. E visto 
per o dito loguo tente de juiz sseu dizer, e a dita doaçam, como 
era careçente de todo vicio e ssospeiçam, interpôs em mim, 
taballiam, sua autoridade hordinaria, e mandou que lhe desse 
o trello que pidia em pubrica forma, o quall mandava que val- 
lesse e fíizesse inteyramente ífee como o próprio originall. 
Testemunhas que eram presentes : Gonçallo Pereira, Cavalleiro. 

Egas Lopez anes piloto pubrico e judiciall 

senhor que esta esprevi e aqui meu pubrico sinall. 

Logar do signal publico. 

From the Archives of the Senhor Conde de Bertiandos 1 : 
printed in E. A. de Bettencourt, op. cit., 132-5 ; and in the 
Archivo dos Açores, IV, 466-7, (with omissions). 



XXXIXa. 

Know as many as shall see this copy of a grant given in 
legal form by order and authority of justice, that on 22 May in 
the year of our Lord Jesus Christ 1521, in the market-place of 
the town of Vianna, at the mouth of the Lima 2 , before Alfonso 
Lopez, alderman and judge's deputy in the said town, in the 
absence of Dr. Francis Méndez, judge-advocate for the king, our 
lord, with jurisdiction over the said town and its environs, etc., 
appeared John Alvarez Fagundez, nobleman of the said lord's 
court, who produced and had me, the notary, read and publish 
to the said judge's deputy a grant, written on parchment and 
signed with the sign-manual of the king, our lord, and sealed 
w T ith his hanging seal, the tenour of which is, word for word, as 
follows : 

King Emmanuel, by the grace of God, king of Portugal and 
of the Algarves, of this and that side the sea in Africa, lord of 
Guinea and of the conquest, navigation and commerce of Ethio- 
pia, Arabia, Persia and of India, etc. To as many as shall see 
these our letters we make known, that we have granted to John 



1 Comme l'original se trouve à la maison de campagne de ce monsieur, 
dans le nord du Portugal, il a été impossible de comparer la copie ci- 
dessus. Le Conde de Bertiandos possède encore une maison à Vianna que 
sa famille a acquise comme la propriété de la fille de Fagundes. 

2 Rivière navigable jusqu'à douze milles de la mer. 

29837—9 



130 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Alvarez Fagundes, nobleman of our court, a charter of ours in 
which it is stated that, thinking it to be to God's service and our 
own, and in order to show him favour, it is our pleasure, should 
he set oft" to discover lands, to give and grant him the governor- 
ship of all those islands and lands he may discover, in the same 
form and manner that the governors of our islands of Madeira 
and the Azores have received their offices ; and it was our plea- 
sure, since he had no son but only a daughter, that his said 
daughter and her successors, both in the male as well as the 
female line, should inherit the said governorship, iotwithstand- 
ing any mental law, and that the above be understood of those 
matters in regard to which no grant of appointment has already 
been made. And that this grant should not include nor embrace 
the first land of Brazil from north to south, but towards the 
north, as we read in the said charter ; by virtue of which charter 
he set off to discover lands and islands in the region therein 
stated, and he now proves to us by witnesses worthy of credence, 
that he has found the following lands and islands, namely : the 
land said to be mainland which stretches from the line of de- 
marcation with Castillo 1 , which is contiguous in the south with 
our boundary, as far as the land that the Corte Reals discovered, 
which is in the north 2 : the three islands in Watering-place bay 
on the coast running north-east and south-west : and the islands 
named by him Fagundes are these, namely : St. John 3 , St. Peter, 
St. Anna and St. Antonio : the islands of St. Panteliom's archi- 
pelago, with Pitiguoem island: the islands of the Archipelago of 
the 11,000 Virgins 4 : the island of Santa Cruz, 5 which 
lies at the foot of the bank, and another island 
also named St. Anna, which was sighted but not put 
upon record; of which lands and islands we give 
and grant him the governorship in the same form and man- 
ner that w r e have granted the governorship of our islands of 
Madeira and the rest, with all the clauses and conditions, 
favours and salaries, privileges and liberties contained and set 

*A l'ouest de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon. Voir Atlas zvr Entdeckungs- 
gesehichte Amerikas. IV, de F. Kunstmmann. München 1859 et Die beiden 
ãltesten G en eral-Kart en von America de J. G. Kohl, Weimar, 1860. 

2 Terre-Neuve et le Labrador. Voir carte de Ribero dans l'édition de 
Kohi. 

8 Voir p. X, note 3 de l'introduction. Les autres n'ont pas été iden- 
tifiées. 

4 Saint-Pierre et Miquelon. Voir les cartes de Maggiolo et de Miller. 

6 Située au sud-est du cap Race, sur les cartes de Reinei, de Riccar- 
diana, de Vallard, de Cabot et sur la carte n° 4 de Kunstmann. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 131 

forth in the grants of the said governorships, relating both to 
jurisdiction and to the revenues, and with all else therein con- 
tained. And in regard to the succession, he is to have it in the 
manner set forth in the said charter. And furthermore it is our 
pleasure to give and grant him, in the above-mentioned manner 
with legal right and inheritance, the white and black soap-houses 
of the said lands and islands. And furthermore we command 
the comptroller of our estate and all our magistrates, judges and 
justices, receivers, dwellers in and inhabitants of the said islands 
and lands, both present and future, to carry out and observe 
Throughout, and to cause to be carried out and observed these our 
letters tu the said John Alvarez Fagundez and his successors, 
and to grant possession thereof to him without raising any diffi- 
culty or impediment, for such is our pleasure, in view of his 
services and of how at his own expense and cost he discovered 
the said lands and islands and spent therein much of his wealth. 
And in confirmation of all we command these letters signed by 
us and sealed with our hanging seal to be delivered to him. 
Given in our very noble and always loyal city of Lisbon on 
13 March. Emmanuel de Fonseca made this in the year of 
our Lord Jesus Christ 1521. And in regard to the civil juris- 
diction, it is understood he is to possess and use it in the form 
and manner that our governors of the island of Madeira now do, 
and to which we have restricted its use in his case. 

When this grant had been thus presented, the said John 
Alvarez asked the said judge's deputy to order a copy thereof in 
legal form to be given to him, as he was in need thereof. And 
when the said judge's deputy heard these words and saw that 
the said grant was free from all defects and suspicion, he inter- 
posed his ordinary authority, and ordered me, the notary, to give 
him the copy in legal form, which he directed should have the 
same force and complete credit as the original itself. Witnesses 
present : 

Gonzales Pereira, Knight, etc., e*"- 

Space for the public seal. 



29837— 9£ 



132 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

XL. 

31 mars 1521. 

UN VAISSEAU DE BAYONNE À DESTINATION DE TERRE-NEUVE. 

A V. tres honorables Seinhors, Mosseinhors Lo Loctenent, 
Esclevins et Conseilh de la Ciutat de Baionne: 

Remustren humblement los seinhors Pes de le Lande et 
Mathiu de Biran, marchans de ledite ciutat,, que cum a present 
lor nabiu apperat Le Marie sie arribat cargat de myne fens lo 
Boeau, et a causes de les grantz chorres, no es possible montar 
per far sa descargue en ledite ciutat; Et cum presentemens 
ajen délibérât tremete lodit nabiu en Terre Nave, a cause que lo 
temps es dispost a far lodit viadge, et si a present no lo fasen, 
lodit viadge sere pergut per tot l'an ; pareilhemens le compainhie 
se jacten los lachar si promptemens lodit viadge no se fey, a 
cause de que an feyt plusors galions et autres provisions, per 
que preguen et humblementz supplicquen a vos autres, mesditz 
seinhors, que aven reguoard a sso dessus, vos placi de vostres 
venignes gracis lor concedir congiit et liccenci de descargar audit 
Bocau, o plus hault, ont vos sera vist fasedor, ladite myne per 
aquere menar en coraus en ledite ciutat, affin de far lordit 
viadge ; car autrement si lodit congiit no los es permes, perderen 
lodit viadge qui lor sere ung très-grand dampnadge, auquoau vos 
plaira obviar. Et so fasen obligueratz losdits supplicantz a far 
servici a ledite ciutat en tot so que lor sera possible. 

Viste la presente requeste et aquere en conseilh comunicade, 
es estât donat congiit et liccenci ausditz supplicans de descargar 
audit Bocau, o plus hault, ladite myne, per aquere menar en 
coraus en le presente ciutat, en seguent lor requeste ; Et asso de 
graci speciau, chens prejudici deus establimens de ledite ciutat 
et ediit deu Bey, nostre seinhor, en pagan los dretz acostumatz. 
Feyt en conseilh, lo darrer jorn de mars mill V e XX. 

From the Archives Municipales de Bayonne, Registres de 
Délibérations en gascon du Corps de Ville, série BB. 6, fols. 
91-2 : printed in Archives municipales de Bayonne, Délibéra- 
tions du Corps de Ville, Registres gascons, II, 240. 



précurseurs de cartier 133 

XLa. 

To You, Most Honourable Lords, Messrs. the Lieutenant, 
Sheriffs and Council of the city of Bayonne : 

Messrs. Pes de Le Lande and Matthew de Biran, merchants 
of the said city, humbly set forth, how at present their vessel, 
called the Mary, has arrived within the Bocau 1 , loaded with red 
lead, and on account of the great currents, it is not possible to 
bring her up to unload her in the said city; and as they have 
now decided to send the said vessel to Newfoundland, since the 
weather is favourable for making the said voyage ; and if they 
do not do so at once, the said voyage will be lost for this year : 
likewise the sailors boast they will leave them, if the said voy- 
age is not promptly begun, to which end they have made sev- 
eral cases of biscuits ( V) and other provisions ; wherefore they 
beg and humbly petition you, my Lords aforesaid, that, taking 
the above into consideration, you will be pleased of your kind 
favour to grant them permission and licence to unload at the 
said Bocau or higher up, where it shall be quickly done, and to 
bring the said red lead in barges here to this said city, in order 
to set off on the said voyage; for otherwise if the said permis- 
sion be not given them, they will miss the said voyage, which 
will be a very great loss to them ; and this you will be pleased 
to prevent. And in so doing you will put the said petitioners 
under obligation to serve the said city wherever possible. 

The present request having been read, and here in council 
considered, permission and licence have been given to the said 
petitioners to unload the said red lead at the said Bocau or 
higher up, in order to bring it in barges here to this city, 
according to their request; and this. by special favour, on pay- 
ment of the accustomed dues, without prejudice to the regula- 
tions of the said city and edict of the king, our lord. Given in 
council, the last day of March 1520. (n. st. 1521). 

1 Port au nord de Bayonne 



134 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

XLL 

1 er mars! 
9 avril j 152L 

IL EST QUESTION d'üNE EXPEDITION À TERRE-NEUVE. 

Âti answer made to sert en of the hinges counsell as consernyng 
the hinges shippes to be occupy ed. 

The first day of Marche 1 here assembled my lord the maire, 
Sir Laurence Aylmer, M. Mononx, M. Milborn, M. Bayly, & M. 
Wylkynson, aldermen, M. Carter, M. Clerk, & M. Vaughan, 
Wardens & of the Counsell, M. Hawkyns, M. Crémor, M. Gaine, 
M. Rudston, M. Askue, M. Gentyll, M. Perpount, M. White, M. 
Champyon, M. Sadler, & M. Dolphyn, and at the said assembley 
yt was aggreed that the Wardens w* M. Rudston, M. Perpount 
& M. Dolphyn shall common v/ the Wardens of other aunncy- 
aunt ffeliships to knowe what aunswere were best to be made to 
the kinges shippys. And the same day, aftir assembley made 
at ffrere Austyns 2 by wardens of dyvers companys and aggreed 
all aftir one mynd, Ave made our aunswere in wry ting & 
delyvered yt unto the said counsell by thassent of this hows, 
the tenour where of is this that foloweth : 

The aunswere of the Wardens of Drapers of London unto 
the reporte of Sir Robert Wynkfeld and Sir VVblston Broun, 
knyghtes, and of our Soverayn lord the kiuges moste honorable 
counsell, ffirst where it h a the pleased the kinges highnes of his 
moste gracious zele, good mynd, and tendre favour towardes his 
merchaundes of London had, as by the reporte of the foresaid 
Sir Robert and Sir Wolston unto the said Wardens lately made, 
ffor the whiche moste gracious zele, good mynd and tendre 
favour, all we ben naturally bounden to pray to God for his 
moste gracious and prosperous contynuaunce in good helth and 
long lyf. And as toching the taking or receyving of one of the 
kinges shipps, we say we have noo auctorite to bynd our hole 
company and fteliship unto any suche charge. And also that 
in our company be but fewe Aventurors, saving onely in to 
fflaunders, where unto requireth noo grete shipps. ffurther- 
more we say that if it be the kinges pleasur to caws to be man- 
ned, rygged, appareled and vitayled suche a ship as the com- 
pany shall think convenient, that than we, the said wardens, shall 

1 De Tannée 1521, nouveau style. 
* Moines augustins. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 135 

applye us to labour our said company for to freght and laid the 
said ship to the best of our powers, having suche a resonable 
price of ye freght, as other shipps hath in lyke viage & lading. 
Also we thynk it is dowtfull that any English ship shalbe sufferd 
to laid in Spayn & in other countres, by reason of such actes & 
statutes there made, after suche lyke maner as be made in Eng- 
lond for gascon wyn & colles wood 1 from Burdeux. 

The xi day of Marche here assembled M. Monoux, M. Mil- 
born, M. Bayly & M. WyhWson, Aldermen, M. Carter, M. 
Clerk, M. Vaughan, Wardei.b, rhe hole counsell, the lyverey & 
the hole body of the fTeliship, ryche & poure, and at the said 
assembley was redd openly unto them the Articles folowing, 
directed unto us by the Wardens of the Mercers from the kinges 
Counsell and to x other crafters of the moste Aunciant, in thies 
woordes, that is to say: : 

Certen nomber of shippes to be appoynted to go into the new 

fownd lande. 

ffirst the king & my lord Cardinall 2 & the Counsell thynk- 
eth aswele for his honour as for the generall welth of this his 
Realm that there be appoynted a certayn noumbre of ships to 
be prepared for a via^e to be made into the newefound Hand. 

And his gracio 1 '» r ^easur is, that it be opened unto the gen- 
eraltie of mercha^ntes adventurers & to certayn companys to 
knowe there benevolent myndes there in. 

And the demaund that is required of you is to furnyshe v 
shipps aftir this maner : The kinges Grace to prepare them in 
takyll, ordenaunce and all other necessaries at his charge, And 
also the king to bere the adventour of the said shipps, And the 
merchauntes & companys to be at the charge of the vitayling 
and mennys wages of the same shipps for one hole yere, and the 
shipps not to be above vj D ton a peee. And also it is the 
kinges pleasur that this Citie of London shalbe as here Reulers 
for all the hole realm, for asmany Cites and Townes as be 
mynded to prepare any shipps forwardes for the same purpos & 
viage, as the Town of Bristowe hath sent up there knowlege, 
that they wyll prepare ij shipps ; And if ye be mynded to doe 
as afore is resyted, his gracious pleasur is that x yere after, 
there shall no nación have the trate but you. 

x Bois pou- faire des barriques. En vertu d'un statut de la 1ère année 
de Henri VII, le vin de Gascogne ne pouvait être transporté en Angle- 
terre que par des vaisseaux anglais. 
W olsey . 



136 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

And to have respyte for there custom xv monthes & xv 
monthes, and the said Wardens to make aunswere in wryting of 
the premisses aforesaid bitwen this & Wednysday next com- 
myng. 

The premisses considered, the Maister, Wardens & coun- 
sell endeverd them furthwith w* the best wordes, exortacion and 
diligence, to knowe the benivolent mynd of every man there 
assembled at that tyme, and also commaunded them that than 
were absent to come bifore my lord the maire and them the 
next morowe aftir. Soo that all there graunts amownted to a 
small somme. And my lord & maisters seying that, made 
there aunswer in form folowing, that is to say: 

Answer made to byl sent by the Wardens of Mercers. 

The aunswere of the Wardens of Drapers of London w* 
thassent & consent of the moste parte of all there company, 
unto a byll lately sent unto them by the Wardens of the Mercers 
of London consernying the appoyntement of v shipps to be 
prepared towardes the Newefound Hand. 

ffirst the foresaid Wardens & company of Drapers supposen 
and say, that if our Soverayne lord the kinges highnes, the Car- 
dinalles grace and the kinges moste honorable counsell were 
duely & substauncially enformed in such maner as perfite 
knowledge myght be had by credible reporte of maisters & mari- 
ners naturally born w* in this Realm of England, having ex- 
perience, and exercised in and abowt the forsaid Hand, aswele 
in knowlege of the land, the due courses of the seey, thiderward 
& homeward, as in knowlege of the havenes, roodes, poortes, 
crekes, dayngers & sholdes there uppon that coste and there 
abowtes being, that than it were the lesse joperdy to aventur 
thider than it is nowe, all though it be ferther hens than fewe 
English maryners can tell. 

And we thynk it were to sore aventour to joperd v shipps w* 
men & goodes unto the said Hand uppon the singular trust of 
one man, callyd as we understand, Sebastvan 1 , whiche Sebas- 
tyan, as we here 2 say, was never in that land hym self, all if 
he makes reporte of many thinges as he hath hard his ffather 
and other men speke in tvmes past. 

And also we say that if the said Sebastyan had bene there 
and were as connyng a man in & for thooe parties as any man 

1 II s'agit sains doute de Sébastien Cabot. Voir Jean Cabot et Sébas- 
tien son fils, de Harrisse, 168-73. 

2 Lire hear. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 137 

myght be, having non other assistauntes of maisters & maryners 
of Englond, exercised & labored in the same parties, for to guyd 
there shipps & other charges than we knowe of, but onely 
trusting to the said Sebastyan, we suppos it were no wysdom to 
aventur lyves & goodes thider in suche maner, what for fere of 
syknes or dethe of the said Sebastian, or for desevering of the 
said v shipps by nyght or by day, by force of tempestes or other- 
wyse, one from an other owt of syght, for than it shuld be gretely 
to dowte wheder ever thes v shipps shuld mete ayen in com- 
pany or nay, for the said Sebastian cannot be but in one ship, 
than the other iiij or shipps & men standes in grete perell, for 
lak of connyng maryners in knowledge of thoos parties, and to 
ordre & guyd them; and soo the vitaylles and mennys wages 
shalbe spent in vayn, and they glad to retorn homeward w* 
small comforte, for it is said among maryners in °ld proverbe: 
" he salys not surely that salys by an other mannys compas." 

Also we say that it is not possible that the said v shippes, 
besides there Balast, may receyve the vitaylles to suffice so many 
men for one hole yere, soo that we think verely that in this 
adventous can be percevyd any advauntage or profeit to growe 
unto any man, but rather los.se and damage, besides the gretest 
joperdy of all, whiche is mennys lyves. 

Than aftir that this our Aunswere and the Aunswers of x 
other crafts were debated & resoned among them all at Saynt 
Thomas of Akers 1 , they aggreed to send furth the Governour 
and iiij or Wardens of divers misters unto my lord Cardynall w* 
this commyssion folowing: 

Here aftir foloweth the Articles that the commissioners sent 
to my lord Cardynall from the Wardens of xj «company s to be 
spoken in the behalf of the said Wardens. 

fïyrst the foresaid Wardens sayen that there companys be 
wyllyng to accomplishe the kinges desire and pleasur in fur- 
nysshing of ij shippys accordingly, and they suppos to furnyssh 
the thryd, soo that one may bere w* an other indifferently of xj 
fïelishippes assembled w* the Aldermen of the same, And also 
uppon eertayn articles to them to be graunted by the kinges 
highnes & his honorable Councell. 

And the said wardens desyre to have lenger respyte for a 
full aunswere therein to be yeven. 



1 Voir Some Account of the Hospital of St. Thomas of Aeon, par J 

Watney, Londres, 1892. 



138 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

The said commissioners brought aunswere fro my lord Car- 
dynall that the king wold have the premisses to go furth and to 
take effect. And there uppon my lord the maire was send for 
to speke w* the king for the sam matier so that his grace 
wold have no nay there in, but spak sharpely to the maire to 
see it putt in exeeucion to the best of his power. 

ñor the same purpose the xxvj day of Marche my lord the 
Maire commaunded the hole company of all this fraternité to 
assemble bifore hym at the Drapers hall, where was w* grete 
labour & deligence & many divers warnynges, graunted first & 
last ij c marees 1 , presentyd by a byll to the maire, the ixth day 
of April in this maner: 

i'f marchs grauntyd towart maryners wages & rygging of 
shippes to the new found land. 

The Maister and Wardens of Drapers of London in the names 
of all there company graunten of there benevolent myndes to 
pay towardes maryners wages and vitayling of certain shippes 
for one viage to be made by the grace of God into the Newfound 
Hand ij c marees under suche condición as shalbe articled 
bit wen the king.es moste Noble counsell and the Adventurers of 
the said cite of London unto the foresaid Hand, the names of 
the payers & their severall sommes for the said ij c marees ap- 
pereth in the iijd leef following. 

Here aftir foloweth the Names of them that graunted to 
pay unto the charges of the viage to be made into the newefound 
Hand ij c marcs. 

My lord the maire, Sir John Brugge, VIII U . 
Sir Laur. Aylmer. 

Mr. Monoux, VHP. 

Mr. Milborn, VII U . 

Mr. Bayly, V u . 

Mr. Wvlkvnson for hvm & W m . Hartwell, X marees. 

Mr. Carter, XL S . 

Mr. Koche, IIP. 

Mr. Clerk, XL 9 . 

Mr. Vaughan, III". 

Mr. Hawkins, IIII marees. 

Mr. Crémor, V u . 

1 Le marc=13s 4<*. 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 



139 



°Ir. Starky, 


xiir iin d . 


Mr. Gaine, 


in u . 


Mr. Burton, 




Mr. Rudston, 


v u . 


Mr. Àskue, 


V marees, 


Mr. Hasylwod, 




°Mr. Brugge, 


XXVI s VIII d . 


Mr. Breverer, 


I/. 


Mr. Gentyll, 


IIII marees. 


Mr. Brothurs, 


IIII marees. 


Mr. Laur. Starky. 




Mr. Dixon, 


IIII 11 . 


Mr. Perpount, 


V marees. 


Mr. White, 


XIA 


Mr. Champion, 


XL S . 


Mr. Dolphyn, 


XL 8 . 


Mr. Burgh, 


XL S . 


Mr. Cradok, 




Mr. Sadler, 


XL S . 


Mr. Warner, 


XL S . 


Mr. Tryndyll, 


XL 9 . 


Mr. Greneway, 


! 


Mr. Bawdwyn, 




Mr. Monmoth, 


XL 3 . 


Mr. Doctor Ancarage, 




Mr. Pawlet, 




Mr. Eycroft, 




°William Venables, 


XX s . 


William Larke, 


XXVI s VIII d . 


John Hancokj 




John Happyffeld, 


XX s . 


John Smyth sen., 




John Southwod, 


XX s . 


°William Xele, 


XIII s IIII d . 


Rie. fforth, 




Thomas Ovand, 


XXVI s VIII d . 


° Arnold Babyngton, 


XX s . 


Thomas Spencer, 


XX s . 


John Parys, 


XXVI s VIII d . 


Pic. Bysshop, 


XX s . 



140 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



Bog. Dele, 


XL 8 . 


Matheu Boughton, 




John Parnell, 


XXVI s VIII d . 


Paneras Colred, 


XIII s IIII d . 


John Braunch, 


XX s . 


Ric. Prow, 


XL S . 


° William Prud, 


XIII s IIII d . 


° Thomas mud, 


XIII s IIII d . 


John Smyth jun., 


XX s . 


John Richardes, 


XL 8 . 


William Chamberlayn, 


XL S . 


John Kyddermyster, 


V u . 


Thomas Bartelet, 




° Thomas Barret, 


XIII s IIII d . 


° William Xicholson, 


XIII s IIII d . 


Thomas Gest, 


XX 8 . 


John Plummer, 


XX 9 . 


Thomas Huntyngfeld, 




° William Bowyer, 


III". 


Thomas Wattys, 


III". 


Ric. Warner, 




Thomas Howell, 




°Kobert Oke, 


XIII s IIII d . 


Robert Lees, 


XXVI s VIII d . 


William ffyssher, 


VI s VIII d . 


°Rog. Southall, 


XIII s IIII d . 


Sum of the graunte of the masters 


lyverey 


Am tb 




Bachillers. 




John Saunders, 


HI" VI s VIII d . 


°John Isaac, 


V marees. 


John Sadler, 


X s . 


Robert Alford, 


IIP IIII d . 


Bryan Hartwell, 


XL 3 . 


Jamys Apole, 


XXVI s VIII d . 


John Brokk, 


XX s . 


Stephen Gybson, 


XL 9 . 


John Goodryk, 


XL 9 . 


Henry Capell & Edward Capell, HIP 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 141 



William Thomson, 




XL 8 . 


Robert Ap Raynold, 




X 8 . 


Robert Nicholson, 




X a . 


Thomas Bough, 


VP 


VIII d . 


° William Burnygale, 




XX a . 


° Thomas Grafton, 


III a 


IIII d . 


Thomas Dudley, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


°Hugh Umpton, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


° Roger Lowdale, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


°Ric. Robynson, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


David Greffeth, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


°Peter Cave, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


° Sampson Crompton, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


°John Persons, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


° Thomas Stowell, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


° Thomas Pykmer, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


° Henry Chardnall, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


°John Swan, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


°William Page, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


°John Chaundeler, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


°Germayn Corbett, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


°Cristofer Ranwyk, 


IIP 


IIII d . 


° Edward Dee, 




II s . 


°John Clerk, 




IP. 


° Patrick Michelson, 




xx d . 


°Laur. Sulley, 




xx d . 


°John Dynhm, 


• 


xx d . 


°William Webbe, 




xx d . 


° Thomas Warner, 




xx d . 


°William Bayly, 




XII d . 


° Thomas a Wodd, 




XII d . 


Thomas Dady, 




XII d . 


° William Kent, 




XII d . 


° Robert Sandes, 




XII d . 


° Alexander Lee, 




XII d . 


° Peter Honyborn, 




XII d . 



Sum of the graunte of the Bachillers 
Am th C 

Memorandum that all the names bifore wrytten in this lefe 



142 AECHIVES CANADIENNES 



that have this ° uppon there heedes were not putt in my lord 
the maires byll. 

From the Records of the Drapers' Company of London, vol. 
VII (1514-50), pp. 167-70 and 175-6; printed in part in W. 
Herbert, History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of 
London, I, 410-11, London, 1837; and in Harrisse, The Dis- 
covery of North America, 747-50. 



XLII. 



21 août 1522. 



IL EST ANNONCE QUE LA FLOTTE DE VAISSEAUX DE PECHE 
ANGLAIS REVIENT DE TERRE-NEUVE. 

(i) 

A Letter from Vice- Admiral Fitzwilliam to Cardinal Wolsey. 

Also I sent for West, who should goo west- 

wardes to gyve hym his charge, and he shewed 
me he hath vitailles but for oon weke, wherfore 
he cannot goo soo farre off, as he shuld doo, w 1 soo small 
vitailles ; and that considered, your grace must doo oon of 
these two things, that is to seye, either sende vitailles unto 
hym incontynently, or elles let the Mary James goo in his place, 
who as yet is vitailled for ffyve wekes; and though it bee not 
long sythens Bawdewyn Willoughby, Capitayn therof, was 
made the kinges servant, yet I dare bee bownde for his hardy- 
nesse and truth. The oon of which two thinges must bee fel- 
lowed, ffor it were to grete a losse, that such ships as bee ap- 
pointed westwardes, shuld not bee sent forwardes afor the com- 
myng home of the new fown Isle landes flete. 

Written in the Dowries 1 , this Thursday at night, at xi of the 
clok, by your servant to the best of his power. 

WYLLIAM FFYTZWYLLIAM. 

Endorsed: To the lord Cardinalls Grace 

From Syr William Fitzwilliams. 

From the Public Record Office, Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, vol. 25, pp. 140~1 : summarized in the Calendar 
vol. 3, pt. 2, No. 2459. 

1 Entre la côte orientale de Kent et le banc de sable de Goodwin. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CAETIEE 143 

(2) 
Vice- Admirai Fitzwilliam to King Henry VIII. 

Please it your highness to understand that yesternyght I 
w 4 themporours armye arryved here, the circumstance wherof 
and of every other thing concernyng the same, I have written at 
length to my lord cardynalles grace, which I knowe well your 
grace will see, and therfore I trouble not your highnesse therw* 
at this tyme. And in contynent upon myne arryvalle here, I 
sent for my fellowe West, to have shewed hym your gracious 
pleasur concernyng his charge westwardes ; and he shewed me 
he was not vitailled passed for oon weke, which is farre to litle 
to goo into those parties, wherof I am right sorye ; ffor I assure 
your grace, by that that I can here and perceyve, he hath doon 
his duetie here right well, and is worthy thankes. But the caas 
is now that your grace must doo oon of these two thinges, that 
is to sey, either sende vitailles for hym incontynently, there 
maye no tract bee therin, or elles let the Mary James goo in 
her place, for now surely commeth home the new fownd Isle- 
land flete 

Written in the Downes, this Thursday at night, the xxi st 
dav of August, at xi of the clok, by your humble subgiet and 
most bownd servant, 

AVYLLIAM FFYTZWYLLIAM. 

Endorsed : To the kinges hignesse. From Master Fitzwilliams. 

From the Public Record Office, Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII, vol. 25, pp. 138-9 : summarized in the Calendar 
vol. 3, pt. 2, Ko. 2458. 

XLIII. 

17 septembre 1522. 

NOUVELLE RATIFICATION DU TRANSPORT DES LETTRES PATENTES 
DE GASPAR REAL À SON FRERE ANNES. 

A V o anes Corte Real, eonffirmacam da doacam que foy feita 
a Gaspar Corte Real, seu irmão das capitanias que elle des- 
cobrisse, etc. 

Dom Joam, etc. A quantos esta nosa carta virem, fazemos 
.saber, que por parte de V o . anes Corte Reall, fidalguo de nosa 
casa, nos foy apresentada hua carta delRey, meu senhor e padre, 



144 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

que sauta grolya (sic) aja, de que o teor tall he: Dom Manoell, 
per graca de Déos, Rey de Purtugall e dos Algarves, daquem e 
dallem mar em Africa, senhor de Guinea e da conquysta, nave- 
gaçam, comercio d'Etiopia, Arabia, Persia, da India, a quantos 
esta nosa carta de confirmaçam, [etc. as in Nos. XXVII and 

XVII, pp. 92-4 and 32-4] 

Alvoro Fernamdez a fez, de m b c . Pedimdonos a dito V o anes 
Corte Reall por merçe, lhe confirmamos a dita carta, e visto per 
nos seu requerimento, queremdolhe fazer graça e mercê, lha con- 
firmamos e avernos per comfirmada asy e pella maneira que nela 
he conteúdo, e mamdamos que asy se guarde, sem outra duvida. 
Feita em Lixboa a xbij dias do mes de setembro. Pero Fernam- 
dez a fez, ano do naçimento de noso Senhor Jhu X o de mil 
b c xxij. 

From the Archivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo, liv. XXXV 
de D. João III, fols. 2 V -3 V , and liv. XLIX of the same, fol. 243 v : 
printed in the Harrisse, Les Corte-Real, 226-7 ; and in the 
Archivo dos Acores, IV, 501. 



XLIIIa. 

la " capitainerie " de toutes les decouvertes qu'll devait 

FAIRE, ACCORDÉE À GASPAR CORTE REAL, EST TRANS- FEREE 
À SON FRÈRE ANNES CORTE REAL. 

King John 1 , etc. To as many as shall see these letters of 
ours, we make known, that there has been presented to us by 
Vasco Annes Corte Real, nobleman of our court, a grant of the 
king, my father and master, whom Heaven guard, whereof the 
tenour is : 

King Emmanuel, by God's grace, king of Portugal and of 
the Algarves, of this and that side the sea in Africa, lord of 
Guinea and of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of 
Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and of India, to as many as shall see 
this grant [etc. as in Xos. XXVIIa and XVIIa, pp. 94-6 and 
35-7] 

The said Vasco Annes Corte Real requesting us to confirm to 
him the said grant, we, having read his petition, and desiring 
to show him favour and to do him a kindness, confirm and hold 
it confirmed to him in the form and manner therein set forth : 

1 Jean III. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 145 

and we command that it be thus observed without further ques- 
tion. Done in Lisbon on the 27th day of the month of Sep- 
tember. Peter Fernandez made this in the year of the nativity 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, 1522. 



XLIV. 

27 mars 1523. 

ENTENTE AVEC GOMEZ AU SUJET DE LA DECOUVERTE d'uN 
PASSAGE AU NORD-OUEST. 

El Rey. 

Por quanto Vos, Estevan Gomez, nuestro piloto, Por nos 
servir, vos offreceis de yr á descubrir el Cathayo oryental, de 
que tenéis noticia y rrelacion, por donde hazeis fundamento des- 
cubrir hasta las nuestras yslas de Maluco, que todo cahe y es 
dentro de nuestros limites y demarcación; é que yendo por el 
dicho camino del Catayo oriental, ay muchas yslas é provincias, 
hasta oy no descubiertas, de mucha rriqueza de oro, plata y 
especierías y droguerías ; dando vos Yo licencia y facultad para 
ello, y mandado vos armar una carabela, de porte de hasta 
cinquenta toneles, armada y fornecida de mantenimientos por 
un año y algunas merca durias, que pueda costar, armada y 
puesta en horden, hasta mili y quinientos ducados, y probeyendo 
Vos del cargo de nuestro capitán de la dicha carabela, é otor- 
gandovos las cossas que de yuso serán contenidas; é Yo tubelo 
por bien con las condiciones y declaraciones siguientes: 

Primeramente, Vos doy licencia, para que vais a hazer el 
dicho viaje y descubrimiento, con tanto que no vais en los 
limites de la demarcación del Serenísimo Rey de Portugal, mi 
muy caro y muy amado primo y hermano, ni en cosa alguna de 
lo que le pertenesce, salvo dentro de nuestros límites ; porque 
nuestra voluntad es, que lo asentado v capitulado entre la corona 
rreal de nuestros Reinos y la de Portugal .se guarde y cunpla 
enteramente. 

Y para ello digo, que Vos mandaré armar a nuestra costa la 
dicha carabela del dicho porte de cinquenta toneles, y vos la 
mandaré bastecer y vituallar por un año, y poner en ella las 
mercaderías necesarias, y vos haré nuestro capitán delia, é dello 
vos mandaré dar nuestra provision patente en forma. 

29837—10 



146 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



Otrosí : Por hazer merced á nuestros subditos y naturales, es 
mi merced y voluntad de les dar licencia y facultad, y por la 
presente se la doi, para que sobre lo que nos mandaremos forn- 
ecer en la dicha carabela, puedan ellos armar y fornecer lo que 
faltare para el despacho y abiamiento de la dicha carabela; y 
les hago merced y concedo y doy licencia para que en las quatro 
primeras armadas que se armaren y fueren á las tierras y partes 
que vos descubrieredes, é por la parte que vos fueredes después 
desta, puedan armar y fornecer otra tanta cantidad como agora 
armaren, é siendo el armada maior, como se espera será, puedan 
contribuir en lo demás, sueldo á libra, del coste desta a lo que 
las armadas que adelante fueren é se armaren por la dicha parte 
costare, sin que sean obligados á nos pagar por este primero 
viaje derecho, ni otra cosa alguna, mas de la veintena, questa 
hordenada para rredençion de cativos y obras pias. 

I ten : Por quanto me hezistes Kelaçion, que pues Vos ponéis 
en ello vuestra persona, querriades armar alguna parte en la 
dicha armada, de que se os rrecreçiese algún probecho, é me 
suplicastes Vos mandase pagar adelantados dozientos ducados 
para en quenta del salario que de nos tenéis asentado por nues- 
tro piloto en la cassa de la Contratación de Sevilla, ó mandaros 
rrescibir por armador é conpañero en la dicha armada, por ellos 
digo, que vos mandaré rrescibir por armador y conpañero en la 
dicha armada por los dichos doçientos ducados, que es mi volun- 
tad que se vos paguen adelantados, los quales se descuenten de 
nos de la parte que nos fornecemos, é sean para que vos gozeis 
dellos, é se descuenten del dicho vuestro salario, ó vos los man- 
daré pagar adelantados en la dicha cassa, como Vos lo suplicais. 

Otrosi : Digo que Vos mandaré pagar dos lonbarderos, per- 
sonas ahiles y suficientes é de confiança, para que sirvan en la 
dicha armada. 

Yten : Quiero y es mi voluntad, por que los maestres pilotos 
é marineros á (sic) las otras personas que en la dicha armada 
fueren, sirvan con mejor voluntad en ella, de les dar licencia, 
y por la presente se la doy, para que después de rrescatadas las 
cossas nuestras, é de los dichos armadores que van en la dicha 
carabela, ellos puedan rrescatar sus caxas é quintaladas en lo 
que quisieren y por bien tubieren, é que délo que asi rrescataren 
é traxeren en las dichas sus caxas é quintaladas, hasta en valor 
de doçientos ducados de oro, vendidos en estos rreinos, no sean 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 147 



obligados a nos pagar derechos, ni otra cosa alguna mas de la 
veintena parte; pero si rrescateren é truxeren mas valor de los 
dichos doçientos ducados, los dichos marineros é los dichos 
grumetes á esta rrespeto, de lo demás rrestante, nos paguen el 
quinto para nos, y la dicha veintena, pero entiéndese que los 
dichos doçientos ducados de valor, lo pueden traer los marineros, 
pero los grumetes y pajes podran traer á este rrespeto sueldo á 
libra, según lo que cada uno gana de sueldo. 

Otrosi : Por caso á la yda ó á la buelta, ó en dando el dicho 
descubrimiento, hizieredes alguna pressa ó cavalgada, por mar ó 
por tierra, sacado el quinto para nos, lo demás rrestante, se haga 
tres partes, y la vuestra ayais Vos el dicho capitán y la gente 
de la dicha carabela, y las otras dos queden para nos y para los 
armadores della. 

De lo qual Vos mandé dar y di la presente capitulación, fir- 
mada de mi nombre y rrefreiidada de mi ynfrascrito secretario. 
Fecha en Valladolid á veinte y siete dias del mes de março, de 
mili y quinientos y veinte y tres años= Yo el Rey=Señalada 
del governador maior, y Carava jal, y del dotor Beltran : rref ran- 
dada de Cobos. 

From the Archivo de Indias at Seville, estante 139, cajón 
1, legajo 1, folios 30 v -32, and also 139-1-6, fol. 109 : printed in 
a modernized form in the Colección de Documentos inéditos 
relativos al Descubrimiento, etc., de las antiquas Posesiones 
españolas, XXII, 74-8. Madrid, 1874; and in J. T. Medina, 
El Portugués Esteban Gómez al servicio de España, 37-41, 
Santiago de Chile, 1908. 



XLIVa. 

The King 1 

Forasmuch as you, Stephen Gomez, our pilot, in order to 
serve us, on my giving you licence and permission for this, and 
ordering to be fitted out for you a caravel of about fifty 
tons' burden, armed and furnished with provisions for one 
year and with merchandise which might cost, fitted out and put 
in order, as much as one thousand five hundred ducats, and 
on my giving you the charge of our captain of the said caravel 



abarles V. 
29&37— 10i 



148 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

and granting you the things set forth below, offer to go and dis- 
cover Eastern Cathay, of which you have notice and informa- 
tion, where you hope to discover as far as our Molucca islands, 
which all falls and lies within our limits and sphere of influ- 
ence; and seeing that along this said route to Eastern Cathay 
there are many islands and provinces hitherto undiscovered, 
very rich in gold, silver, spices and drugs, I accepted under 
the following conditions and terms: 

Eirst of all I give you licence to make the said voyage and 
discovery on condition you do not enter the limits of the sphere 
of influence of the Most Serene king of Portugal, my very dear 
and much beloved cousin and brother 1 , nor approach any of his 
possessions, but only within our limits ; because our wish 
is that the agreement and covenant between the royal crown of 
our kingdoms and that of Portugal be observed and carried out 
in full. 

And for this I say that I shall order the said caravel of the 
said burden of fifty tons to be fitted out for you, and shall order 
it to be provisioned and victualled for you for one year, and 
the necessary goods to be placed on board, and shall appoint 
you our captain thereof; and for this I shall order you to be 
given our letters patent in due form. 

Furthermore, to show favour to our subjects and people, it 
is my will and wish to give them licence and permission, and by 
these present I give it to them, that besides what we shall order 
to be placed in the said caravel, they may provide and furnish 
whatever may be wanting for the despatch and fitting out of the 
said caravel ; and I grant and permit and give licence that in 
the first four fleets fitted out and sent to the lands and regions 
that vou may discover and where you may afterwards go, they 
may fit out and furnish a similar quantity to that now fur- 
nished ; and if the fleet be larger, as it is hoped it will be, they 
may contribute to the rest, one penny per pound, of the expense 
of the fleets afterwards to be sent and fitted out for the said 
region, without being obliged to pay to us for this first voyage 
any duty or other charge whatever more than the twentieth part, 
which is designed for redemption of captives and pious works. 

Moreover, forasmuch as you informed me that since you 



1 Jean III du Portugal était le fils de Maria, tante de Charles V. II 
épousa Catalina sœur de ce dernier. 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 149 

are venturing your person in this enterprise, you would like to 
provide some portion of the cost, by which you may recover 
some gain, and have asked me to order you to be paid in advance 
two hundred ducats of the salary you receive from us as our 
pilot in the Casa de la Contratación at Seville, or to order you 
to be received as shareholder and partner in the said fleet, re- 
garding this, I say that I shall order you to be received as share- 
holder and partner in the said fleet to the amount of the said 
two hundred ducats, which it is my will should be paid to you 
in advance, which are to be deducted from the portion we are 
furnishing; and you are to profit by them and they are to be 
deducted from your said salary, or I shall order them to be 
paid to you in advance at the said Casa, as you ask. 

Furthermore I declare that I shall order two artillery-men 
to be provided for you, persons both expert, qualified and trust- 
worthy, to serve in the said fleet. 

Moreoevr, I desire and it is my. wish, in order that the mas- 
ters, pilots, sailors and other persons who go in the said fleet 
may serve in her with better will, to give them licence and by 
these presents I give it to them, that, after our goods and those 
of the said partners on board the said caravel have been traded, 
they may barter whatever is in their chests and their hat-money 
for whatever they wish and find suitable ; and that on whatever 
they may thus barter and bring back in the said chests and with 
their hat-money,' to the value of two hundred gold ducats when 
sold in these kingdoms, they be not obliged to pay us dues nor 
any other charge more than the twentieth part; but should the 
sailors and the said ship's-boys barter and bring back things of 
more value than the said two hundred ducats, they must pay us 
one-fifth of the remainder, as well as the said twentieth part; 
but it is understood in regard to the two hundred ducats that 
though the sailors may bring back this amount the ship's-boys 
and pages will only bring back one penny in the pound accord- 
ing to the wages of each. 

Furthermore in case in going or coming, or in the course of 
the said discovery, you should make ,any capture or prize, by sea 
or land, the fifth part having been taken for us, the remainder 
shall be divided into three portions, and you, the said captain, 
and the crew of the said caravel shall have yours, and the other 
two are for us and for the partners of the same. 



150 ARCHIVES CANADIENSES 

For the which I ordered you to be given and gave you the 
present agreement signed with my name and countersigned by 
me, the undersigned secretary. Given at Valladolid on the 
twenty-seventh day of the month of March one thousand five 
hundred and twenty-three. I the King. Signed by the Gover- 
nador Maior and by Caravajal and by Dr. Beltran; counter- 
signed by Cobos. 

XLV. 

27 mars 1523. 

GOMEZ EST NOMMÉ CAPITAINE. 

EL KEY. — Don Carlos, etc. Por quanto nos abemos man- 
dado tomar cierto asiento y concierto con vos Esteban Gomez, 
nuestro piloto, para que vais' á descobrir el Catayo Oriental, de 
que tenéis noticia é relación, por el mar Océano, é para haser 
el dicho viaje, os abemos mandado armar una carabela con la 
gente é mantenimientos é otras cosas necesarias para el dicho 
viaje; por ende, confiando de vos que soy s tal persona que 
guardaréys nuestro servicio, é que bien é fiel é deligentemente 
entenderéis en lo que por nos vos fuere mandado y encomen- 
dado, es nuestra merced y voluntad de vos nombrar é por la 
presente vos nombramos por nuestro capitán, é vos damos poder 
é facultad para que por el tiempo que en ella anduvierdes, hasta 
que con la bendición de Nuestro Señor bolváis á estos reynos, 
podáys usar é uséys del dicho oficio de nuestro capitán della, 
asy por mar como por tierra, por vos é por vuestro lugarteniente, 
en los casos y cosas al dicho oficio anexos é pertenecientes, é 
vierdes que conviene á la execución de la nuestra justicia é bien 
é utilidad de las tierras é yslas que descubrierdes, segund é de 
la manera que hasta aquy lo han usado los nuestros capitanes 
de la mar que han seydo ; é por esta nuestra carta mandamos a 
los maestres, contramaestres, pilotos é marineros, gente que en 
la dicha armada fueren, é á qualesquier personas que estovieren 
é resy dieren en las dichas tierras é yslas que descobriérdes, y á 
quien lo en esta nuestra carta contenido toca é atañe é atañer 
puede en qualquyer manera, que vos ayan é reciban é tengan 
por nuestro capitán, é como á tal os acaten é cumplan vuestros 
mandamyentos, so la pena é penas que vos de nuestra parte les 
pusyerdes é mandáredes poner, las quales nos por la presente 
les ponemos é abemos por puestas, é vos damos poder é facultad 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 151 

para las executar en sus personas y bienes ; é que vos guarden 
é fagan guardar todas las honras, gracias, mercedes, franquezas 
é libertades, preheminencias, prerrogativas é ynmunydades que 
por razón de ser nuestro capitán debéys é gozar é vos deben ser 
guardadas; é es nuestra merced é mandamos que si en el tiempo 
que anduvierdes en la dicha armada, se movieren algunos 
pleytos y diferencias, asy en la mar como en la tierra, los 
podáys librar y determynar é hacer sobre ello complimiento de 
justicia brebe é sumariamente, sin estrépitu ni figura de juicio ; 
que para librar y determynar los dichos pleytos é para todo lo 
demás en esta nuestra carta contenydo é al dicho oficio de 
capitán anexo é concerniente, vos damos poder y facultad por 
esta nuestra carta, con todas sus yncidencias é dependencias, 
anexidades é conexidades, é los unos ny los otros no fagades ny 
fagan ende al, so pena de la nuestra merced é de diez mili 
maravedis para nuestra cámara á cada uno que lo contrario 
hiciere. Dada en la villa de Valladolid, á veintysiete dias del 
mes de marzo, año del nacimiento de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo 
de mil y quinientos y veinte y tres años. — YO EL REY. — En 
las espaldas desta provisyón estaban los nombres siguientes: 
Hernando de Vega, comendador mayor, doctor Carvajal, el 
doctor Beltrán. — Refrendada de Cobos. 

From the Archivo de Indias, est. 139, leg. 1, caj. 6, tomo 
IX, fol. 108 v : printed in Medina, op. cit., Documentos, II, 
130-33. 



XLVa. 

The King. Don Carlos, etc. Forasmuch as we have com- 
manded a certain contract and agreement to be made with 
you, Stephen Gomez, our pilot, that by way of the ocean you 
may go and discover Eastern Cathay, whereof you have notice 
and information, and in order to undertake the said voyage, we 
have ordered a caravel to be fitted out for you with the crew 
and provisions and other things necessary for the said voyage ; 
wherefore having confidence in you as a proper person who 
will be careful of our service and will well and faithfully and 
diligently carry out what we shall order and commit to you, 
it is our will and pleasure to appoint you and by these presents 
we do appoint you our captain, and give you power and author- 
it v to use and make use of the said office of our captain during 



152 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

the period of the said voyage, until by God's grace you may 
return to these kingdoms, both on sea and on land, by yourself 
and your lieutenant, in the cases and matters belonging to and 
connected with the said office, and which you may consider as 
belonging to the execution of our justice and to the welfare and 
utility of the lands and islands you may discover, in the form 
and manner which our sea captains have hitherto used; and 
by these letters we command /the masters, quartermasters, 
pilots and sailors, people who may sail in the said expedition 
and any persons who may visit or reside in the said lands and 
islands by you discovered, and to- whom the contents of these 
letters pertain and relate and may in any manner pertain, to 
consider and receive and regard you as our captain, and to 
acknowledge you as such, and to carry out your orders, on pain 
of the punishment and punishments which in our name you 
may inflict and may order to be inflicted, which we by these 
presents inflict and hold to be inflicted on them, and we give 
you power and authority to carry out these on their persons 
and goods. 

And they are to respect and to cause to be respected 
all the honours, graces, favours, franchises and liberties, advan- 
tages, prerogatives and immunities which, by virtue of being 
our captain, you should enjoy and which should be observed in 
your behalf. 

And it is our pleasure and we command that should 
any lawsuits and differences arise during the time you are 
absent on the said expedition, either at sea or on land, you may 
decide and settle them and cause justice to be done in each 
case quickly and summarily without clamour or formal tri- 
bunal ; that in order to decide and determine the said lawsuits 
and to carry out all else set forth in these letters of ours belong- 
ing and pertaining to the said office of captain, we give you 
power and authority by these our letters, with all its incidences 
and dependences, annexed and connexed, and neither these nor 
those shall do anything to the contrary on pain of our dis- 
pleasure and of 10,000 maravedis for our Exchequer from each 
who shall do the contrary. Civen in our city of Valladolid on 
the twenty-seventh day of the month of March, in the year of 
the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ 1523. — I the King. On 
the back of this instrument were the following names: Fer- 
dinand de Vega, knight commander. Dr. Carvajal. Dr. Eel- 
tran. — Countersigned bv Cobos. 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 153 

XLVL 

14 avril 1523. 

RÉCOMPENSES PROMISES À GOMEZ À SON RETOUR. 

EL EEY. — Por quanto vos Esteban Gómez, nuestro piloto, 
por nos servyr, vos habéis ofrecido de yr á descobril el Catayo 
Oriental, y sobrello habernos mandado tomar con vos cierto 
as}'ento é capitulación, como más largo en él se contiene, é vos 
al presente no me suplicastes cosa alguna de que nos hiciese 
merced en enmienda é remuneración de vuestro trabajo, por la 
presente, acatando la voluntad con que vos habéis movido á 
Nos servyr, y el peligro que se vos ofrece en el dicho viaje, digo 
y prometo por my palabra real, que a la vuelta que en buena ora 
bolváis del dicho descubrimyento, vos haré las mercedes que 
vuestros servycios merecen : de lo cual vos mandé dar y di la 
presente, firmada de my nombre y refrendada demi ynfrascrypto 
secretario. Fecha en Valladolid á catorce dias del mes de 
Abril de mili é quinientos y veinte y tres años. — YO EL REY. 
Señalada de Carvajal. — Refrendada de Cobos. 

From the Archivo de Indias, est. 139, leg. 1, caj. 6, lib. IX, 
fol. 120: printed in Medina, op. cit., 56. 

XL VIa. 

The King. — Forasmuch as you, Stephen Gomez, our pilot, 
in order to do us service, have offered to go and discover East- 
ern Cathay, and to this end we have ordered a certain contract 
and agreement to be made with you, as is more fully set out in 
the same, 1 and as at present you have not asked any favour of 
me in reward and recompense of your labour, by these presents, 
in acknowledgment of the good will you have shown to do us 
service, and of the danger you are incurring in the said voyage, 
I state and promise on my royal word, that on your return 
from the said discovery at a seasonable time, I shall grant you 
the reward which your services deserve, in proof of which I 
ordered you to be given and gave you these presents signed with 
my name and countersigned by my undermentioned secretary. 
Done at Valladolid on the fourteenth day of April, 1523. I 
the King. Signed by Carvajal. Countersigned by Cobos. 

1 Voir pp. 145-50 de ce volume. 



154: AEC HIVES CANADIENNES 

XL VIL 



14 avril 1523. 



ORDRE DU ROI A CHRISTOPHER DE HARO D EQUIPER LA CARAVELLE 

DE GOMEZ. 

EL REY. — Cristóbal de Haro, nuestro factor de la Casa 
de la Contratación de la Sp a . Ya sabéys cómo conforme al 
asiento é capitulación que mandamos tomar con Esteban Gómez, 
nuestro piloto, sobre el descubrimiento del Catayo Oriental, 
nos somos obligados de le dar una carabela de hasta cinquenta 
toneles, armada y bastecida por un año que se hizo fundamento 
que podria costar hasta mili é quinientos ducados, y, como 
sabéys, después se platicó que nos pusiésemos dellos los sete- 
cientos y cinquenta ducados, porque lo demás restante de los 
dichos mili é quinientos ducados lo ponyan mercaderes y arma- 
dores y otras personas que en la dicha armada querían contri- 
buyr; por ende, yo vos mando que luego entendáys en proveer 
y armar la dicha carabela, conforme el dicho asyento é capitula- 
ción, y de qualesquier maravedis de vuestro cargo, gastéys en 
ella los dichos setecientos é cincuenta ducados de oro ; y porque, 
como sabéys, conviene que se parta con toda brevedad, porque 
no se detenga, vos mando que para en cuenta de los dichos 
setecientos y cincuenta ducados, hagáys dar de los bastimentos 
é bituallas que por nuestro mandado hacen en la Coruña, 
Francisco Mexia y Bernaldino Meléndez, lo que fuese menester 
para avituallar y bastecer la dicha carabela, y pues vos sabéys 
que cumnle a nuestro servycio que la dicha carabela se parta 
con toda brevedad, vos mandado y encargo que entendáys en ello 
con mucha diligencia. De Valladolid á catorce de Abril de 
mili é quinientos y veinte y tres años. — YO EL REY. Seña- 
lada de Carvajal. — Refrendada de Cobos. 

Erom the Archivo de Indias, est. 139, leg. 1, caj. 6, lib. IX, 
fol. 121 : printed in Medina, op. cit., 53-4. 



XLVIIa. 

The King. — Christopher de Haro, our factor for the 
Spicery Trading-house. You have heard already how in con- 
formity with the contract and agreement which we ordered to be 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 155 

concluded with Stephen Gomez, our pilot, in regard to the dis- 
covery of Eastern Cathay, we are under obligation to give him 
a caravel of 50 tons' burthen, fitted out and provisioned for one 
year, which it was estimated might cost as much as 1,500 ducats ; 
and, as you are aware, it has since been agreed that we should fur- 
nigh 750 of these ducats, since merchants and ship-owners and 
other persons who were desirous of contributing to the said ex- 
pedition were furnishing the remainder of the said 1,500 ducats ; 
wherefore I direct you to employ yourself at once in getting 
ready and fitting out the said caravel, in accordance with the 
said contract and agreement, and you are to expend the said 
750 gold ducats out of any funds whatever of your office ; and 
since it is to our interest, as you are aware, that the departure 
take place as soon as possible, and that no delay occur, I com- 
mand you in payment of the said 750 ducats to take from the 
supplies and provisions which by our order Francis Mexia and 
Bernard Melendez are preparing at Corunna, whatever is neces- 
sary to provision and supply the said caravel, and since you 
know that it is in the interest of our service that the said caravel 
should leave as soon as possible, I command and charge you to 
employ yourself in this with much diligence. At Valladolid, 14 
April 1528. I the King: signed by Carvajal: countersigned by 
Cobos. 



XLVIII. 



14 avril 1523. 



ORDRE DU ROI AUX VILLES MARITIMES, DE COOPERER A LA 
CONSTRUCTION DE LA CARAVELLE DE GOMEZ. 

EL REY. — Nuestro corregidor de las tres villas de la costa 
de la mar, é concejos, justicias, regidores, caballeros, hijosdalgo 
de las dichas tres villas de la costa de la mar, é á cada uno de 
vos en vuestros lugares é jurediciones é á quien esta my carta 
fuere mostrada. Sabel que Nos abemos mandado á Esteban 
Gómez, nuestro piloto, que haga una carabela de porte de hasta 
cinquenta toneles para yr á cierto descubrimiento que él por 
nuestro mandado ha de hacer, la qual conviene a nuestro 
servycio que se haga y parta con toda brebedad; por ende, yo 
vos mando a todos y á cada uno de vos en vuestros lugares é 



156 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

jurediciones que déys é hagáys dar al dicho Esteban Gómez toda 
la madera, clavazón é jarcias é todas las otras cosas que hobiere 
menester para hacer y enxarciar la dicha carabela, pagando por 
ello lo que justamente valiere, é asymysmo le hagáis dar todos 
los maestros carpinteros, carafates é todo lo demás que obiere 
menester para hacer la dicha carabela, pagándoles por ello su 
justo é debido salario, é en todo lo demás é que el dicho Esteban 
Gómez hobiere menester, le ayudéys é favorezcáys como en cosa 
de nuestra servycio. Dada en Valladolid a catorce dias del mes 
de Abril de mili é quinientos y viente e tres años. — YO EL 
REY. — Señalada de Carvajal. — Refrendada de Cobos. 

Erom the Archivo de Indias, est. 139, leg. 1, caj. 6, lib. IX, 
fol. 120 v : printed in Medina, op. cit., 58-9. 



XLVIIIa. 

The King. — Our corregidor of the Three Towns of the sea- 
eoast, 1 and councils, justices, aldermen, noblemen, hidalgos of 
the said Three Towns of the sea-coast, and to each of you in 
your stations and jurisdictions and to whom these letters of 
mine may be shown: Know that we have commanded Stephen 
Gomez, our pilot, to construct a caravel of the burthen of 50 
tons to go on a certain discovery which at our order he has to 
undertake, and it is inthe interest of our service that this be 
carried out and a departure be made with all speed : wherefore 
I command all and each of you in your stations and jurisdic- 
tions to give and cause to be given to the said Stephen Gomez 
all the wood, nails and tackle and all else that may be necessary 
to construct and fit out the said caravel, paying for this 
whatever it may properly be worth, and likewise to cause him 
to be furnished with all the master carpenters, calkers and all 
the others who may be necessary for the construction of the said 
caravel, paying them for this their just and due salary, and in 
all else that the said Stephen Gomez may find necessary, to 
aid and assist him as in a matter pertaining to our service.' 
Given in Valladolid on the fourteenth day of April, 1523. I 
the King: signed by Carvajal: countersigned by Cobos. 

1 Apparemment Bermeo, Bilbao et Durango. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 157 

XLIX. 

14 avril 1523. 

ORDRE AUX VILLES DE BISCAYE DE VENIR EN AIDE À GOMEZ. 

EL REY. — Concejos, justicias, regidores, caballeros, y 
hijosdalgo de todas las cibdades, villas é lugares del nuestro 
noble y leal condalo y señorio de Vizcaya, encartación é tierra 
llana, le á cada uno de vos en vuestros lugares é jurediciones á 
quien esta my carta fuera mostrada. Sabed que nos hemos 
mandado á Esteban Gómez, nuestro piloto, que haga una cara- 
bela de porte de hasta cinquenta toneles para yr a cierto descu- 
brimiento que él por nuestro mandado ha de hacer, la qual con- 
viene à nuestro servycio que se haga y parta con toda brebedad ; 
por ende, yo vos mando á todos é a cada uno de vos en vuestros 
lugares é jurediciones que déys é hagáys dar al dicho Esteban 
Gómez toda la madera, clavazón, xarcias é todas las otras cosas 
que obiere menester para hacer enxarciar la dicha carabela, 
pagando por ello lo que justamente valiere, é asymysmo le 
hagáys dar todo los maestros carpinteros, calafates é todo lo 
demás que obiere menester para hacer la dicha carabela, pagán- 
doles por ello su justo é debido salario, é en todo lo demás 
é que el dicho Esteban Gómez hobiere menester, le ayudéys 
é favorezcáys como en cosa de nuestro servycio. Fecha en 
Valladolid á catorce dias del mes de Abril de mili é quinientos 
y veinte é tres años. — YO EL REY. — Refrendada de Cobos. — 
Señalada de Carvajal. 

From the Archivo de Indias, est. 139, caj. 1, leg. 6, lib. IX, 
fol. 120 v : printed in Medina, op. cit., 59-60. 

XLIXa. 

The King. — Councils, justices, aldermen, noblemen and 
hidalgos of all the cities, towns and villages of our noble and 
loyal county and seigniory of Biscay, places adjoining and flat 
land, and to. each of you in your stations and jurisdictions to 
whom these letters of mine may be shown, know that we have 
commanded Stephen Gomez, our pilot, to construct a caravel of 
50 tons' burthen to go on a certain discovery which he at our 
order has to undertake, and it is to the interest of our service 
that this be done and a departure be made with all speed: 



158 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

wherefore I command all and each of you in your stations and 
jurisdictions to give and to cause to be given to the said Stephen 
Gomez all the wood, nails, tackle and all the other things that 
mav be necessary to fit out the said caravel, paying for this 
whatever it may properly be worth, and likewise to cause 
him to be given all the master carpenters, calkers and all else 
that may be necessary for the construction of the said caravel, 
paying them for this their just and due salary, and in all else 
that the said Stephen Gomez may find necessary, to aid and 
assist him as in a matter pertaining to our service. Done in 
Valladolid on the fourteenth of April, 1523. I the King: 
signed by Cobos: countersigned by Carvajal. 

L. 

10 juillet 1523. 

ORDRE DU ROI DE ¿PAYER DEUX CENTS DUCATS À GOMEZ. 

EL REY. — Nuestros Oficiales que residís en la cibdad de 
Sevilla, en la Casa de la Contratación de las Indias. Porque 
yo he mandado á Esteban Gómez, nuestro piloto desa Casa, que 
vaya en una nuestra carabela á cierto descubrimyento, y con- 
forme á cierto asiento que con él sobre ello mandé tomar, yo soy 
obligado á le mandar pagar dozientos ducados adelantados del 
salario que de nos tiene para se aderezar y poner en la dicha 
carabela y armazón : por ende, yo vos mando que en cuenta del 
salario que de nos tiene asentado en esa Casa, como dicho es, 
deys é paguéys al dicho Esteban Gómez ó à quien su poder 
obiere, los dichos dozientos ducados adelantados, los quales vos 
mando que le váys descontando del primer salario que hobiere 
de haber, é no fagades ende al. Fecho en Valladolid à diez 
dias del mes de Julio de mili é quinientos é viente é tros años. — 
Refrendada de Cobos. — Señalada de Carvajal y Eeltrán. 

From the Archivo de Indias, est. 139, leg. 1, caj. 6, lib. IX, 
fol. 176: printed in Medina, op. cit., 54-55. 



La. 

The King. — Our officers who reside at the Indian Counting- 
house in the city of Seville. 1 Forasmuch as I have commanded 
Stephen Gomez, our pilot of this House, to go on a certain dis- 

1 Voir Report on the American Historical Association for 1894, pp. 
93-123, Washington, 1895. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 159 

eovery in a caravel of ours, and in conformity with a certain 
agreement that I ordered to be made with him in this matter, 
1 am obliged to direct that 200 ducats be paid to him in advance 
out of the salary he receives from us, in order that he may 
make his preparations and set about fitting out the said caravel ; 
wherefore, I order you, out of the salary he receives from us in 
this House, as already stated, to give and pay in advance to the 
said Stephen Gomez or to his attorney the said 200 ducats, 
which I direct you to deduct from the first w T ages due to him, 
and do not do the contrary. Done at Valladolid on the tenth 
day of the month of July, 1523. Countersigned by Cobos: 
signed by Carvajal and Beltran. 

LI. 

21 août 1529. 

VAISSEAUX DE LA ROCHELLE À TERRE-NEUVE. 

Personnellement estably Jehan Le Moyne, lequel a cons- 
titué ses procureurs Jacques Hemé 1 et Thomas Mannoury, de 
Marennes 2 , et chascun d'eulx pour le tout, en forme de plaidoirie 
et pouvoir especial de proceder et recevoir de Yvon Le Fleu- 
chier, dit Piedecerf, maistre du navire nommé La Mame du 
Croisic, le droict des vitailles que ledit Le Moyne luy a bail- 
lées, comme appert par obligation passée par Jehan Mosnier, le 
xvii e de juing derrier passé, du tout en apoincter, etc. En 
oultre de recevoir sa quotité des moulues, huilles, gaings et 
proufiits des navires qu'il a aydez à avitailler pour aller à la 
Terre Neufve, et d'en bailher quictances. Faict en presences de 
Pierre Le Géret, Jehan Quynault et Loys Ayrault, clercs, les 
jour et an susdits. 3 

From the Archives départementales de la Charente-Infé- 
rieure at La Rochelle, brouillon des minutes de Jacques 
Hémon, notaire, fol. 48 : unpublished. Attention was first 
drawn to these papers by Monsieur Musset in his essay on Les 
Rochelais à Terre-Neuve in the Bulletin de géographie his- 
torique et descriptive, Paris, 1892 ; reprinted at La Rochelle, 
1899, pp. 29-30. 



1 Ou Hervé. 

2 V'ille près de Rochefort. 

3 Ce document est daté du 21 août 1523. 



160 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

LU. 

15 septembre 1523. 

LA " CATHERINE " DE BINIC, LA " MARGUERITE " DE PORNIC 
ET AUTRES VAISSEAUX À TERRE-NEUVE. 

Personnellement establiz Pierre Jourdain, le jeune, mar- 
chant et bourgeoys de La Rochelle, tant en son nom [que] 1 
comme soy faisant et portant fort pour André Morisson, son 
parsonnier, a constitué leurs procureurs généraulx, honorables 

et sages, discrètes, etc 2 Et ledit Denibault et chascun 

d'eulx en forme de plaidoyrie, et par especial ledit Jourdain, 
pour luy et pour ledit Morisson, sondit parsonnier, a donné auc- 
torité et puissance, ayde et bailh de prandre et recevoir leur 
droit, part et portion de la pesche, huillas, gaings et prouffictz 
que ont faict Michel Tredieu, maistres empres Dieu de La Cath- 
erine de Benic en Bretaigne, et ses compaignons, en le voiaige 
de la Terre Neufve ; à quoy lesdits Jourddain et Morisson estoi- 
ent associez, selon la chartre partie passée entre eulx par mesme 
notaire que sont ces presentes, le xiiii e jour d'apvril dernier 
passé ; Et aussi de recevoir de Guillaume Le Gludic, maistre de 
La Marguerite de Pornix et de tous aultres maistres de navires 
et leurs compaignons, puydavant frectez par lesdicts Jordan et 
Morisson pour aller à la pesche de la Terre Neufve, leur droict 
et cotité des pesches, huilles, gaings et prouffictz qu'ilz ont faicts 
en leur voiage de la Terre Neufve, selon qu'ilz estoient asso- 
siez par lesditz maistres de navire, selon les chartres parties 
sur ce f aictes et passées auparavant ; Et aussi de recevoir desdits 
maistres de navires et de leurs compaignons toutes et chascunes 
les moulines que leur ont vendues auparavant leur partade 3 ; Et 
aussi de recevoir desdictz maistres de navires toutes et chascunes 
les pièces d'artillerie et munitions de guerre que lesdits Jour- 
dain et Morisson baillèrent auxdits maistres de navires et com- 
paignons d'eulx, pour eulx deffendre en leurdit voiage. Et des- 
dits pesches, huilles, gaings, prouffictz, moulines et poissons ven- 
duez par lesdits maistres, lesdits Jourdain et Morisson, en- 
semble desdites artillerie et munitions de guerre, en donner et 
octroyer par ledit Thebault, procureur susdict, auxdicts maistres 
de navires et aultres qu'il apar tiendra, quiet anees bonnes et 

1 O mi© dans le manuscrit. 

2 Espace en blanc dams le manuscrit. 
8 Ou partance. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 161 

valables; Et faire en tout et partout comme lesdits Jourdain 
et Morisson feroient faire, pouroient et devroient, si presens en 
leurs propres personnes y estoient par devants le juré, juge, etc. 
Faict en La Rochelle es presences de Jehan Joubert, dit filz de 
maistre, et Bastien Roy, clerc, le xv 1116 jour de septembre, l'an 

Mv c xxnr. 

From the Archives départementales of the Charente-Infé- 
rieure, minutes of Hémon, fols. 68 v -69 : unpublished. 

LUI. 

15 octobre 1523. 

LA "MARGUERITE^ DE BLAVET A TERRE-NEUVE. 

Personnellement establiz Jehan Boisseau, marchant et 
bourgeois de La Rochelle, lequel a constitué ses procureurs 

2 Françoys Pigault, son facteur ou l'ung d'eulx pour 

le tout, en forme de plaidoirie, et par espécialemeent auctorité et 
puyssance audit Pingault, de demander, prandre et recevoir de 
Allain Feullagat, maistre empres Dieu du navire nommé La 
Margaritte de Blavet, et des compaignons et maryniers et 
autres qu'il appartiendra, tout le droict qui appartient audit 
Boeceau, consistant en la pesche, moulues, huilles, gaing et 
prouffict que ledit Feullagat et ses compaignons ont faict ceste 
présente année en leur voiaige de la Terre JSTeufve, que ledit 
Boeceau et Jehan Lemoyne, aussi marchand et bourgeois en La 
Rochelle, avoient frété pour aller à la pesche à la Terre Neufve, 
et le tout scellon l'ssocvation, en quoy ledit Fellagat assoeya 
lesdits Boesseau et Le Moyne par leurs Chartres parties passées 
entre eulx, par mesme notaire que sont ces présentes, le xxvi e 
jour de mars derrier passé. Et oultre, ledit constituant a donné 
auctorité et puyssance audit Pigault, sondit facteur, de recevoir 
dudit Fellagat sa moytié de deux milliers et troys carts de mil- 
lier de moulues, dont est fete mención en ladite chartre partie, 
Et aussy sa moictié de demy millier de moulues, que ledit Fel- 
lagat a promis leur vandre, comme appert par lettres passées 
par mesme notaire que sont ces présentes,le derrier jour de mars 
aussi derrier passé. Et outre a donné puyssance audit Pigault 
de citer, assigner et appoincter avecquees ledit Feullagat, Yvon 
Crever, contremaistre dudit navire et ses plaidgants ou l'un 

1 II est écrit en marge: "Nota que ledit Jourdain a consenti qu'il 
soyt faict plusiers pouvoirs, en forme de plaidoiries". 

2 Espace en blanc dans le manuscrit. 
29837—11 



162 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

d'eux sellon bon et vallable forme, etc. Faict es présences de 
Xycolas Pocheau et Bastien Boy, le xv e jour d'octobre, l'an 
mil cinq cens XXIII. 

From the Archives départmentales of the Charente-Infé- 
rieure, minutes of Hémon, notaire, fol. 105 v : unpublished. 

LIV. 

22 octobre 1523. 

LA " MARGUERITE " DE SAINT-BRIE UX À TERRE-NEUVE. 

Personnellement establiz Jehan Tredian, maistre empres 
Dieu de La Marguerite de Saint Brieux. lequel a promis à Yvon 
Bonsoul, Estienne Lauret et Gilles Galvan, compaignons et 
mariniers dudit navire, stippulans et acceptans pour enlx et 
leurs compaignons absens. de leur garder et rendre leur tierce 
partie de la pesche, huilles, gaings et prouffictz qu'ilz ont faict 
en leur voiaige de la Terre Xeufve, selon le cours de la mer. et 
leur garder leurs droicts et prouffictz. comme s'ilz estoient en 
leurs propres personnes. Et ad ce fayre et accomplir et ad oultre 
ledit comparant a engaigé ses biens pour faire, etc: Faict en La 
Rochelle, en presence de Lambert Bardet. Mathurin Marteau 
et Bastien Boy, le xxii e jour d'octobre V C XXIII. 

From the Archives départementales of the Charente-Infé- 
rieure, minutes of Hémon, notaire, fol. Í18 7 : unpublished. 

LV. 

Janvier 1524. 

AVIS DE LA PRISE d'un VAISSEAU FRANÇAIS REVENANT DE TERRE- 
NEUVE. 

List of Capt. Christ. Coo's Prizes. 

(i) 

Memorandum that here folowith all suche prisis as Christo- 
fer Coo have taken uppon the see syns my departure out of the 
Temys that wes the xxiii th day of January in the xiii yere 
of kynge Henry the VIII th (1522) unto my present tyme and 
dey of my discharge out of the kvnges wages 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 163 



In the kynges handes. 

Item taken in the Cost of Normandy a shipp of Rouen w* 
xi nie nladen w* new fownd londe fysche. containing ix 
thousand, delyvered to William Couston prised at £120. 

(3) 

Here after ensewith all suche charges as Ohristofer Coo 
have sustayned at his proper costes and charge to serve the 
kynge in his wares 

Item the said Christopher demandeth for the helynge and 
kepynge of xvi men hort at the wynnyng of the new fownde 
londe men at ii cronys the pies. £6 xviiis. 

From the Public Record Office, Letters and Papers of 
Henry VIII., vol. 30, pp. 996 and 98. Cf. Calender, Vol. IV, 
pt. I, No. 83 (1) and (3). 



LVI. 

6 février 1527. 

UN VAISSEAU DE BAYONNE À TERRE-NEUVE. 

A Vous, Tres Honnorables Seinhors, Messeinhors Los Loc- 
tenent, Esclevins et Conseilh de la Ciutat de Bayonne : 

Supplicque tres-humblement Berthomyu de Montauser, 
vesin de la presente ciutat, disen que ed a afTreytat son nabiu 
per anar au plaser de Diu a les Terres Nabes, a le pesque, Et 
cum sie ainchi, que per far lodit viadge sien vesoinh plusors 
causes, es necessary enter autres aver vingt et quoate pippes de 
pomades, lesquoaus lodit supplicant a au pays de Seinhanxs, et 
les volere far mectre fens sondit nabiu, si a vous, avanditz sein- 
hors, plagosse, o bien les vingt pippes et en prendre quoate 
pippes de le presente ciutat, Et de en prendre davant^g? no 
luy es possible percause que lodit supplicant no a punt d'argent, 
o si autrementz far lo volossetz constreinhe, lodit supplicant 
avre a sercar argent au camby, que sere en son grand prejudice 
et domina dge. So considérât, lodit supplicant vous pregue, sup- 
plicque et requer a vous, avanditz, seinhors, uy donnar liccenci 
et permission de poder prendre lesdites vingt et quoate pippes 
de pomades en le maneyre susdite, Et en so fa sen feratz bien, 
et lodit supplicant sera tingud pregar Diu per vost r es nobles 
estemens. 

29837— 1H 



164 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Viste le presente requeste, ordennat es estât que lodit sup- 
plicant [prenera] 1 los dus ters de sa provision de le pomade de 
le franquease avant que lo nabiu parti deu port, et so feyt se 
retirera devert monseinhor lo Loctenent qui visitera o fera visi- 
tar ledite pomade, et ampres lodit supplicant poyra cargar lo 
restant. Feyt en conseilh, lo chiseme de fevrer, mil cinq cens 
vingt et chieis. 

D AYMAR, greffier. 

From the Archives Municipales de Bayonne, Série BB 6, 
fols. 641-2 : printed in Archives municipales de Bayonne, Dé- 
libérations du Corps de Ville, Registres gascons, II, 461-2. 



LVIa. 

To You Most Honourable Sirs, Messrs. the Lieutenant, 
Sheriffs and Council of the city of Bayonne: 

Bartholemew de Montauser, citizen of the present city, 
makes very humble petition, setting forth how he has loaded 
his ship to go, at God's pleasure, to Newfoundland for fish, and 
this being so, in order to undertake the said voyage several 
things are wanting. Among others it is necessary to have 
twenty-four butts of cider, which the said petitioner possesses at 
Seinhanxs 2 , and he would like to have them put on board his said 
vessel if you, Sirs aforesaid, are willing ; or even twenty butts, 
and to take four butts from the present city ; and it is not pos- 
sible for him to take more for the reason that the said petitioner 
has no money ; or if you should wish to force him to do other- 
wise, the said petitioner would have to procure money on 
change, which would be to his prejudice and harm. In conside- 
ration of which the said supplicant begs, petitions and asks you, 
Sirs aforesaid, to grant him licence and permission to be 
allowed to take the said twenty-four butts of cider in the manner 
aforesaid ; and in doing this you will be doing well, and the said 
petitioner will be under obligation to pray God for your noble 
estates. 

The present request having been read, it has been ordered 
that the said petitioner [take] two-thirds of his cider from that 
free from duty, before the ship leaves port, and this done, he 
shall come before My Lord the Lieutenant who will examine or 
cause the said cider to be examined: and afterwards the said 

1 Omis dans le manuscrit. 

2 Peut-être Cénac. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 165 

petitioner will be allowed to load the rest. Done in council the 
sixth of February one thousand five hundred and twenty-six 
(1527 n. st.) 

D AYMAR, clerk. 

LVII. 

Novembre 1527. 

i/expédition anglaise à la recherche d'un passage au 

NORD-OUEST. 

La rrelacion que se ovo de la nao ynglesa quando estovo en la 
ysla de la Mono 1 que venia de camino para la ysla española. 

Questando el martes pasado, que se contaron diez e nueve 
dias deste presente mes de novienbre, cargando la dicha caravela 
de caçabe, allegó una nao de dosyentos é cinquenta toneles de 
porte, de tres gavias, é creyendo que hera nao despaña, salió con 
su batel a ella, y ellos salieron con una pinaça que trayan, que 
bogava veynte e cinco ó treynta rremos, é venian en ella fasta 
veynte cinco honbres con el maestre de la dicha nao, el qual 
venia por maestre y capitán, é todos venian armados de cose- 
letes y arcos e frechas y algunos ballestas, e dos lonbardas en 
la proa con sus mecheros encendidos ; los quales llegados a ellos, 
le les preguntó, de qué tierra eran? E dixéronle que heran 
yngleses de dentro de la cibdad de Londres, y que la nao era del 
rrey de Ynglaterra. Preguntóles, qué venian á buscar en estas 
partes ? Dixéronle quel rrey avia armado aquella nao y otra para 
yr a descubrir la tierra del Gran Can, y que oyendo, les dio 
un tenporal en el camino, que se perdió la una de la 
otra, por manera que nunca mas la había visto, 
e que ellos siguieron su viaje e dieron en un mar 
ela do, é que hallavan yslas grandes de yelo, e no 
pudiendo por alli pasar, tomaron otra derrota e dieron en otra 
mar caliente como una caldera quando hierve con agua; é por 
miedo que aquella agua no les derrtiesra la pez de la nao, se 
bolvieron é vinyeron a Reconoscer a los Vacallaos, donde halla- 
ron bien cinquenta naos, castellanas y francesas e portuguesas, 
pescando, é que alli quisieron salir en tierra por tomar lengua 
de los yndios, e saliendo en tierra, les mataron los yndios al 
piloto, el qual dixeron que hera piamontés de nación ; e de alli 
partieron, e vinieron la costa de la tierra nueva, donde fué a pob- 

1 Cette île se trouve à imi-ehemin entre San Dominigo et Porto Rico à 
trente milles de Tune et de l'autre 



10 G ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

lar Ayllon, quatro cieiitas leguas 1 y mas, e de alli travesaron e 
vinieron a reconocer a esta ysla de San Juan; e preguntóles que 
qué buscavan en estas ystas % E dixéronle que querían ver estas 
yslas para dar Raçon delias al rrey de Ynglaterra, é vistas, car- 
gar de brasyl é bolverse ; e preguntaron por la derrota de Santo 
Domingo, é por el puerto e quien governaba la ysla ; que querian 
yr alia a bella ; y él se lo dixo todo. Ellos lo pusyeron por memo- 
ria ; y el maestre de la noa yngiesa rrogó al Ginés Navarro, que 
fuese a ver ¡su nao, el qual fué é la vido toda ; e que no traya en 
ella otra cosa syno vino é harina é cosas de provisyon, y algunas 
cosas de rrescate de paños y lienços y otras cosas, y muclia 
artillería e buena; e que traen carpinteros e herreros e fragua y 
otros oficiales, y aparejo de hazer otros navios, sy tuviesen dello 
necesydad, é un horno donde cuezan pan ; e que toda la gente 
que en la nao venia, quél vido, serian fasta sesenta personas ; 
dize que el maestre de la nao le preguntó, sy sabia leer en latin 
o en romance, por que le queria mostrar la ynstruçion que traya 
del rrey de Ynglaterra ; é como no sabia leer, no la vido ; é quel 
maestre é fasta veynte e cinco o treynta onbres salieron en tierra 
en la Mona, y estuvieron alli fasta el miércoles en la tarde, e 
salieron todos armados, que se enbarcaron para Santo Domingo ; 
y que el juebes de mañana tiraron dos tiros de lonbarda e toca- 
ron una tronpeta bastarda que trayan, e se hizieron a la vela e 
fueron la via de Santo Domingo fasta que los perdieron de vista ; 
y el dicho Ginés Navarro estobo en la Mona hasta el viernes que 
se vino a esta ysla. 

Este treslado se sacó del original que se ynbio a esta Real 
abdiencia de la ysla de San Juan, la quel se ovo de un maestre de 
una caravela questava en la ysla de la Mona al tiempo que la 
nao ynfflesa pasó por alli de camino para este puerto de Santo 
Domingo. = Diego Cavallo. 

Endorsed: En Madrid xi de Março de 1528. 

From the Archivo de Indias at Seville, Patronato, est. 2, caj. 
5 leg. "^o; printed in the Colección de Documentos inéditos 
relativos al Descubrimiento , Conquista y Organización de las 
antiguas Posesiones españolas, etc. 1st series, XXXVII, 450-8. 
Madrid, 1882; ibid. 2nd series, IV, No. 120, pp. 57-60. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 167 

LVIIa. 

Compte rendu obtenu du vaisseau anglais arnêté à Vile de Mona 
en se rendant à Hispaniola. 1 

That while he [Gines Navarro] was loading the said caravel 
with cassava, last Tuesday, the nineteenth of the present month 
of November, there arrived a vessel of 250 tons' burden 2 , and 
three main-tops ; and taking her for a ship from Spain, he went 
towards her in his boat. And they came off in their pinnace 
manned by 25 or 30 men with as many as 25 men in the boat 
and the captain of the said ship in command. All were armed 
with corselets, bows and arrows and some cross-bows ; and in the 
bow were two lombards, the matches of which were alight. 

On reaching them, he inquired from what country they 
came ? They answered they were Englishmen from the city of 
London, and that the vessel belonged to the king of England. 
He asked them what they had come to look for in those parts ? 
They told him the king had fitted out that vessel and another 
to go and discover the land of the Great Khan, but on the 
way, they met with a storm, during which they lost sight of 
their consort and had never seen her again. They held on their 
course and reached the frozen sea where they met large islands 
of ice. Being unable to pass that way, they altered their course 
but ran into a sea as hot as water in a boiler. For fear lest 
that water should melt the pitch of their vessel, they turned 
about and came to explore Newfoundland, where they found 
some 50 Spanish, French and Portuguese fishing-vessels. They 
desired to land there in order to have tidings of the Indians, but 
on reaching the shore the Indians killed the pilot, who they said 
was a Piedmontese by birth. Setting sail thence they made 
their way for some 400 leagues and more along the coast of the 
new land where Allyon took his colony. 3 Thence they crossed 
over and came to explore the island of St. John. 4 

He asked them what they were looking for in these islands ? 
They answered that they wished to examine them in order to 
give the king of England an account thereof: when they had 
explored them, they would take a load of Brazil-wood and re- 
turn home. They inquired for the course to San Domingo and 
about the harbour there, and who was in charge of the island, 
as they wished to go and examine it. He told them everything 
and thev made a note of the same. 

1 Haïti. Voir p. 165 note au sujet de Mona. 

2 La Mary Guildford jaugeait ÍG0 tonneaux. 

s Voir Narrative Critical History of America, par Winsor, II, 238-242 
4 Porto-Rioo. 



168 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



The captain of the English ship invited Gines Navarro to 
come on board; which he did and was shown all over it. She 
had only wine, flour and provisions, with some clothes, linen 
goods and other articles for barter, and much good artillery. 
There were also carpenters, smiths and a forge, other artisans, 
tools to build more vessels in case of necessity and an oven for 
baking bread. The whole ship's company that he saw would 
number as many as 70 people. He states that the captain asked 
him if he could read Latin or Spanish : for he wished to show 
him the orders he brought from the king of England. Since he 
was unable to read, he did not see them. 

The captain and some 25 or 30 men went ashore at Mona 
and remained there until Wednesday afternoon. All came 
armed. They went on board for San Domingo, and on Thurs- 
day morning shot off two lombards and blew a trumpet and set 
sail in the direction of San Domingo, until they were out of 
sight. 

The said Gines Navarro remained at Mona until Friday, 
when he came to this island. 

This copy was taken from the original that was sent to the 
royal Audiencia of St. John's island, which was obtained from 
the captain of a caravel that lay at Mona island when the Eng- 
lish ship passed by on her way to this harbour of San Domingo : 
Diego Cavallo. 

Endorsed: Madrid, 11 March, 1528. 

LVIII. 

26 novembre^ 
8 décembre! 1527 * 

EXPÉDITION ANGLAISE À LA RECHERCHE d'un PASSAGE AU 
NORD-OUEST. 

Probanzas fechas en Sardo Domingo, con motivo de la arribada 
de una nave ynglesa. 

En la cibdad de Santo Domingo, martes, nona, veynte e seys 
dias del mes de novienbre de mill e quinientos e veynte e syete 
años, estando en las casas de la Contratación los señores lyçen- 
ciados Xptoval Lebrón e Alonso Cuaço, oydores del abdiencia 
e chancylleria de Su Magestad, en presencia de my, Diego Cav- 
allo, secretario de la dicha Eeal abdyencia, sus mercedes dix- 
eron: que por quanto ayer lunes en la tarde avia llegado a la 
boca de este Rio e puerto un nao grande de tress gavias del Eey 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 169 

de Ynglaterra, y el patron délia con diez o doze marineros avia 
venido en un batel a tierra, e les avia fecho rrelaçion, como la 
dicha nao hera del dicho Rey de Ynglaterra, e quella e otra nao 
juntamente avian salido, podia aver nueve messes, de Ynglaterra 
por mandado de su Rey para hazer cierto descubrimiento por 
la vanda del norte entre la tierra del Labrador e los Bacallaos, 
creyendo por alli hallar estrecho para pasar a descubryr la Tar- 
taria, e que avian navegado tanto que se avian metido debaxo 
del nort cinquenta e tantos grados, adonde de frio se le avia 
muerto cierta gente, e muerto el piloto, e perdido uno de l°s 
dichos navyos, a cuya cabssa avian venido a esta tierra para ser 
socorridos de agua e mantenimientos e otras cessas, de que tenia 
nescesydad, e les avia pedido seguro para entrar en este puerto ; 
e quellos en nombre de Su Magestad los avian asegurido, é avian 
enbiado con ellos a la nao a Diego Méndez, alguazil mayor desta 
ysla, Francisco Martin e a Pedro de Montes, pilotos, para que 
metiessen la dicha nao en este puerto ; e que por ser ayer easy 
noche, no la pudieron meter en el puerto hasta oy dicho dia, de 
mañana, a las diez oras antes de medio dia, que la dicha nao 
surgió a la boca del Rio para de alli se entrar avando a cabssa 
del viento norte que hazia ; é questando la dicha nao surta, an 
sydo ynformados, e asy es notorio, que de la fortaleza desta cib- 
dad se le tiro un tiro de lonbarda con un piedra que passo junto 
con la dicha nao, de cuya cabssa la dicha nao yncontinente se 
hizo a la vela e se va la via de Castilla, etc 

En la noble cibdad de Santo Domingo del puerto desta ysla 
española de las Yndias del mar oçiano, ocho dias del mes de 
dyzienbre, año del naseymiento de nuestro salbador Jesu Cristo, 
de mili e quinientos e veynte e syete años, ante el muy noble 
señor Lope de Bardeca, teniente de Gobernador en esta dicha 
cibdad e ysla española, por el yllustre e muy manifico señor Don 
Luys Colon, Almirante, VisoRey e Governador en estas partes 
por Su Magestad; y en presencia de mi, Gonzalo Gomez, escri- 
bano de Su Magestad e del abdiençia e juzgado del dicho Señor 
teniente, paresçio presente Joan Ximenez, Procurador de cabsas, 
e vezino desta dicha cibdad, en boz e en nombre de Francisco de 
Tapia, alcayde de la fortaleza e bezino e Regidor desta cibdad, e 
por virtud del poder que del presento junto con un escripto de 
pedimento, e con ciertas preguntas al pié del que, uno en pos 
dotro, es este que se sigue : 

Muy noble Señor: 

Francisco de Tapia, alcayde por Su Magestad de la fortaleza 
de Santo Domingo, paresce ante vuestra merced e digo : quel el 



170 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

lunes proximo pasado llego al puerto desta cibdad una nao de 
Yngalaterra de armada; e yo enbié al Licenciado Lebrón e al 
licenciado Cuaco, oydores que a la sazón eran, a les dezir que 
me liyziesen saber, sy dexarian entrar la nao o no. Los quales me 
íespondyeron que me lo harían saber; la qual respuesta jamas 
me enbiaron ; e otro dia por la mañana entro la nao a anclear, y 
querían entrar en el puerto; e como yo tenga la fortaleza para 
la guarda del, por saber como venia, le tyré un tiro de artillería 
pequeño a Redrado de la dicha nao, para que hiziese seña, como 
es costumbre. La qual nao se fué ; e porque cerca de lo susodicho, 
e de lo que en razón dello sucedió, yo tengo necesidad de hazer 
una ynformacion a d perpetua Rey memoria, para la presentar 
ante Su Magestad e su muy alto Consejo, porque sepa e sea 
ynf orinado de lo que pasa, pido a vuestra merced mande desa- 
nimar los testigos que por mi parte fueren presentados, e me 
mande dar sus dichos e depusyçiones, de manera que haga fee, 
cerrados e sellados, para qualquier parte e ante quien presentare 
la dicha probança ; los quales pido que sean desaminados por las 
preguntas syguientes : Primeramente, &c 

XV (sic) Yten: Si saben &c. que al tiempo que el dicho 
capitán e maestre e gente de la dicha nao ynglesa llego a esta 
dicha cibdad e puerto, venian dysciendo e publicando quella 
avia salido de Yngalaterra de armada, a descubrir cierto 
estrecho hazia la banda del norte, e que por falta de piloto, que 
se le avian muerto, venian a esta dicha ysla, en demanda del, e 
no por otra cosa ? 

E después de lo susodicho, este dicho dia e mes e año suso- 
dicho, ante mi, el dicho Escribano, paresçio presente el dicho 
Juan Ximenez en el dicho nombre, e presento por testigos en la 
dicha cabsa a el licenciado Francisco de Prado e a Alonso 
d'Avila, vezino e regidor de esta dicha Cibdad, e a Diego Mar- 
tel e a Juan Garcia, cavallero, todos vezinos de la dicha cibdad, 
e a Juan de Loaysa, estantes en ella ; de los quales, e de cada 
uno dellos, yo el dicho escribano, tomé e resçibi juramento sobre 
una señal de la cruz en que pusyeron su mano derecha, corpor- 
almente, e por Dyos e por Santa María, e por las palabras de los 
Sagrados Evangelios, do quiera que mas largamente están escrip- 
ias segund forma de derecho, so virtud del qual prometieron de 
dezir verdad ; e lo que ellos e cada uno dellos dixeron e depusy- 
eron, secrtta e apartadamente, syendo preguntados por las pre- 
guntas del dicho ynterrogatorio, es lo syguiente : 

Testigo. — El dicho Francisco de Prado, vezino desta cib- 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 171 

dad, testigo presentado en la dicha Razón por parte del dicho 
Francisco de Tapia, Alcayde, aviendo jurado segund derecho, 
e syendo preguntado por el tenor de las dichas preguntas, dixo 
e depuso lo syguiente : 

A la primera pregunta, dixo, etc 

A la catorze (sic) preguntas dixo : Queste testigo oyó dezir 
todo lo contenido en la dicha pregunta publicamente que en esta 
dicha cibdad a todos los que hablaban en ello e lo avian hoydo 
al dicho capitán e maestre ; e que a paresçer deste testigo e a lo 
que puede alcançar, segund que vinieron a dar en este puerto 
que esta tan escondido en estas ysdas, debia la dicha nao traer 
piloto, que lo sabia muy byen ; e asi paresçio quando venian de 
alta mar en demanda del dicho puerto, e aun quando se volvian, 
porque navegan la costa como personas que la sabian 

Testigo. — El dicho Alonso d'Avila, vezino e Regidor desta 
cibdad, etc 

A las catorze preguntas, dixo : Que lo que desta pregunta 
sabe, es que este testigo oyó dezir al patron de la dicha nao, 
estando en tierra, que aquella nao e otra que en su conserba 
avia venido, que se avia perdido, avian salido por mandado del 
Rey de Yngalaterra en demanda de un estrecho hazia la banda 
del norte, e que por falta del piloto que trayan, que se lo avian 
muerto en una tierra donde avian tocado, venian a esta ysla 
para ser ynformados de la navegación para volver a su tierra ; 
que tyene este testigo por cierto por lo que ha oydo dezir a 
onbres que saben del arte de la mar, que con mucho difycultad 
bolbiera la dicha nao a su tierra que no venir a esta ysla, desde 
donde dixo el dicho patron que venia ; e que segund la nabe^a- 
çion la dicha nao hizo para tomar este puerto, que a este testigo 
paresçio que dentro venia persona que la sabia bien encaminar. . 

Testigo. — El dicho Diego Martel, vezino desta dicha cibdad, 
etc 

A las catorze preguntas, dixo: Que lo que della sabe, es 
yue la noche que pasaron los dichos dos marineros en casa deste 
testigo, queriéndose este testigo yn formar de su venida, les pre- 
gunto que como avian arribado a este puerto, estando en mejor 
paraje de donde avian partido para yr a su tierra, que no para 
venir a este puerto? Los quales rrespondieron a este testigo, que 
el Rey de Yngalaterra los avia enbiado con dos naos a descobrir 
eiorto estrecho que estaba a la banda de la Noruega, de donde 
ellos avian partido; y que como navegaron tanto hasta meterse 
sesenta e quatro grados debaxo del norte, por ser ynvierno como 
era, avian hallado toda la tierra elada, y que hazia tanto frio, 



172 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

que de frio se avian muerto quatro o cinco onbres de la nao ; por 
manera que acordaron de venir a tierra caliente, e que por esto 
e porque se les avian muerto el piloto, era su venida e yntento 
de vender ciertas mercaderías de paños e lienços quen la nao 
traja, e tomar un onbre diestro en la mar, que los llevase a 
Yngalaterra ; e questo es lo que los dichos dos onbres a este tes- 
tigo dixeron, e que tiene por cierto que la nao no vyniera a este 
puerto si no fuera quen ella vyniera ombre que supiera la nave- 
gación para traellos a este dicho puerto 

Testigo. — El dicho Juan Garcia, caballero, vezino desta 
dicha cibdad, etc 

A las catorze preguntas, dixo: Queste testigo oyó dezir lo 
en ella contenido en ésta cibdad a algunas personas, e queste 
testigo cree que la dicha nao traya, a lo que le paresçe, piloto 
despaña o yngles que oviese estado en estas partes 

Testigo. — El dicho Juan de Loaysa, estante en esta dicha 
cibdad, etc 

A las catorze preguntas, dixo: Que al dicho patron fab- 
lando con el dicho lycenciado Guaco, le oyó dar la razón con- 
tenida en la pregunta, de su navegación, e que le avian muerto 
el piloto en la tierra nueva con otros honbres, e que después se 
creya e tuvo por cierto ser el contenido segund las mercancias 
que facia la dicha nao 

Después de lo susodicho, en la dicha cibdad de Santo Do- 
mingo, nueve dias del dicho mes de diziembre e del dicho año, 
en presencia de mi, el dicho Escribano, parescio presente el 
dicho Juan Ximenez en el dicho nombre, e presento por testigo 
en la dicha razón a Francisco Merchant, estante en la dicha cib- 
dad, el qual juro en forma debida de derecho, e siendo pregun- 
tado por el thenor de las dichas preguntas, dixo e depuso lo 
siguiente : 

A las catorze preguntas, dixo : Questando en el Coco este 
testigo, vino alli una pynaca con diez o doze onbres yngleses, la 
qual venia en la dicha nao, e que luego que los dichos ombres 
saltaron en tierra, preguntaron a este testigo, que como estaba 
esta cibdad de Santiago ? E este testigo les dixo questaba muy 
buena ; e les pregunto que qué gente heran ? Los quales respon- 
dieron queran yngleses, e que la nao era ynglesa del Rey de 
Yngalaterra, que venia cargada de paños e de lienços, e que 
avian y do a tierra Nueva e que hallaron la tierra muy baxa, e 
que los pilotos quen ella venian, que eran los mejores que avian 
venido acá, los avian traydo a esta cibdad de Santo Domingo. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 173 



E questo era quando la dicha nao venia hazia esta cibdad; e 
queste testigo les dyo cierto pescado fresco que tenia, para que 
comiesen; e luego se tornaron a meter en su pinaça e se 

vynieron hazia esta cibad, etc 

From the Archivo de Indias at Seville, Audiencia de Santo 
Domingo, est. 53, cajón 1 °, leg. 9 ; printed in the Colección de 
Documentos meditos relativos al Descubrimiento, etc., 1st ser., 
XL., 305-54. 



LVIIIa. 

Interrogatoire qui eut lieu à San Domingo à l'arrivée d'un 
vaisseau anglais. 

In the city of San Domingo at three o'clock on Tuesday the 
26th day of the month of November 1527, Messrs. the licenti- 
ates Christopher Lebrón and Alfonso Cuazo, judges of the 
Audiencia and Chancery of his majesty 1 , being present in the 
Casas de la Contratación, before me Diego Cavallo, secretary of 
the said royal Audiencia, their honours stated: that inasmuch 
as yesterday a large ship, with three main-tops, belonging to the 
king of England, had arrived at the mouth of this harbour and 
river 2 , and the captain with ten or twelve sailors had come on 
shore in a boat, and had informed them how the said ship 
belonged to the king of England, and that it and another, some 
nine months since, had set out together from England in order 
at the king's command to explore a certain region in the north, 
between the Labrador's land 3 and the Cod-fish land 4 , in the be- 
lief that they would find there a passage by which to sail to the 
discovery of Tartary ; that they had sailed as far north as fifty 
degrees and more, where the cold had carried off some of their 
people, and having lost their pilot and their consort, they had 
come to this island to obtain fresh water and provisions and 
other things of which they stood in need; and they had asked 
them [the judges] for a safe-conduct in order to enter this 
harbour, and they [the judges] in the name of his majesty had 
given it ? and had sent Diego Méndez, high constable of this 
island and Francis Martin and Pedro de Montes, pilots, on 
board with them to bring the said ship into this harbour: and 
as it was then almost night they were not able to bring her into 

1 Charles V. 

2 Ozama. 

* Groenland. 

4 Le Labrador et l'île de Terre-Neuve d'aujourd'hui considérés alors 
comme formant un même littoral. 



174 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

habrour until this morning at ten o'clock, when the said ship 
anchored at the mouth of the river in order to corne further in 
when the north wind dropped : and that while the said ship was 
at anchor, they have been informed and it is publicly known, 
that from the fortress of this city a lombard was fired, with a 
stone which passed close to the said ship, on which account the 
¿aid ship at once made sail and goes off in the direction of 

Castille, etc 

In the noble city and port of San Domingo on the island of 
Hispaniola 1 , in the West Indies on the eight day of the month 
of December in the year of the birth of our Saviour Jesus 
Christ 1572, before the noble gentleman Lope de Bardeca, 
Deputy in this said city and island of Hispaniola for the illus- 
trious and very magnificent Don Louis Columbus, Admiral, 
Vice-roy and Governor for his majesty in these parts, and in 
presence of me, Gonzalo Gomez,notary of his majesty and of 
the said deputy's Audiencia and tribunal, appeared John Xim- 
enez, attorney and burgess of the Fort, and burgess and alder- 
Francis de Tapia, Governor in the Fort, and burgess and alder 
man of this city, and by virtue of the power of attorney from 
him which he showed, along with a written petition at the foot 
of which were certain questions, whereof the tenour, one after 
the other, was as follows : 

I, Francis de Tapia, Governor for his majesty of the fort- 
ress of San Domingo, appear before your honour and say : that 
last Monday there arrived in the harbour of this city an armed 
vessel from England, and I sent to the Licentiates Lebrón and 
Cuazo, at that time judges, to tell them to let me know whether 
or not they would allow the vessel to enter, who replied they 
w T ould let me know, but sent no further word. And on the 
morning of the following day the ship entered and sought to 
anchor in the harbour; and as I have charge of the port as a 
guard over the same, in order to find out on w T hat terms she was 
sailing in, I fired a small gun in rear of the said ship, in order 
that she should make a signal as is customary; but the ship 
sailed away. And since in virtue of the above and of what 
took place in consequent thereof, I am under the necessity of 
making a report as a royal record to be presented to his Majesty 2 
and his Supreme Council, so that he may know and be informed 

1 Haiti. 

2 Charles V. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 175 

of what took place, 1 beg your honour to order the witnesses 
presented by me to be examined, and to order their statements 
and depositions to be given to me, so that when closed and 
staled, the said evidence may be valid everywhere and before 
whomever presented ; which witnesses I beg be- asked the follow- 
ing questions : First, etc 

Fifteenth (sic}: Also whether they know, etc., that when 
the said captain, master and crew of the said ship reached this 
said city and harbour, they stated and gave out that she had 
set forth from England to discover a certain strait towards the 
northern parts, and that after the loss of the pilot, who had 
been killed, they came to this said island in search of one and 
for no other reasoné 

And after the aforesaid, this said day and month and year 
above-mentioned, before me, the said notary, appeared John 
Ximenez in the said name, and presented as witnesses in the 
said case the licentiate Francisco de Pedo and Alonso d' Avila, 
burgess and aldermen of this said city, and Diego Martel, and 
John Garcia, Esquire, all inhabitants of the said city, and John 
de Loaysa, present therein, from whom and each of whom I, the 
said notary, took and received the oath over the cross, whereon 
they corporally placed their right hands, and by God and St. 
Mary and by the words of the Holy Gospels, wherever they are 
further set forth according to law, promised in virtue thereof 
to state the truth: and that which they and each of them on 
being asked the questions in the said interrogatory, stated and 
deposed, secretly and openly, is as follows : 

Witness: the said Francisco de Prado, inhabitant of this 
city, witness presented in the said affair on behalf of the said 
Francisco de Tapia, Governor, having taken the oath according 
to law, and being examined according to the teneur of the 
said questions, stated and deposed as follows: 

To the first question he answered, etc 

As to the fourteenth question, he stated : that this 
witness heard all that is set forth in the said question 
publicly talked of in this said city among those who 
discussed the subject and had had it from the said captain 
and master ; and that in the opinion of this witness and 
by what he can hear, in view of the fact that the said 
ship reached this harbour which is so hidden among 
these islands, she must have had on board a pilot who knew it 
very well; and this was seen both when she came in from thr» 
high seas in search oi this harbour, and again when she Wjit, 



176 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

away; for they & ai led the coast like people who knew it . . 

Witness : the said Alonso d' Avila, burgess and alderman of 
this city, etc 

As to the fourteenth question, he stated: that what he 
knows in answer to this question is, that this witness heard 
the captain of the said ship declare, when he was on shore, that 
that vessel and another, which had set out in consort with it 
and had been lost, had set forth by order of the king of England 
in search of a strait towards the northern parts; and that on 
the death of their pilot, who had been killed on a coast at which 
they had touched, they had come to this island in order to 
gather information about the course back to their country : that 
this witness thinks it certain from what he heard stated by 
men skilled in navigation, that the said ship would have had 
more difficulty in returning home than in coming to this island 
from the region whence the said captain affirmed she had come ; 
that it appeared to this witness from the manner in which the 
v-essel made this harbour, there was some one on board who 
knew the route well 

Witness: the said Diego Martel, burgess of this city, 
etc 

As to the fourteenth question, he stated : that what he knows 
of this, is that the night the said two sailors passed in this wit- 
ness's house, desliring to find out whence they came, he asked 
them how they had arrived at this port, when they were in a 
better position to sail home than to come to this port? They 
answered this witness that the king of England had sent them 
with two ships to discover a certain strait that lay near Nor- 
way, whence they had set forth; and that after sailing as far 
north as 64°, it being winter, they found the land all frozen, 
and the cold so extreme that four or five men of this ship died, 
whereupon they agreed to come to a warm country, for which 
reason, and as their pilot had been killed, they had come with 
intent to sell certain clothes and linen ^oods they had on board, 
and to secure a skilled pilot to take them back to England. This 
is what the said two men told this witness, who is certain the 
ship would not have come to this port, had there not been on 
board a man who knew the course to bring them to this said 
tiarbour 

Witness: the said John Garcia, Esquire, burgess of this 
said city, etc 

As to the fourteenth question he stated : that this witness 
Tieard the same affirmed by some people in this city; and that 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 177 

this witness is of opinion that the said vessel had on board, to 
all appearances, a Spanish or English pilot, who had been in 
these parts 

Witness : the said John de Loaysa, present in this said city, 
etc 

As to the fourteenth question, he stated : that when the said 
master spoke with the said licentiate Cuazo, he heard him give 
the reason for his voyage that is set out in the question ; and 
that their pilot had died in Newfoundland with other men ; and 
that afterwards this was believed and held to be certain from 
the goods on board the said ship . . . . 

After the above, in the said city of San Domingo on the 
ninth day of the said month of December, in the said year, in 
presence of me the said notary, appeared the said John Ximenez 
in the said name, and presented as a witness in the said matter 
Francisco Merchant, of the said city, who made oath according 
to law, and being questioned by the tenour of the said questions, 
stated and deposited as follows : 

To the fourteenth question he made answer: that while this 
witness was in Coco there arrived a pinnace with ten or twelve 
Englishmen from the said ship, and as soon as they came on 
shore they asked this witness about the condition of this city 
of San Juan 1 . And this witness told them it was in good con- 
dition and he asked them who they were ? They replied they 
were Englishmen, and that the ship was an English vessel' 
belonging to the king of England, loaded with wollen stuffs 
and linens ; and that they had been to Newfoundland and found 
the coast very low and that the pilots they had on board, who 
w r ere the best that had been this way, had brought them to this 
city of San Domingo. And that this was when the said vessel 
was coming towards this city; and that this witness gave them 
some fresh fish to eat, and thereupon they returned to their boat 
and came towards this city, etc 

LIX. 

"2 décembre 1531. 

ORDRE DE S'ENQUÉRIR AU SUJET DU PILLAGE d'un VAISSEAU 

FRANÇAIS. 

Henricus octavus dei gratia Anglie et ff rancie Eex, fide i 
defensor, et dominus Hibernie, dilectis et fidelibus suis Edwardo 

1 Capitale de Porto-Rico. 
29837—12 



178 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Guldeford, militi, Constabulario Castri nostri Dovorie ac 
Custodi quinqué portuum nostrorum, Johanni Hales, uni 
baronum de Scaccario nostro, et Willelmo Hawte, militi, ac 
dilectis sibi Cristoforo Hales, generali attornato nostra, Will- 
elmo Kempe, armígero, et Ricardo Deryng, salutem: Sciatis, 
quod cum ex gravi querimonia Johannis Collays, magistri 
cuiusdam navis vocate le Barbara de Seyntbridgion in Britan- 
nia accepimus qualiter navis ilia, saisis piscibus vocatur ftysshe 
of the newe founde iland onusta, per nimiam tempestatem 
et maris rabiem agitata, pro tuicione et salvacione sua ad 
quendam costeram maris prope Rammesgate, infra insulam de 
Thaneto in comitatu nostro Kancie, vicésimo tercio die Octu- 
bris ultimo pretérito applicuarit, eademque navi tunc salva 
a tempestate existente, quidam malefactores et treugarum et 
amciciarum inter nos et carissimum fratrem et consanguin- 
eum nostrum ffranciscum, firancorum Regem, initarum et con- 
clusarum 1 , violatores et contemptores, in navem illam irru- 
perunt, et pisces ac alias res in ea existentes, necnon diversas 
apparatus eiusdem ceperunt et asportaverunt, Nos ami- 
ciciam et treugas predictas pro parte nostra firmiter teneri, et 
quod justum est in hac parte, fieri volentes, ac de fidelitatibus 
vestris plenius confidentes, assignavimus vos quinqué, quatuor 
et tres vestrum ad inquirendum tarn per sacrum, proborum 
et legalium hominum in quibuscumque locis tarn infra liber- 
tates quinqué portuum predictorum quam alibi in predicto 
comitatu Kancie, per quos rei Veritas melius sciri poterit, ac 
aliis vus, modis et mediis, quibus melius sciveritis aut poteritis, 
qui malefactores et amiciciarum predictarum violatores in 
navim predictam irruperunt, et pisces, res et apparatus eiusdem 
navis ceperunt, et quantum huiusmodi piscium, rerum et appara- 
tuum inde asportaverunt, et ad quorum seu cuius manus pisces, 
res et apparatus predicti devenerunt, et in quorum manibus ad 
hue existait, et ad eosdem pisces, res et apparatus ubicumque 
inventi fuerint, tarn infra libertates quam extra, seisiendos, 
capiendos et arrestandos, et prefato Johanni Collays seu eius 
in hac parte deputato sive deputatis, si extent, aut precium 
seu verum valorem eorundem si non extent, rtstituti et liberari 
faciendos, ac si aliquos vel aliquem restitucionem et libera- 
cionem huiusmodi faceré renuentes vel renuentem inveneritis, 
tune ad eos prisone nostre committendos, in eadem salve et 



*24 juin 1528. Voir Foedera, de Rymer, XII, 258-65, Londres, 1712. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 179 

secure quousque per eorum deliberacionem duxerimus ordinan- 
dum custodiri faciendos, Ac de nominibus eorum et de eorum 
gestis et factis ac de omnibus circumstanciis premissa tangenti- 
bus nobis in Cancellaria nostra debite certificandis. Ed ideo 
vobis mandamus, quod circa premissa diligenter intendatis, et 
ea faciatis, et exequamini in forma predicta, ac nos in Can- 
cellaria nostra predicta de toto facto vestro in hac parte sub 
sigillis vestris quinqué, quatuor vel trium vestrum in Crastino 
purificacionis beate Marie proximo futuro ubicumque tunc 
fuerit distincte et aperte reddatis certiores ; damns autem uni- 
versis et singulis quorum interest in hac parte, tenore pre- 
sencium, firiniter in mandatis, quod vobis quinqué, quatuor et 
tribus vestrum in execucione premissorum intendentes sint con- 
sulentes et auxiliantes in omnibus diligenter; mandamus eciam 
tenore presencium vicomito nostro Kancie quod ad certos dies 
et loca, quos ei scire faciatis, coram vobis quinqué, quatuor vel 
tribus vestrum tot et tales probos et legales homines de balliva 
sua, per quos rei Veritas in premissis melius seiri poterit et 
inquiri. In cuius rei testimonium has literas nostras fieri 
fecimus patentes. Teste me ipso, apud Chelsehith, secundo die 
Decembris, Anno regni nostri vicésimo tercio. 

From the Public Eecord Office, Patent Poll, 23 Henry VIII, 
December, pt. IL, No. 659, membrane lOd : unpublished. Vid. 
James Gairdner, Letters and Papers of the reign of Henry 
VIII. V ,285, No. 627 (1). 

LIXa. 

Henry VIII, by the grace of God, King of England and of 
France, defender of the Faith, and lord of Ireland, to his well- 
beloved and faithful Edward Guildford 1 , Knight, constable of 
our castle of Dover and Warden of our Cinque Ports, John 
Hales, one of the Barons of our Exchequer 2 and William Hawte, 
Knight, and to his well-beloved Christopher Hales, our Attor- 
ney-General 3 , William Kempe, Esquire, and Richard Dering 4 , 
greeting: Know, that upon the serious complaint of Jean Col- 
lays, master of a certain ship called Le Barbara of St. Bridgion 

1 Fils de sir Richard Guildford, demi-frère de sir Henry Guildford, 
contrôleur ed la maison de Henri VIII. 

2 Nommé deuxième baron, le 14 mai 1528. 

3 Nommé le 3 juin 1529. 

4 Une ancienne famille de Kent. 
29837— \2\ 



180 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

( ? St. Brieuc) in Brittany, we have heard how this vessel, 
with a cargo of salted fish called ffysshe of the new founde 
iland, after being tossed about in a very bad storm and heavy 
sea, sought safety and shelter, on the twenty-third of October 
last, at a certain part of the coast near Ramsgate, on the south 
side of the island of Thanet in our county of Kent ; and when 
this ship was then safe from the storm, certain malfactors, 
violators and contempters of the treaty of friendship entered 
into and concluded between ourselves and our very dear brother 
and cousin, Francis, king of the French, broke into that ship 
and seized and carried off both the fish and other goods then on 
board, as well as divers parts of the rigging. We, being desirous 
that the aforesaid treaty of friendship should be duly carried 
out on our part and that justice should be done in this matter, 
and having full confidence in your fidelity, have appointed 
five, four and three of you to open an inquiry with the help of 
venerable, honest and lawful men in any places whatsoever, as 
well within the jurisdiction of the aforesaid Cinque Ports as 
elsewhere in the aforesaid county of Kent, through whom the 
truth of the matter may the better known, and in other ways, 
manners and means, by which the better you may learn or find 
out what malfactors and violators of the aforesaid friendship 
broke into the aforesaid ship and seized the fish, goods and 
tackle of the same, and how much of these fish, goods and tackle 
they carried off, and into whose hand or hands the aforesaid 
fish, goods and tackle came, and in whose hands they now are, 
and to seize, capture and take possession of these fish, goods 
and tackle wherever they be found, as well within the juris- 
diction [of the Cinque Ports] as outside of it, and to cause these, 
if they be in existence, to be given back and delivered up to the 
aforesaid Jean Collays or his deputy or deputies in this matter, 
or the price or true value if they do not exist, and should you 
discover any person or persons refusing to restore and hand over 
the same, then to commit these to our prison or have them 
detained there safely and securely, until we shall have con- 
sidered what is to be done in their case; and duly to certify to 
us in our Chancery their names, deeds and acts and all the cir- 
cumstances pertaining to the aforesaid matters. And therefore 
we command you to inquire diligently into the above and to 
carry out and fulfil the same in the manner aforesaid and to 
return us an explicit and clear account of all you do in this 
matter under the seal of the five, four or three of you, on the 
\norrow of the next Purification of the Blessed Mary [3 Febru- 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 181 

ary, 1532] in our aforesaid Chancery, wherever it may then be. 
Moreover, by the tenour of these presents we duly command all 
and singular to whom this matter pertains, diligently to aid, 
counsel and help the uve, four or three of you wherever possible 
in the execution of the above. We also, by the tenour of these 
presents, command our sheriff of Kent, on the days and at the 
places you may ûx [to assemble] before the five, four or three 
of you as many and such honest and lawful men of his bailiwick 
as may aid to the truth of the aforesaid being better known and 
inquired into. In witness whereof we have caused these our 
letters patent to be drawn up. 

Witness ourselves at Chelsehith on the second of December 
in the twenty-third year of our reign. 

LX. 

Septembre-décembre 1533. 

LE " CHRISTOPHE " DE PLOUMANAC À DESTINATION" DE TERRE- 
NEUVE. 

A tous ceulx qui ces présentes lettres verront, etc., 
sçavoir faisons que etc., ont été présens et personnellement es- 
tablyz Yvon Raymond, marchant et maistre de la navyre nom- 
mée Xpristofle de Plusmanac, lequel, de son bon gré et volonté, 
a congneu et confessé, etc., debvoir et estre tenu bien, justment 
et lyoaulment à honnorable homme Julien Giraud, marchent et 
bourgois de la ville de La Rochelle, à ce présent, stipullant et 
acceptant, la somme de 30 livres tournoys ; laquelle somme ledit 
Raymond a confessé avoir heu et receu dudit Giraud auparavant 
le passement de ces présentes, et s'en est tenu et tient pour 
contant, ainsi qu'il a congneu et confessé es presences du notaire 
cy soubscriptz ; renonscent, sur ce, ledit Raymond, à l'excep- 
tion de ladite pecune non avoir heue, non receue, non comptée, 
et à toutes autres manière et exception et dexxetions quesxcon- 
ques ; et laqueie dicte somme de 30 livres tournoys ledit Giraud 
les* a délaissé et délaisse audit Raymond à la grosse aventure du 
premier voyage qu'il prestant et espère faire de ceste ville de La 
Rochelle à Terre Neuf ves ou autre pays qu'il yra, en allant 
et venant en sauveté en ladite Rochelle ou ailleurs es environs. 
Et pour, amprés le retour fait, par ledit Raymond rendre et 
bailher et livrer audit Giraud sur le port et havre de 
ladie Rochelle ou ailleurs, pour le poyment de ladite 
somme de 30 livres turnoys, deux milliers de mou] 



182 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

J ues parées, ainsi qu'il les amènera, înoyennent qu'elles 
soyent bonnes et marchandes. Et moyennant ce, toutes obliga- 
tions, cédulles et Chartres parties qui auroyent esté faictes et 
passées par cy devant entre eulx par notaires ou autrement 
demourant, seront et demoureront cassées et annulées. Autre- 
ment ledit Giraud s'en pourra aider contre ledit Raymond par 
primitive obligation, seullement quant à rizer et débouter tous 
autres créditeurs. Pour lequel paiement, etc." After 23 Sep- 
tember, 1533, and before 31 December of the same year. 

From the office of M. Bonniot, notary at La Rochelle, 
minutes of M. Gaschet, notaire, fol. 37l v : unpublished. 
The above copy was most kindly made by M. Georges 
Musset of La Rochelle, who first discovered this document. 



LXI. 

EXTRAITS DU RAPPORT DE CONTARINI CONCERNANT SEBASTIEN 

CABOT. 

Relazione letta in senato. 

Note a Cabotta. Concorda a non farlo Inglese anche una 
manuschitta relazione, che esiste presso do noi, di Marcantonio 
Contarini, Ambasciatore in Ispagna nel 1534, che dice: 

Sebastian Cabotto, figlio d'un Veneziano, quale andette in 
Tnghilterra suso le Galie Venete con fantasia di cercar paesi, 
etc. 

Note. Dice il Contarini, che il Cabotta: ebbe do nave da 
Enrico Be de Anglia (Padre de Errico moderno, che é fatto 
Luterano, e peggio) e con 300. uomini navigò tanto che trovó 
il mar congelato. Questo è il viaggio, di cui parlato abbiamo 
di sopra, fatto del 1496, per trovare il passagiò da un mare 
all' altro, e fin qui dice il vero. Segue lo stesso: Onde con- 
venue al Cabotto ritornarsene senza aver V intento suo cum 
presuposito però di ritornarsene a quella impresa a tempo che 
il mar non fosse congelato : Ne anche qui c'è che opporre. 
Aggiungne: Trovó il Re morto, e il figlio citrasi poco di tale 
impresa. 

From the Kaiserl. und Konigl. Hofbibliothek at Vienna, 
N° 6122, Cod. Foscarini, fols. 15 r and 17 V . The second extract 
is also given on folio 33 v . Herr Ferd. Mencik, the custos, 
kindly collated the above copy : printed in the Raccolta Colom- 
biana, pt. Til, vol. I, p. 137 ; Harrisse, John Cabot, etc., 431- N° 
LXIII; and Winship, Cabot Bibliography, 36. 



precurseurs de cartier 183 

LXIa. 

Report read in the Senate. 

Note on Cabot. Also agrees in not making him English, 
an MS. report, in our hands, by Marcantonio Contarini, 
ambassador in Spain in 1534, which states: 

Sebastian Cabot, son of a Venetian, who went to England 
on the Venetian galleys with the idea of searching for new 
lands, etc. i 

Note. Contarini states that Cabot, had two ships from 
Henry, King of England, (father of the modern Henry who be- 
came Lutheran and worse) and with 300 men sailed so far that 
he found the sea frozen. This is the voyage of which we have 
spoken above, made in 1496, in order to find the passage from 
one ocean to the other ; and thus far he states what is true. He 
continues : Whence Cabot had to return without having carried 
■out his purpose, intending , however, to make a fresh attempt 
when the sea was not frozen. Nor here can any objection be 
raised. He adds : He found the king dead and the son little 
interested in such an undertaking. 

LXIT. 

1541-56. 

EXRTAIT DU ' ISLARIO GENERAL ' DE SANTA CRUZ. 

Tierra del Labrador. 

De la que al presente queremos tratar es comun- 
mente dicha tierra del Labrador, puesta en controversia de 
opiniones si es cortada del continente d'Engrovelandia 1 , de 
quien en la primera parte hizimos mención, o si es tierra con- 
tinuada del continente setentrional de Europa, loqual está por 
averiguar 2 hasta oy por la indispusicion del lugar, que es tan 
fria que no es tratable sino en el estio. Zieglero 3 tiene ser esta 
tierra [toda] 4 continuada desde Escondia, 5 movido por lo que 

1 Située au nord de la Norvège. Voir Facsimile- Atlas de Nordenskiold, 
gravure XXX, XXXIII, XXXVIII et XLI, Stockolm, 1889 

2 On lit navegar sur les copies de Vienne et de Besançon. 

3 Santa Cruz avait lu l'ouvrage de celui-ci sur " Schondia ", publié à 
Strasbourg en 1532. 

4 Les mots entre crochets se trouvent seulement dans les copies du ma- 
nuscrit de Vienne et de Besançon, et nous les désignerons par les lettres 
V et B. 

5 Sandinavie. Voir Nordenskiold, op. cit., gravure XLIII, " and the 
Basles Ptolemies of 1540 and 1542, No. 41, Nova Tabula XIII". 



184 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Antonio Gaboto delia dixo, que avia ydo costeando la tierra y 
costa setentrional hasta mas adelante de la tierra de los Bacal- 
laos, y hasta casi la Florida, y ■ que en jullio 1 avia tan 
grandes témpanos y pedaços de yelo sobre el mar, mayores que 
las naos que llevavan, que venian de hazia la tierra alançados 
por lor rrios, que apenas se podian defender dellos ; pero esta 
rrelacion fué muy confusa, y a quien no se dio mucha fee, por 
ser la primera. Olao Magno da a entender estar divisa, por 
manera que avria paso según el por alli y a la rredonda de 
Escondia para yr a las islas orientales, loqual se a de entender 
por la parte oritutal della. Que por la accidental hasa la 
tierra de los Bacallaos se afirma de unos dos hermanos portu- 
gueses, llamados Cortes rreales, que fueron a ella con licencia 
del Bey de Portugal, para la abitar, y de quien se dixo también 
la tierra de los Corte Reales, o Corterators, corrubto el vocabla, 
estos pues aseveraron partirse del gran continente de las Indias 
occidentales, cuyo estremo parte ellos tenian, dtsta isla del 
Labrador por una canal muy ancha y grande de mar, de la qual 
el piloto Antonio Gaboto, arriba dicho, tanbien tuvo noticia. 
Fué dicha tierra del Labrador porque dio della aviso e indicio 
un labrador de las islas de los Açores al Bey de Inglatierra 
quando el la enbio a descubrir por Antonio Gaboto, piloto ingles 
y padre de Sebastian Gaboto, piloto mayor que fué 2 de Vuestra 
Magestad, y dende estonces se frequenta de ingleses que van a 
ella por pescados, que toman muchos los de la tierra, que afir- 
man ser de las mesmas costumbres que los de Capania, 3 pro- 
vincia en Escondia, que al principio dt la primera parte dixi- 
mos. Traen assi mesmo pellejos de animales de mucho precio 
y estima, y llevan mercadurías que a ellos les agradan.* Afirmase 
ser la tierra muy abitada, y de muchos arboles y buenas aguas, 
y de rios muy caudalosos, y muchas islas pequeñas 4 junto a ella 
por toda la costa, de mucha frescura ; y pesca de muchos pesca- 
dos. De verano tiene gentil vista por la mucha arboleda que 
dizen que tiene, lo que no tiene de invierno, por las muchas 
nieves. Tiene pues la costa austral della, que es lo que hasta 
el dia de oy esta descubierta, ciento y cinquenta leguas de largo, 
levante puniente, desde un cabo mas oriental, llamado cabo 
Gruesso, hasta otro llamado cabo de las Yslas. Salen a ella 
muchos rrios y muy buenos, y en parage de la costa muchas islas, 

1 Dans V et B on lit: que con ser en julio. 

2 Dans V et B on lit: que oy es manuscrit J. 92. qui a été altéré par 
André Garcia Céspedes, en vue de le rendre semblable à son propre ouvrage. 
Les ratures à cette fin sont encore visibles. 

3 Laponia. Dans V et B on lit: la Polonia. 

4 On lit dans V etB: y de yslas muy pequeñas. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 185 

aunque deshabitadas y de ningún provecho. A la parte del 
poniente tiene una gran baya con muchas islas. Está en altura 
de cinquenta y seis grados, y en el clima onzeno. Su mayor 
dia es de 17 oras y un quarto. 1 

Islas de San Juan; Islas de las Virgines. 

Junto a la costa de la tierra que arriba diximos llamarse 
de los Bachallaos, donde fueron a poblar los Corte Reales, dos 
hermanos portugueses, y primero reconocida del piloto Antonio 
Gaboto, ingles, por mandado de El Key de Ynglatierra, están 
muchas yslas, grandes y pequeñas, de todas las quales, el dia de 
oy, ay poca noticia a causa de ser la tierra muy fria y de poco 
provecho, y aver muerto en ella los dos hermanos dichos con 
toda la gente que llevaron, sin saber como, porque nunca se 
supo cosa dellos, desde a poco tiempo que a ella llegaron, por 
loqual y por el poco provecho de la tierra, no a querido el Rey 
de Portugal tornar a embiar alia gente armada alguna 2 ; pero 
tienese por muy mejor tierra que la del Labrador 3 por ser mas 
caliente. Hallanse a la parte oriental desta tierra muchas islas 
y con nombres las siguientes: la primera se llama isla de la 
Fortuna, laquai está en el braço de mar o estrecho que passa 
entre esta tierra de los Bacallaos y la isla del Labrador. 4 
Llamóse de la Fortuna porque junto a ella huvo una gran [for- 
tuna de mar]' una armada de Portugal que alli fué quando 
fueron los Corte Reales ; y otra, San Juan, a la boca de un gran 
rrio; y otra San Pedro. Fueron [les] puestos estos nombres 
por se aver descubierto en dias destos bienaventurados apos- 
teles. Son desiertas, y al derredor delias se pescan muchos 
pescados. Mas al medio dia de las dichas, están otras dos o 
tres islas altas, llamadas de Aves, porque al principio que se 
descubrieron, vieron 5 en ellas muchas aves, como unas que acá 
llaman Rabiahoreados ; y no ay otra cosa de provecho en ellas. 
Mas al medio dia están otras llamadas de los Patos, y otras aves 
de agua. Son yslas llanas y arenosas y de poco provecho. 
Al ocidente destas por catorze leguas está una isleta baxa, y 
llena de baxos a la rredonda, que la llamaron por esta causa 
isla Baxa G . Al austro de la tierra de los Bacallaos y junto al 
cabo llamado d J Espera, están tres islas, la mayor de las quales 

i « çf Tafel I in Franz R : v. Wieser, Die Karten von Amerika in dem 
Islario General, etc Innsbruck, 1908." 

s On lit : ninguna dans B. 

3 Notre Groenland. 

* Notre Goënland; le détroit est notre détroit de Davis. 

6 On lit dieron dans B. 

8 Voir Map of the World by Alonzo de Santa Cruz, par E. W. Dahl^ren. 
gravure III, Stockolm, 1892. 



186 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

sera de hasta tres o quatro leguas, deshabitadas; y mas al 
ocidente destas y dentro de una baya que se dize de ¡Santa 
María, ay muchas isletas pequeñas, y todas desiertas, y do 
grandes pesquerías entre ellas, las quales se anegan con las* 
avenidas que el rio tiene en los inviernos. Y junto al cabo de 
Santa María, que es luego passada la baya, están tres yslas 
coma casi en triangulo, de hasta ocho leguas de largo cada una, 
con otros isleos a la rredonda, las quales llaman tes Onze 
mill Virgines, todas despobladas y sin algún 1 provecho. Al der- 
redor desta tierra y costa ay muy grande abundancia de pesca- 
dos, por laquai causa vienen cada año muchos bretones e 
irlandeses a pescar a ellas por el rrio, y llevan cargados sus 
navios dellos. Los pescados que mas comunmente aqui se 
hallan, son bacallaos, que son unos pescados que salados se 
conservan mucho ; y se llevan en las naos para bastimento, y 
se gastan en toda la costa de Francia, 2 y aun de Galizia. Al 
medio dia desta tierra de los Bacalhaos y de la baya de Santa 
Maria, ^or cinquenta leguas, está una isla llamada Juan 
Estevez s 7 laquai se dixo assi por un piloto que la descubrió, 
assi llamado, viniendo a pescar aqui : y también se han descu- 
bierto otras que están al poniente desta, assi acaso, andando 
pescando por este mar; pero todas son deshabitadas y de poco 
provecho. Están en altura de quarenta y seis grados ; y las 
que arriba diximos estar junto a la costa del continente, desde 
quarenta y ocho 4 a cinquenta y uno, y en el clima noveno ; y 
su mayor dia de 16 horas y un quarto. Passadas las islas de 
las Honze mili Virgines haze la mar una muy gran ensenada, 
llama baya de Bretones, por la venida que hazen cada año a 
pescar a esta baya y tierra los dichos bretones. <En esta baya 
o ensenada dizen aver muchas islas y todas despobladas. Prin- 
cipalmente ay una pequeña dicha de Sant Elmo, a laquai le 
pusieron el tal nombre ciertos pescadores bretones, porque una 
noche ornándoles sobrella una tormenta, dizen que vieron en 
la isla muchas candelas ardiendo, a que ellos llaman Sant Elmo, 
que dizen que viene en tal figura. Passada la dicha baya, mas 
al occidente y junto a una punta llamada Cabo Breton, com- 
iença a prolongarse por la costa una isla, levante a poniente, 
dicha de San Juan, que tiene de largo cinquenta y seis leguas, 
y por lo mas acho veinte. Esta isla dixeron algunos pilotos 

1 On lit ningún dans B. 

2 Flandres dans B. 

3 Voir Dahlgren op. cit., III. Il s'agit évidemment de notre île dn 
Sable. 

4 On lit dans B -.quarenta y nueve o (sic) cinquenta. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 187 

que no estava en esta parte de mar, sino metida en la baya que 
diximos llamarse de los Bretones : y en muchas cartas de 
navegar, a los principios quando esta tierra se començo a des- 
cubrir, se ponia 1 asi, hasta que Estevan Gomez, piloto, truxo 
esta rrelacion algo discrepante de la que se tenia, que es estar 
esta isla no en la baya do dezian que estava, sino junto á esta 
tierra do agora está. De laquai isla, no ay cosa que de con- 
tarse, a salvo que el dicho Estevan Gomez, piloto, dize que a la 
passada por ella, vido muchos humos en ella y señales de ser 
habitada. Hazese una canal entre ella y tierra firme llamada 
canal de San Julian, de cinco o seis leguas de ancho. Esta 
isla dizen tener [muy] buena vista y mucha arboleda, y rrios 
que salen a la mar. Tiene a la rredonda de sy muchos isleos, 
todos deshabitados. Está desde quarenta y seis a quarenta 
y siete grados y medio 2 , y en el clima octavo. Tiene su mayor 
dia de quinze oras y dos tercios. Junto al Cabo Breton se 
hallan algunas isletas deshabitadas, do ay muchas aves, y al 
derredor delias ay grandes pesquerías. 

Islas Adjacentes a la Tierra que descubrió el Piloto Estevan 

Gomez. 

Estevan Gomez, Piloto, de quien arriba diximos, en aquella 
jornada y espedicion que hizo con mandado y licencia del 
emperador nuestro señor 3 , en demanda y descubrimiento del 
Catayo o ciudad oriental de la India, y de aquel passo o estrecho, 
tan desseado, que saliese al mar comunmente llamado del 
Sur, en el qual estuvo diez meses, dentro de los quales des- 
cubrió por esta costa gran numero de yslas juntas al contin- 
ente, y principalmente un Rio muy ancho y caudaloso que el 
puso nombre de los Gamos 4 , por los muchos que alli avia, sem- 
hrado todo de yslas, a lasquales en el verano venían los indios 
de la tierra firme a abitar en ellas, por rrazon de las muchas 
pesquerías que unto a ellas avia de Salmones y Sábalos y 
bogas y otros muchos géneros de pescados que en estas partes 
ay, por el qual rrio el navegó por mucho espacio, creyendo fuese 
el estrecho que el desseava hallar, pero al fin halló este ser un 
famoso rio de gran concurso de aguas, de do se arguye 5 el gran 
trato y espacio del continente que alli ay. Y puesto que el 
creyese la muy firme oppinion que ay de la canal y passo que 

1 On trouve puso dans B. 

2 On lit dans B : hasta quarenta y ocho grados. Voir " Taf el II in 
Wieser " op cit. 

3 Les motslicen cia de Vuestra Mugestad se trouvent dans V et B. 

4 La baie de Fundy. 

5 Arguyo dans B. 



188 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

arriba diximos cortar el continente de. los Bacallaos y la tierra 
llamada del Labrador, el tuvo por cierto que no avia necessidad 
de espiriencia, por no ser possible poderse passar por ella, según 
el impedimento que avria de friadad en las partes vezinas, 
laquai oppinion y disculpa de no aver intentado a passar por 
el, quedó tan assentada por buena escusa que nunca mas se ha 
intentado a proceder en este caso, siendo cosa que tanto impor- 
tava al bien y servicio de vuestra Magostad, porque se pretendia 
por alli el govierno y trato de las yslas de los Malucos, con 
otras muchas que por alli ay del dominio y derecho de su 
corona Real, aunque este estrecho o canal, ya que se pudiese 
passar, pues por comparación de lo que oy se sabe que se navega 
a la rredonda de Escondia, era possible, queda un grande 
escrúpulo, que seria estremadamente dificultoso para los abitu- 
ados a temperamento tan contrario, o distante de tan gran 
estremo, como es España de la parte tan setentrional, como 
está ; por lo qual si los grandes cuidados que a vuestra Magestad 
fatigan, dissen lugar que su magnánimo coraçon co^hiese 
una cosa tan until y necessária, coma era juntar el mar r!^ 1 
\ el oceano Ocidental por aquel estrecho de tierra de Paanama 
al Nombre de Dios, pues ayuda a ello la dispusicion del lugar, 
pues de diez y siete leguas que son, las doze 1 y mas es de un 
Rio tan llano y fácil que pueden subir por el vergantines y 
barcos, por manera que no sesenta y dos millas respacio de 
tierra, como intentó Sosostis, Roy de Egipto, y después Dario, 
Rey de los Persas, y después casi la acabó Ptolomeo, intentando 
de juntar el mar Bermezo con el Rio Kilo de Egipto, (lo qual 
despues de hecha se dexo de juntar por ciertas causas: sino 
hasta quinze serian las que restarian de se rrasgar). Bolviendo 
a las yslas del Rio de las Gamas y de las adjacentes al contiente 
vezino, son todas las mas, como dicho tengo, pobladas y prin- 
cipalmente de verano de indios como los de S. Domingo, de 
quien luego diremos, y de me j eros cuerpos, ellas y ellos. 
Tienen sus acos y fleches y lanças tostadas con que pelean. 
Es la tierra muy templada y de mucha arboleda de los que 
en estas partes ay, como enzinas, robles, solinas. 2 Halláronse 
muchas parras silvestres, con uvas y muchas plantas y yervas, 
como las de España, y mucha marcazita, que pensaron ser oro. 
Truxeron en el galeón muchos indios de la tierra a España, 
los quale» pusieron en su libertad 3 

1 Dies dans B. 

2 Ollivas dans V et B. 

8 Voir Discovery of North America, par Harrisse, 241 et sa Découverte, 
etc., p. 88, ainsi que Wieser, op. cit., Tafel III. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 189 

From the Islario General de todas las Islas del Mundo in 
the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid, Ms. J 92, fols. 294 v -9. Copies 
of parts III and IV are also preserved in the Kaiserliche Hof- 
bibliothek at Vienna (Nos. 5542 and 7195) and in the Biblio- 
thèque at Besançon (MS. ■'No. 661). Mr. H. Harrisse pub- 
lished extracts from these in his Discovery of -N. America, 234-8, 
and in his Découverte, etc. de Terre-Neuve, 118-21, with French 
and English translations. Last year the whole of part IV 
was printed from MS. No. 7195, with a brief account of 
Santa Cruz's life, in Die Karten von Amerika in dem 
Islario General des Alonso ãe Santa Cruz mit dem spanischen 
Originaltexte und einer kritischen Einleitunq, herausgegehen 
von Franz. K. von Wieser, Innsbruck, 1908. 

LXIIa. 

The region of which we wish now to treat is commonly 
called the Labrador's land [Greenland], the point being dis- 
puted whether it is separated from the continent of Engrove- 
landia [Norway] 1 , whereof we have spoken in part I, or of it 
is one continuous coast with the northern continent of Europe. 
This point even to-day awaits verifications, on account of the 
insalubrity of this region, which is so cold that it is accessible 
only in summer. Ziegled is of opinion that this [Green] 
land is continuous with Escondia [Scandinavia], being influ- 
enced by what Antonio Gaboto stated in this connection, who 
had coasted the northern shores as far as a point beyond the 
Cod-fish land [Newfoundland] and almost as far as Florida. 
[He affirmed] that in July there were such large ice-floes and 
icebergs, larger than their ships, which moved along the coast 
with the current, that with difficulty they were able to avoid 
them. But this account was very confused and being the first, 
not much credence was given to it. 

Olaus Magnus 2 gives us to understand that this [Green] 
land is cut off, so that according to him there should be a 
passage on that side and round Escondia [Scandinavia] to sail 
to the eastern islands, that is to say on the eastern side of the 
same. With regard to the western side of [Greenland] to- 
wards the Codfish land [Newfoundland], it is stated that two 
Portuguese brothers named Corte Real, who made their way 

1 Facsimilie-Atlas deA. E. Nordenskiõld, gravure XXX. Stockolm, 
1889; et The oldest Map with the name of America par J. Fisher S. J. et 
F. R. Von Wieaser, gravure 3, Innsbruck, 1903. 

2 L'archevêque d Upsal qui mourut à Rome en 1568, auteur d'une his- 
toire des Goths, etc. Voir aussi p. 183, note 3. 



190 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

to that region under licence from the king of Portugal to 
inhabit the same, and after whom that region [our Newfound- 
land and Labrador] 1 , is also called the land of the Corte Reals, 
or by corruption of a syllable Corte Ratos, affirmed that the 
great continent of the West Indies [North America], the 
extreme point of which they were occupying, was separated 
from the Labrador's island [Greenland] by a large wide ocean 
strait, of which the pilot Antonio Gaboto had also knowledge. 
It was called the Labrador's land because a husbandman 
[Labrador] from the Açores islands gave tidings and informa- 
tion about it to the king of England when he sent Antonio 
Gaboto, the English pilot and the father of Sebastian Gaboto, 
who was your Majesty's Pilot major, to discover it. From 
that time the English have frequented it on account of the fish 
which are caught in quantities by the natives who are said to 
have the same customs as those of Lapland, a province in 
Escondia [Scandinavia], whereof we have spoken in Part I. 
The English bring thence rare and valuable furs, and transport 
thither merchandise that pleases the natives. It is stated that 
the country is well populated, with many trees, fine streams and 
very large rivers. Along the whole coast are many small, 
verv pleasant islands. The fishing is also good. In summer 
the land has a pleasant appearance on account of the many trees 
that are said to grow there; but in winter, from the quantity 
of snow, it loses this. The southern coast of this [Green] 
land, which is the only part so far explored, is 150 leagues 
long, east and west, from the most eastern point called the 
Great cape [Cape Desolation] to another called the Cape of 
Islands [Cape Farewell]. Many fine rivers enter the sea 
from this land, and off coast lie numerous uninhabited and 
unuroductive islands. On the western side there is a large 
bay full of islands. This land lies in latitude 50° and in the 
eleventh climate. Its longest day is 17 hours 15 minutes. 

ÎLE SAINT-JEAN : ÎLES DES VIERGES. 

Off the coast of the land which we stated above was called 
the Cod : fish land [Newfoundland and Labrador], where the 
Corte Reals, two Portuguese brothers, went to settle, and which 
was first explored by the English pilot Antonio Gaboto by 
command of the king of England, lie many islands, large and 
small, in regard to which even to-day our information is scanty, 

1 Fisher et Von Wieser, op. cit., gravure 16; Atlas ziir Entdeckangs- 
geschichte Amerikas de Kuntsman, Blatter I-IV, Miinchen, 1859. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 191 

because the land is cold and produces little of value, and 
because of the deaths of the said two brothers with all their 
men, on one knows in what manner ; for shortly after their 
arrival there nothing further was ever heard of them, on which 
account and because of the slight profit from that land, the king 
of Portugal has been unwilling to send thither a fresh company 
or fleet. Being wanner it is held to be a better country than 
the Labrador's land [Greenland]. 

Off the east coast of this land [Newfoundland and Labra- 
dor] lie numerous islands named as follows : — the first is called 
Storm island and lies in the arm of the sea or [Davis] strait, 
which separates this Cod-fish land from the Labrador's island 
[Greenland], It was named Storm island from a great storm 
met with near it by a, fleet from Portugal at the time the Corte 
Reals visited those parts. 1 Another, lying at the mouth of a 
large river, is called St. John s island and a third, St. Peter. 
They received these names from having been discovered on 
the festivals of those blessed apostles. 2 They are desert but 
many fish are caught in the neighbouring waters. 

South of these lie two or three other high islands named 
Bird islands 3 , because when first discovered many birds were 
observed on them, and among these some we call pelicans 
They produce nothing else of value. Further south lie 
others called Duck islands, with more sea-fowl. These islands 
are flat, sandy and of little value. Some 14 leagues west of 
these lies a low island surrounded with reefs on which account 
it is called Low island . 

South of the Cod-fish land and near a cape named Expec- 
tation [Cape Spear] 5 lie three uninhabited islands, the largest 
of which might be three or four leagues in size. 6 West of these, 
in a bay named St. Mary's bay 7 are numerous small desert 
islands with good fishing in the neighbouring waters. These 
islands are submerged in the winter by the freshets. Near 
cape St. Mary, which lies just beyond the bay of that name, 
are three islands, each some eight leagues long, which almost 
form a trianglee with other rocky islets round about. These, 
which are uninhabited and produce nothing, are called the 

11,000 Virgins. 8 

9 . 

1 Voir Revue Hispanique, X, 574, Paris, 1903. 

2 Ibid. 

3 Aujourd'hui Pile Gull. 

4 Voir Dahlgren, op. cit., gravure III. 

5 Le cap Spear est situé au S.E. de Saint-Jean à une distance de 3| 
milles. 

6 Les trois îles du cap Spear sont peu considérables. 

7 Cette baie est située entre le cap Race et la baie Placentia. 

8 Les îles SaintPierre et Miquelon. 



192 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Off the coast of this land is grat abundance of fish, for 
which reason many Bretons and Irish come there every year 
to fish. Of these they carry away shiploads. The fish most 
commonly caught are the the cod, which when salted can be 
kept for a long time. These are transported abroad for food 
and are sold throughout the whole coast of France and Galicia. 

South of this 1 Cod-fishland and of St. Mary's bay, some 
50 leages, lies an island named John Estevez's island 1 which 
was so named in memory of the pilot who discovered it, when 
on his way here to fish. And others have also been discovered 
in this manner by chance by those who were on their way to 
fish in these waters. All are uninhabited and of slight utility. 
They lie in 46° ; and those mentioned above as being off the 
coast of this continent, lie from 48° to 51°, and in the ninth 
climate. Their longest day is 16 hours and 20 minutes. 

Beyond the islands of the 11,000 Virgins the sea forms a 
very large bay called the hay of the Breton^, on account of 
the arrival every year in this bay and off this coast of the said 
Bretons for fish. There are said to be many uninhabited 
islands in this bay. Especially there is a small one called St. 
Elmo 3 , which was so named by some Breton fishermen, because 
one night a storm caught them off this island, on which they 
declare they saw many burning candles, called by them St. 
Elmo ,who is said to appear in that form. 

Beyond the said bay and further to the west near a cape 
named Cape Breton 4 " lies an island named St. John's island, 
stretching east and west along the coast for some 56 leagues. 
It is 20 leagues in width at the widest part. Some pilots 
stated that this island did not lie here but was up in the bay 
named the Bretons' bay as already stated, and in the beginning 
when this land was first discovered it was so placed on the sail- 
ing charts, until Stephen Gomez, the pilot, brought back this 
information which was slightly different from that which then 
was known, which is that this island does not lie in the bay 
where hey said it did, but along this coast, as is now stated. 
There is nothing to report about this island save that the said 
pilot Stephen Gomez states that when passing it, he saw many 
fires 5 and signs of habitation. There is a passage between it 
and the mainland called St. Julian's channel, from ñve to six 

1 Probablement notre île du Sable. Voir Dahlgren, op. cit., gravure III. 

2 Le détroit de Cabot ou l'entrée sud du golfe Saint-Laurent. 
8 Voir Dahlgren, loc. cit. 

4 Notre Cap-Breton d'aujourd'hui semble avoir porté ce nom depuis le 
commencement du seizième siècle. 

5 Cap Smoke. Voir The Saint-Laurence Basin par Dawson, p. 111. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 193 



leagues in width. This island is said to present a pleasant 
appearance with many groves and rivers that flow down to the 
sea. In the neighbourhood are many small islands, all unin- 
habited. It stretches from 46° to 30' and is in the eighth 
climate. Its longest day is 15 hours and 40 minutes. 

Near Cape Breton are found some small uninhabited islands, 
frequented by quantities of birds, while the fishing in the 
waters about them is very good. 

ILES AU LARGE DE LA TERRE DECOUVRTE PAR LE PILOTE STEPHEN 

GOMEZ. 

The pilot Stephen Gomez, of whom we have already spoken, 
in the expedition made by him at the command and by licence 
of the emperor, our master, in search of and in order to discover 
Cathay or the eastern city of India, as well as that so-much- 
sought-for strait or passage leading to the sea commonly called 
the South sea, discovered, during the 10 months he was absent, 
a large number of islands along the coast of this continent, 
and especially a very wide, deep river which he named Deer 
river [the bay of Funddy] on account of the number of these 
found there. This river was everywhere dotted with islands, 
on which in summer the Indians from the mainland took up 
their quarters for the sake of the quantities of salmon, shad, 
pickerel and other varieties of fish found in those waters. 
Gomez sailed for some distance up this river, thinking it was 
the strait of which he was in search. Eventually he discovered 
it to be a large, deep river. From this fact an idea may be 
formed of the size and extent of that continent. 

And although he shared the general opinion about the strait 
or passage which as we have already stated separates the Cod- 
fish land continent [North America] from the land called the 
Labrador's land [Greeland], yet he was convinced it was 
unnecessary to attempt it because of the cold in those part, 
which would always be a bar. This opinion and his excuse 
for nat attempting that passage were accepted as so reasonable 
that no further attempt has ever been made to proceed with 
this matter, although of great importance to your Majesty's 
interests and service, since through that channel a claim was 
laid to the trade and conquest of the Moluccas and to many 
more islands in those parts belonging of right to your royal 
crown. 

Should this strait or passage be found open, and in view 
of what is known to-day of the passaage round Escondia [Scan- 

29837—13 



194 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

dinavia] this is possible, yet there remains one great obstacle, 
which would be the extreme difficulty for persons accustomed, 
to such a different temperature, or one so far removed as is 
that of Spain from the cold in the north, [to pass that way]. 
On which account should the great cares that burden your 
Majesty allow your magnanimous heart to conceive of a mat- 
ter so useful and necessary as the junction of the South sea 
with the Wetsern ocean across that isthmus from Panama to 
X ombre de Dios/ which the lie of the land favours so much that 
out of a total of 17 leagues, 12 are traversed by a river so even 
and easy that brigantines and barks are able to sail up it, not 
62 miles would require to be excavated, as Sosostris, king of 
Egypt 2 , attempted and after him Darius, king of the Persians, 
which Ptolemy afterwards almost completed in seeking to con- 
nect the Bed sea with the river Nile in Egypt, (which attempt 
for various reasons was abandoned, although not more than 15 
miles remained uncut), [but only 5 leagues would require to 
be excavated]. 

Returning to the islands in Deer river [the bay of Fundy] 
and those lying off the neighbouring continent, these, as I 
have already explained, are nearly all of them inhabited, prin- 
cipally in the summer by Indians like those of St. Domingo, 
of whom we shall speak presently; although these men and 
women have finer bodies. They sharpen the bows, arrows and 
spears with which they fight by toasting them. Their land has 
a temperate climate and is covered with the trees common to 
those regions such as evergreens, oaks and olives. Many wild 
vines are found which bear grapes, and many plants and herbs 
similar to those of Spain. There is much marcasite which 
they mistook for gold. They brought home to Spain in the 
galleon many Indians, whom they afterwards set at liberty. 

LXIII. 

EXTRAIT DE EA CHRONIQUE PERDUE DE MAURICE TOBY. 

149 6 3 . This year on St. John the Baptist's day, the land 
of America was found by the Merchants of Bristowe in a 
shippe of Bristowe, called the Mailnew ; the which said ship 

1. Port situé un peu au sud de Colon où doit se terminer du côté nord 
le canal de Panama. 

2. Necho (609-593) commença ce canal qui fut terminé par Darius 
(521-486). 

3. 15 sept. 1496—14 sept. 1497— Voir l'introduction de Mlle L. T. Smith 
pour Robert Ricard is Kalendar, XVII, Londres, (Camden Society), 1872. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 195 

departed from the port of Bristowe the second day of May and 
came home again the 6 th of August next following. 

From A Brief Chronicle, conteyninge the cuccompte of the 
Beignes of all the Kings in the Realme of Englande, from the 
entering of Brutus until this present yeere, with all the 
notable acts done by the dyvers of them, and wherein is also 
conteyncd the names of all the Mayors, Stewardes, Bayliffes 
and Sheriff es, of the laudable town of Bristowe. . . .from the 
first y cere of King Henry ye 3rd. A.D., I2ll , untill the pre- 
sent yeere. 1565. which was destroyed by fire in 1860. hut a 
transcript of which is in the possession of Mr. C. W. George of 
Bristol. Printed in the Encylopœdia Britannica. 9 th edit.. IV.. 
art. Bristol, p. 350, Edinburgh, 1876; Weare, op. cit., 116; 
Notes and Queries. 8 th series, XI, 501 ; and Harrisse, The 
Discovery of North America by John Cabot, the alleged date 
and landfall, also the ship s name, etc., p. 42, London, 1897. 



LXIV. 

UNE COLONIE PORTUGAISE À TERRE-NEUVE, 1520-25. 

Haverá 45 anuos ou 50, que de Viana se ajuntarão certos 
homen's fidalgos, e'pola informação que tiverão da terra Nova 
do Bacalhao, se determinarão a hir povoar algua parte delia, 
como de feito forão em liña nao e lrïïa caravella, et por acharem 
a terra muito fria, donde hião determinados, correrão para a 
costa de leste Oeste, té darem na de nordeste sudoeste, e ahi 
habitarão, e por se lhe perdderem os navios, não ouve msia 
noticia délies, somente por via dos Biscainhos que continuão a 
dita Costa a buscar e a resgatar muitas cousas que na dita 
Costa ha, dão destes homen's informão, e dizem que lhe pedem, 
digão cá a nos outros, como estão ali, e que lhe levem sacerdotes, 
porque o gentio he domestico, e a terra muito farta e boa, como 
mais largamente tenho as enformações, e he notorio aos 
homen's que la navegão, e isto he no Cabo do Britáo, logo na 
entrada da Costa, que corre ao norte em hüa fermoza bahia, 
donde tem grande povoação e ha na terra cousas de muito preço 
e muita nos, Castanha, Uvas, outras frutas, por onde parece 
ser a terra boa e assy nesta companhia forão alguns cazaes, das 
Ilhas ddos Assores, que de caminho tomaro como he notorio. 
Nosso Senhor quiera por sua mvsericordia, abrir caminho como 
lhe vá socorro, e minha tenção he hir á dita Costa, de caminho 

29837— 13¿ 



196 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

quando for állha de São Francisco, que tudo se pode fazer de 
liña viagem. 

Porque ao tempo que os antigos dão enformação destas 
Ilhas, a navegação inda não hera apurada,, como agora, he 
devesse de buscar nas ditas partes, ou por mais hum grao ao 
norte, ou ao sul, e para loeste e leste, Revolvendosse, como os 
marcantes milhor o saberão fazer, se nosso senhor não for 
servido que eu o faça, por que alem de saber a navegação, tenho 
outras regras das sciencias mathematicas, e bom engenho para 
todo o necessário ao dito descobrimento, e nosso senhor ordene 
o que for mais ao seu santo serviço. E escrevi isto, e o mais que 
em meus papeis tenho escrito, porque não sey o que o senhor 
Deos fará de my, e por tanto,, se isto a alguém prestar, peço 
rogue a Deos por minha alma, como eu faço polas dos que 
íizerão as informações que tenho, porque esta he a obrigação do 
bom proximo, e dos meus, e tudo pode ser assy como foy e he, o 
mais que está habitado. 

From the Bibliotheca da Universidade, Coimbra, Papeis 
politicos e históricos, MS. No. 620 (175, antigo deposito) foi. 
80. The other copy mentioned as being under Miscellanea, 
MS. Ko. 135 of the antigo deposito could not be found. This 
document was first printed in 1877 by Senhor Ernesto do 
Canto, under the title of Tratado das Ilhas Novas e Descobri- 
mento delias e outras couzas feito por Francisco de Souza, fei- 
tor d'EIRei Nosso Senhor na capitania da cidade do Funchal 
da Ilha da Madeira e natural da dita Ilha e' assy m sobre a gente 
de nação Portugueza que está em huma grande Ilha, que nella 
forão ter no tempo da perdição das Espanhas, que ha tre- 
zentos e tantos annos, em que reinava ElRei Dom Rodrigo. 
Dos Portuguezes que forão de Viana e das Ilhas dos Açores a 
povoar a Terra Nova do Bacaïhao, vay em sessenta annos, do 
que sucedeo o que adiante se trata anno do Senhor 1570, np. 
5-6, Ponta Delgada, Açores, 1877. 



LXIVa. 

It will be 45 or 50 years ago that certain noblemen of 
Vianna associated themselves together and in view of the in- 
formation in their possession regarding the Codfish-land of 
Newfoundland determined to settle some part thereof, as in 
truth they did in a ship and a caravel, but finding the region 
to which they were bound, very cold, they sailed along 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 197 

the coast from east to west until they reached that running 
northeast and southwest, and there they settled. And as they 
had lost their ships, nothing further was heard of them, save 
from the Basques who continue to visit that coast in search of 
the many articles to be obtained there, who bring word of them 
and state that they [the settlers] asked them to let us know 
how they were, and to take out priests ; for the natives are 
submissive and the soil very fertile and good, as I have been 
more fully informed, and is well known to those who sail 
thither. This is at cape Breton, at the beginning of the coast 
that runs north, in a beautiful bay, where there are many peo- 
ple and goods of much value and many nuts, chesnuts, grapes 
and other fruits, whereby it is clear the soil is rich. And 
in this company went also some families from the Azores islands 
w T hom they took on board on their way out, as is well known. 
May our Lord in his mercy open a way by which to succour 
them. And my purpose is to go to this coast, in the voyage I 
shall make to the island of San Francisco 1 , which can all be 
done in one journey. 

Since at the time the ancients gave 2 information of these 
islands, the route had not been brought to the perfection it now 
is, it is necessary to feel one's way in those parts with an addi- 
tion of one degree to the north or to the south and between west 
and east, coming back by the best course known to the traders, 
should God not be pleased to senc[ me there, since in addition 
to a knowledge of navigation, I possess other rules of the 
mathematical sciences and a good mind for all that is required 
in the said discovery. And may God ordain what is best for 
His holy service. And I have written this and whatever else 
is among my papers, because I never know what the Lord God 
will do with me, and therefore should this prove of use to any 
one, I beg him to pray God for my soul, as I do in behalf of 
those who collected the information in my possession ; for this 
is the duty of a good neighbour and of all mine; and all' may 
be thus, as was and is the most part that is inhabited. 

Translated in part by the Rev. George Patterson in the 
Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, VIII, sec. II, 
163-4, Montreal, 1891. 

1. II est difficile d'indiquer b'île dont il s'agit: "Cf the map is 
Senhor do Canto's reprint." 

2. Give. 



APPENDIX. 

(A.) Printed Sources. 

1. 1507. Letter of Pietro Pasqualigo to his brothers in Lisbon, 

dated at Venice, 19 October, 1501: 

Printed in Paesi nouamente retronati, lib. sexto, cap. cxxvi, 
Vicentia, 1507 ; and the reprints of 1508, 1512, 1519 and 1521 ; 
Piddle, op. cit., 235-6 ; Harrisse, Les Corte-Real, 211-12 ; and 
in the Archivo dos Açores, IV, 421-3. 

Translated in Biddle, op. cit., 235-6; Weise, op. cit., 209- 
11 ; and Markham, op. cit., 236-8. A French translation will 
be found in Harrisse, op. cit., 50-2. 

2. 1512. Savages from Newfoundland brought to Rouen, 1509 : 
Eusebii Cœsariensis Episcopi ('It ron icon, etc., fol. 172 V , 

Paris, 1512 in 4° ; reprinted in Gaff arel, Histoire du Brésil 
français au seizième siècle, 58 note 1, Paris, 1878; Harrisse, 
Découverte et évolution cartographique de Terre-Neuve, 162. 
Translated in Weise, op. cit., 299. A French translation is 
given in Harrisse, op. cit., 162-3. 

3. 1516. Peter Martyr's account of Cabot's voyage: 

De orbe novo Decades, III, lib. VI, f. 52, Alcalá, 1516; 
reprinted at Cologne in 1530, fol. xlvi, and at Paris, 1587, 
pp. 231-3. A facsimile of the above folio of the first edition 
will be found in Winsor, op. cit., Ill, 15. 

Translated in Richard! Eden, The Decades of the ne we 
worlde or west India, 118-19, London, 1555; reprinted by P. 
Willes, 124-5, London, 1577 ; M. Lok, The Historie of the 
West Indies, 124-5, London, 1612; A Selection of Voyages 
chiefly published by Halduyt, 494-5, London, 1812; and in E. 
Arber, The first three English Books on America, 161-2, Lon- 
don, 1895. 

An extract with translation is also given in Hakluyt, Prin- 
cipall Navigations, 513-14, London, 1589 ; edition of 1600, 
III, 8-9; reprinted, London, 1810, III, 29-30; reprinted, 
Edinburgh, 1889, XII, 28-30; and reprinted (Hakluvt Societv) 
Glasgow^ 1904, VII, 150-3 1 . 

1. Quant à la liste complète de documents imprimés relatifs à Cabot, 
voir Cabot Bibliography passim par G. P. Winship, Londres, 1900. 



200 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

4. 1519. Enciso's description of Newfoundland and Greenland : 

Martin Fernandez de Enciso, Suma de Geographia, the last 
paragraph, Sevilla, 1519; reprinted there in 1530 and 1546. 
The American portion was republished in 1897 at Santiago de 
Chile by J. T. Medina. 

5. 1519. Verses on the Newfoundland fishery 1 : 

A new interlude and a mery of the nature of the .III I. 
elements, etc., sign ci. to eiiii, n. p., circa 1519. A unique 
but imperfect copy is in the British Museum, c 39 b 17 ; printed 
in the Antiquary s Magazine, I, 87-90, London, 1807 ; J. O. 
Halliwell, Early English Poetry, Ballads, etc., XXII, 28-32, 
London, (Percy Society) 1848 ; R. Dodsley, A select Collection 
of old English Plays, Hazlitt's edit, I, 28-32, London, 1874; 
and in Arber, op. cit., xx-xxi. 

6. 1524. Verrazano's voyage: 

Eamusio, Navigation et viaggi, III, 420-22. Venetia, 
1556; reprinted, 1565, ibid; edn. of 1606, III, 350 (2 pages). 
Another text will be found in the Collections of the New York 
Historical Society, 2nd ser., I, 55-67, New York, 1841, pre- 
ceded by an English translation, pp. 41-54 ; reprinted in Archi- 
vio Storico Italiano, IX, app. No. 28, pp. 37-52, Firenze, 1853 ; 
Raccolta Colombiana, pt. Ill, vol. II, 332-44; and in the 
Bolhttino delta Societá Geográfica Italiana, ser. IV, vol. X, 
num. II, 1308-23, Novembre, 1909. 

Translated in Hakluyt, Divers Voyages, sign. A to B 4, 
London, 1582; Principal! Navigations, III, 295-300, (1600) ; 
reprint of 1810, III, 357-64; reprint of the Divers Voyages, 
55-71, London (Hakluyt Society) 1850; Principall Naviga- 
tions, XIII, 389-401, Edinburgh, 1889; and the reprint of 
1904, VIII, 423-38. 

7. 1526. Oviedo's account of Gomez's voyage: 

Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, De la natural hystoria de las 
Indias, c. x, fol. xiiii v , Toledo, 1526. 

Translated in Eden, op. cit., 213 v -14; edition of 1577, f. 
225 ; and in Arber, op. cit., 242. 

8. 1527. John Rut's letter from St. Johns, Newfoundland: 
Purchas His Pilgrimes, III, 809, London, 1625 ; reprinted 

at Glasgow, 1906, XIV, 304-5 ; and D. W. Prowse, A History 
of Newfoundland, 40-1, London, 1895 ; and ibid, 1896. 

1. The Origin of the English Drama, I, 88, Oxford, 1773, par Thomas 
Hawkins; Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, I, 124, Londres, 1765, par 
Percy; et Colección de los viages y des cubrimientos III, 176-80, Madrid, 
1829, par M. F. de Navarrete. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 201 

9. 1527. Robert Thome's declaration and book. 
Hakluyt, Divers Voyages, signs B to D 3, London, 1582 ; 

reprinted, London, 1850, 27-54; idem, Principall Navigations, 
250-8, London, 1589. 

10. 1534. Peter Martyr's second account of Cabot's voyage: 
Libro primo delia historia de l'Indie occidentali, 65, 

Venetia, 1534; reprinted in Ramusio, op. cit., III, -35 v -6, 
Venetia, 1556; edition of 1565, III, ibid; edition of 1606, 
III, 29 v -30. 

11. 1535. Oviedo's account of the English expedition of 1527 : 
Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, La historia general de las 

Indias, lib. xix, fo. clxi., cap. xiii, Sevilla, 1535 ; reprinted at 
Salamanca, 1547, ibid; and the edition published by J. Amador 
de los Rios, I, 611, Madrid, 1851. 

Translated in Purchas, op. cit., Ill, 999 ; reprint of 1906, 
XV, 321. 

12. 1539. Crignon's discourse: 

Ramusio, op. cit., Ill, 423-9; reprinted, 1565, III, 423-9; 
reprinted, 1606, III, 350 v -69. 

13. 1550. The Mantuan gentleman's discourse: 
Ramusio, op. cit., I, 398-403, Venetia, 1550 : second edition, 

1554, I, 414-15; third edition, 1563, I, 374; fourth edition, 
1588, I, ibid; and the reprints of 1606 and 1613, ibid. 

Translated in Eden., op. cit., 251 v -6 : edition of 1577, fols. 
263 v -8 ; and in Arber, op. cit., 287-8. Part of it will also be 
found in Hakluyt, op. cit., 1589, p. 512; edition of 1600, III, 
6-7; edit. 1810, III, 27-8; edit. 1889, XII, 25-7; and in VII, 
147-9 of the 1904 edition. 

14. 1552. Gomara's account of Newfoundland and Labrador: 
F. Lopez de Gomara, La Istoria de las Indias, fols, vii-ix 

and xx, Çaragoça, 1552 : edition published at Medina del 
Campo 1553, ibid; edit. Çaragoça, 1554, fols, iv-vi and-xiv T -xv; 
edit. Anvers, 1554, fols. 16 v -18 and 50-1 ; and reprint of D. 
Enrique de Vedia, Biblioteca de autores españoles, XXII, 162-3 
and 177, Madrid, 1852. 

Translated in Eden, op. cit., 317 T -8 ; edition of 1577, fols. 
227 v -8 : and in Arber, op. cit., 344-5. In part also in Hakluyt, 
op. cit., 1589, p. 514; 1600, III, 9; 1810, III, 30; 1889, XII, 
30-1 ; and 1904, VII, 153-4. 



202 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

15. 1553. Voyage of Sebastian Cabot and Perte (or Spert) : 
R. Eden, A Treaty se of the newe India sign, aa iiii, London, 

1553: reprinted in Arber, op. cit., 6. Vid. also Hakluyt, op. 
cit., 1589, pp. 515-6; edit. 1600, III, 498-9; edit, 1810, III, 
591-3; 1890, XV, 120-3; and 1904, X, 2-6. 

16. 1556. Ramusio's description of Newfoundland and New 
France : 

Ramusio, op. cit., Ill, 4, and 417-19 : edition of 1565, III, 
sign, a iiii, and 417-19 ; edition of 1606, III, sign, a iiii v and 
347-9. 

Translated in part in Hakluyt, Divers Voyages, sign. A 3 V 
— 4; Principall Navigations, 1589, 513; edition of 1600, III, 
7-8 ; 1810, III, 28-9, reprint of Divers Voyages, 24-6, London, 
1850; reprint of Principall Navigations, XII, 27-8, 1889; 
reprint, 1904, VII, 149-50. 

17. 1557. Thevet's account of Cabot's voyage and of Canada : 
A. Thevet, Les Singularisez de la France Antarctique, 148 v 

et seq., Paris, 1557-8 ;' Gaffarel's edit, of 1878, 395-444. 

Translated in The New found Worlde, 122 et seq., London, 
1568. 

18. 1563. Galvano's account of the voyages of Cabot, the 

Corte Reals and Gomez. 

'Tratado que compôs o nobre & notauel capitão Antonio 
Galuão, dos diuersos & desuayrados caminhos, por onde nos 
tempos passados a pimenta & especearia veyo da India ás ?iossas 
partes, etc., fols. 25, 28 v , 53 v -4 and 63, Lisbon, 1563 ; reprinted, 
Lisbon, 1731, pp. 32, 36, 67-8 and 78-9. 

Translated in R. Hakluyt, The Discoveries of the World, 
etc., 32-3, 35-6, 66 and 76 preprinted in A Collection of Voy- 
ages and Travels from the Library of the late Earl of Oxford, 
II, 373, 375, 388 and 393, London, 1745 ; J. S. Clarke, The 
Progress of Maritime Discovery, I. appendix, 23, 35, 55 and 62, 
London, 1803: A Selection of Voyages chiefly published by 
Hakluyt, 17-19, 34, and 40, London, 1812; and finally re- 
printed for the Hakluyt Society in 1862, with the Portuguese 
text, by Vice- Admiral Bethune* pp. 87-8, 96-7, 167-8 and 193. 

19. 1566. Damián de Goes' account of the Voyages of the 
Corte Reals : 

Damián de Goes, Chronica do Felicissimo Rei dom Eman- 
uel, part I a , fo. 65, Liboa, 1566; reprinted Lisbon, 1619, fol. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 203 

50, cap. lxvi ; edit, of 1749, pp. 87-8 ; and the edition printed 
at Coimbra, 1790, I, 170-2. 

20. 1571. Osorio's account of the voyages of the Corte Reals: 
Hieronymo Osório, De rebus Emmanuelis, etc., lib. II, 84-5, 

Olyssipone, 1571 ; reprinted in 1574, 1581, 1586 and 1791. 

Translated in James Gibbs, The History of the Portuguese 
during the reign of Emmanuel, I, 128-9, London, 1752. 

21. 5175. Thevet's account of the voyages of Cabot and of the 

Corte Reals: 
André Thevet, La Cosmographie universelle, II, 1022, 
Paris, 1575. 

22. 1579. Chauveton's account of the voyages of the Cabots 

and Corte Reals : 
Urbain Chauveton, Histoire nouvelle du Nouveau Monde . . 
extraite de l'italien de M. Hierosme Benzoni, 140-2, n. p. 
(Geneva) 1579. 

23. 1580. S tow's account of Cabot's voyage from Fabyan's 
lost chronicle : 

John Stow, The Chronicles of England from Brute unto 
this present y ear e of Christ, 1580, 871-2 and 874-5, Lon- 
don, n. d. [1580] ; reprinted by Hakluyt, Divers Voyages, sign. 
A 3, Principall Navigations, 1589, 515 ; reprint of Stow, 1592, 
802 and 807: Hakluyt, op. cit., 1600, III, 9-10; edition of 
Stow, 1605, pp. 804-5 and 810; edition of 1614, pp. 481-2 
and 485; edition of 1631, pp. 480-1 and 483-4; reprint of 
Hakluyt, 1810, III, 30-1 ; reprint of the Divers Voyages, 1850, 
pp. 23-4; Principall Navigations, 1889, XII, 31-2; and 1904, 
VII, 154-5. 

24. 1589. Richard Hakluyt's account of the voyage of 1527: 
R. Halkuvt, op. cit., 1589, p. 517; edition of 1600, III, 

129; edition of 1810, III, 167-8; 1889, XII, 293-4; and edi- 
tion of 1904, VIII, 1-2. 

25. 1601. Herrera's account of Gomez's voyage and of that 
of 1527: 

Antonio de Herrera, Historia general de los hechos de los 
cast ellan os en las Islas i tierra firme del Mar oceano, dec. II, lib. 
V. cap. iii, 144-5 ; dec. Ill, lib. IV, cap. xx, 182 ; dec. Ill, 



204 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

lib. VIII, cap. viii, 307-8. Madrid, 1601; reprinted Madrid, 
1726, II, 113-15 ; III, 143-4 and 241. Cf. also dec. Ill, lib. 
X, cap. ix, 369 of the edition of 1601 and p. 289 of the 1726 
edition. 

26. 1852. Oviedo's description of the east coast of North 
America taken from the Spanish maps: 
Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, Historia general y natural de 
las Indias, etc., II, 147-52, Madrid, 1852 ; and III, 635-40, 
Madrid, 1853. 

(B.) Maps Reproduced. 

1. E. F. Jomard, Les monuments de la géographie, etc., Paris, 

1854-8. 

2. F. Kunstmann, Atlas zur Entdeckungsgeschichte Amerihas. 

München, 1859. 

3. J. G. Kohl, Die beiden altesten General-Karten von Amerika. 

Weimar, 1860. 

4. H. Stevens, Historical and Geographical Notes, lJf5S-1530. 

London, 1869. 

5. J. G. Kohl, History of the Discovery of Maine. Portland, 

1869. 

6. H. Harrisse, Reproduction of the Cantino map published 

with his memoir on Les Corte-Real. Paris, 1883. 

7. A. J. Weise, The Discoveries of America to Me year 1525. 

New York, 1884. 

8. A. E. Nordenskiõld, Facsimile- Atlas, pp. 62-71. Stock- 

holm, 1889. 

9. H. Harrisse, The Discovery of North America. London, 

1892. 

10. E. W. Dahlgren, Map of the World by Alonzo de Santa 

Cruz, Stockholm, 1892. 

11. K. Kretschmer, Atlas der Festschrift der Gesellschaft für 

Erdkunde zu Berlin zur vierhundertjãhrigen Feier der 
Entdeckung Amerika's. Berlin, 1892. 

12. G. Marcel, Reproductions de cartes et de globes relatifs à 

la découverte de l'Amérique. Paris, 1893. 

13. A. E. Nordenskiold, Periplus, pp. 161-83. Stockholm, 

1897. 

14. S. E. Dawson, The Voyages of the Cabots. Ottawa, 1897. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 205 

15. H. Harrisse, Découverte et évolution cartographique de 

Terre-Neuve. Paris, 1900: 

16. J. Fischer and F. E. von Wieser, The oldest Map with the 

name America. Innsbruck, 1903. 

17. E. L. Stevenson, Maps illustrating Discovery and Explora- 

tion in America, 1502-1530. New Brunswick, New Jersey, 
1903. 

18. V. Hantzsch und L. Schmidt, Kartographische Denhmaler 
zur Entdeckungsgeschichte von Amerïka, etc., Leipzig, 1903. 

19. E. L. Stevenson, Marine World Chart (circa) 1502 by 

Nicolo de Canerio Januensis. New York, 1907. 

20. F. R. von Wieser, Die Karten von Amerïka in dem Islario 

General des Alonso de Santa Cruz. Innsbruck. 1908. 



INDEX 



Agramonte, Juan de, xxi ; 102-11, 
warrants for; 111-15, letters 
patent to. 
Alexandria, vii, *xi; 18, 21. 
Alexis river, xxix. 
Angra, (Terceira), 38, 39. 
Archives, — 
Archives de la Charente-Inférieu- 
re, 159, 161, 162. 
Archives de la Charente-Inférieu- 
re 118. 
Archives de índias, 115, 147, 151, 

153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 166, 173. 
Bayonne, 124, 126, 132, 164. 
Bertiandos, Cinde de, 129. 
Bonniot, Monsieur, 182. 
Bristol, see George C. W. 
Bristol Museum, 12, 100. 
Coimbra, 196. 
Department of the Côtes-du- 

Nord, 123. 
Drapers' Company, 142. 
George, Mr. C. W., at Bristol, 

195. 
La Rochelle, 159, 161, 162, 182. 
Lisbon, see Torre do Tombo. 
Madrid, 189. 
Milan, 19. 
Modena, 63. 
Naents, 118. 
Ponta Delgada, 98. 
Public Record Office, 6, 8, 15. 
17, 23, 24, 25, 26, 40, 50, 80, 92, 
142, 143, 163, 179. 
Seville see Archivo de Indias. 

the Côtes-du-Nord. 
Stvillt, see Archivo de Indias. 
Simancas, 11, 28, 106, 113. 
Torre do Tombo, 31. 34, 38, 60 

69, 94, 101, 144. 
Venice, 1, 4, 13, 66. 
Vienna, 182, 189. 
Westminster Chapter Archives 
30. 
Archives de la Charente-lnférieu 

re, 159, 161, 162. 
Archivo de Indias, 115, 147, 151 

153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 166, 173. 
Ashurst, Thomas, of Bristol, xvii 
xxi; 40, 41-59, grant to; 70-91 
grant to. 



Asia, vii, x, xiii; 17, 19. 

Ayala, Pedro de, 27-29, dispatch of. 

Azevedo, Sr. Pedro A d', of the 

Torre do Tombo at Lisbon, vi. 
Azores, the, xviii; 40, 41, 47, 70, 

81, 98, 130, 184, 195, 197. 
Baccalaos Isla de los, 115, 165, 169. 
Baccalaos tierre de los, 165, 169, 

184, 185, 188, 195. 
Baccalieu island, xvi. 
Bafflns land, xiii. 
Banks (Newfoundland), xxi xxii, 

xxiv. 
Barcello, Diogo do, 100-102, grants 

to. 
Barcellos, Peter de, 98-99, voyage 

of; 100, 101. 
Basques, 197. 

Bay of Islands, (Newfoundland), 

called the large river, xix-xx. 
Bay of Bretons, 186, 187, 192. 
Bayonne, 124, 125, 126, 132, 133, 

163, 164. 
Bayonne vessels for Newfound- 
land, 124, 126, 132-33, 163-65. 
Beauport, Abbey of, 118-23, agree- 
ment with monks of. 
Belle Isle (islad), xvi-xvii. 
Belle Isle, strait of, xiii, xvi, xxxi. 
Bertiandos, Conde de, 129. 
Bird islands 185, 191. 
Biscay, 105, 109, 157. 
Blake, Mr. S. V., of Trosley, Kent, 

vi. 
Bonne bay (Newfoundland), called 

the Small bay, xviv. 
Bonniot, M., notary at La Rochel- 
le, 182. 
» Bordeaux (Burdeux), 135. 
Boston bay, xvii. 
Bradley, Thomas, 12. 
Branda Diogo, 96-7, letter to. 
' Bras d'Or, xxvi. 

Brazil, 130. 
' Brazil island of, viii; 27, 28. 
' Brazil-wood, 17, 20, 167. 



208 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Bréhat, island of, 118-23, Agree- Cape Cod, xxviii. 

ment with inhabitants of. Cape Desolation, 190. 

Bretons, The, xxi; 103, 107, 186, Cape Discovery x 

1 92 ' 

Cape Farewell, xiii, xiv, xv; 190. 

Bristol, viii, ix, xi, xii, xiv, n „ na n . .„ . . - ^ a . • -_.,_ ^^ 
...' ' . '~ ,' ,- ', on v^ape uet-sight-ot-me-and-leave-me, 

xviii, xx, xxi ; 12, 16, 17, 18, 20, ^ 6 ' 

21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 40, 41, * 1V ' , ' c „ 1% 

49,50,58,70,91,100,135,194-5. Cape La Hune, (Newfoundland), 



Bristol, men of, 12. 



called Cape Shallop, xviii. 
Cape Mugford, xv. 



Bristol, merchants of, viii, xvii, 
xx- 12 100 194 Cape North, called Thick Cape, 

xxiii 
Bristol ship of, 13, 14. Cape Race (cabo Razo) x ^ 

Bristowe, see Bristol. xv j xx j 

British Museum, 12, 100. Cape Ray, x, xviii, xxiii. 

Britanny, xxii; 103, 108, 180. Cape Sable, xxvi. 

Brown, Mr. Horatio F., 4. Cape St. Mary, 186, 191. 

Brown, Rawdon, 15. Cape Spear, 185, 191. 

Buil Frai, 27, 28. Cape Verde islands, xiv. 

Burgos, 106, 110, 111, 115, 116. Carlos, Don, (Charles V), 106, 111. 

Cabot, John, vii, viii, ix, x, xviii; Carter, John, 12 
1, letters of naturalization, 3 and Cartj j e xxxi 

6, form of same; 6, petition of; 

7-10, first letters patent to; 13-14, Casco, ba Y» xvn - 

Zuarn Talbot and his wife; 16, Castile, 130. 

pension; 17 and 19, in England; Catalonia, 102, 107. 

expert in navigation ; 22-24, Cath ? m 

second letters patent; 24, war- n ,„. L ^ 

rant for pension; 25-27, pension Chapeau Rouge, (Placentia bay), 

paid; 27-28, of Genoa and visits xvm > xxin - 

Seville and Lisbon; 29-31, pay- Charles V, xxv see also Carlos, 

ment of pension; 99, straunger don. 

venisian; 184-5, called Antonio; Chauveton U 203 

189-90, ditto. _. . * ' . *' 

' , _ , . Chedabucto bay, xxii, xxm, xxvi. 

Cabot Saneio, son of John, ix; -, , , 

7 q Chesapeake bay, xiv. 

Cabot, Saneio, son of John, ix; Cinque Ports, 179, 180. 

7, 9. Cintra, 37. 

Cabot, Sebastian, son of John, Cipangu, Cipango, xi, xiv; 18 and 

viii, note 1, ix, xiii, xxv; 7-10 20. 

letters patent to; 115-16 letter city Companies, the, xxiv; 134-42. 

to, from King Ferdinand; 182-3, C) 12 

Contarini's report on ; 184 and y ' 

190. mention of, by Santa Cruz; Cod, x, xiii, xxi; 20, 96-97 tax on; 

199, 201, 202 and 203. 118 > 119 - 

Cabot, Sebastian, map, x, x notes Coimbra, 94, 96, 196. 

1 and 3. , Col lays, Jean, 177-81, complaint of 

Cabots, xiv, xxi; 7, 9, 203. robbery on board ship of. 

Canso Gut, xxvi. Columbus, Christopher, viii, ix, 

rs ah L «i n«r j- ± v. t xvii; 11, 27, 28. 

Cantino, Albert, 61-65, dispatch ot, . , 

to the Duke of Ferrara. Concept.on bay, xvi. 

C-pe Bonavista, (cabo de Boa Vis- Conchillos Lope, 105, 106, 109, 110, 

ta), xvi, xxi. Ill, 113, 115-16. 

Cape Breton, x, xxii, xxiii; 186, Contarini Marcantonio, 182-3, re- 

192, 193, 195, 197. P or t of, on Sebastian Cabot. 

C?pe Breton Island, x, xxi, xxvi. Contino, 104, 108. 



PRECURSEURS DE CARTIER 



209 



Corte Reals, xxiv ; 184, 185, 189, 
190, 191, 202, 203. 

Corte Real, Gaspar, xiv, xv, xvi, 
xvii, xviii, xix, xx ; 32-37, grant 
to, by King Manoel, 39, 59-60, 
provisioss for; 67, 68, 69, 70, 92, 
93, 94, 95, 96, 143, 144. 

Corte Real, Joâ Vaz, xv; 38, 39. 

Corte Real, Michael, xviii-xx; 67- 
70, grant to; 93, 95. 

Corte Real, Vasco Armes, xxi ; 
92-96, grant to; 143-5, fresh con- 
firmation to. 

Corunna, xxv, xxviii; 154, 155. 

Cow Head (Newfoundland), called 
Cape of the Gulf, xix. , 

Criado, Juan, 104, 109. 

Crignon's discourse, 201. 

" Cronicón," 99, 100. 

Cuba, xxviii. 

Darius, 188, 194. 

Davis strait, xxix ; 191. 

Dawson, Dr. S. E.. C.M.G., v, x, 
note 1; 20 note 1, 204. 

De Agramonte, see Agramonte. 

De Barcellos, see Barcellos. 

Dering, Richard, 178-81. 

D'Esté, see Este. 

Dieppe, xxiv. 

Disko bay, xiii. 

Dobel, Guillaume, 116-8, pardon of. 

Does' bay, xvi. 

Doughty, Dr. A. G., Dominion Ar- 
chivist, vi. 

Drapers, Wardens of, 134, 136, 138. 
Drapers' Company, Records of, 

142. 

Duck islands, 185, 191. 

Egypt, 188, 194. 

Eleven Thousand Virgins, the, 

xxiv; 186, 191, 192. 
Eliot, Hugh, of Bristol, xx; 70-91, 

grant to. 
Enciso, M. F. de, 200. 
England, xiv, xxx ; 15, 43, 44, 46, 

47, 48, 52, 53, 56, 57. 89, 90, 173, 

174. 
England, banner of, 13, 14. 

England, King of, 27, 28, 167, 168, 

173, 177, 184, 185, 190. 
Escondia, 183, 184, 188, 189, 190. 
Este, Hercules d', duke of Ferrara, 

61. 
• 29837— U 



Estevez, John, island of, 186, 192. 

Fabyan's lost chronicle, 203. 

Fagundes, Joam Alvares, xxii, 
xxiii; 127-131, confirmation of 
letters patent to. 

Ferdinand, King of Spain, xxi; 
10, 27, 32, note; 102-106, grant to 
Juan de Agramonte. 

Fermeuse, (rio Fermosa), xvi 

Fernandes, Andrew, 31, 32. 

Fernandez, Francis, xvii, xx; 40, 
41-59, grant to; 70-91, grant to; 
91-2, pension to. 

Fernandez, Joao, llavrador, xii, 
xiv, xvii; 31-32, grant to; 40; 41- 
59, letters patent to; 98-99. 

Ferryland, (Farelhao), xvi. 

Fish, x, xi, xiii, xiv, xxi; 20, 96-7, 
118-23, 124, 125, 126. 

Fitzwilliam, Vice-Admiral, 142-3, 
letters from. 

Flanders, 134. 

Florida, xxvi; 184. 

Fonseca, Bishop of Palencia, 105, 
106, 109, 110, 111, 113, 115-16. 

Fortuna, isla de la, 185, 191. 

Foulché-Delbosc, Monsieur R., edi- 
tor of the Revue Hispanique, vi. 

France, 186, 192. 

Francis 1, 180. 

French King, (Charles VIII), ii. 

Frenchman bay, xxvii. 

Friar Lewis's island, (Belle isle), 
xvi. 

Fundy, Bay of; xvi; 193, 194. 

Galicia, 105, 109, 186, 192. 

Galvano, A., 202. 

Gamos rio de los, 187. 

Gamos rio de las, 187. 

Genoa, vii. 

George, Mr. C. W., of Bristol, 195. 

Goes, Damián de, 202. 

Gomara, F. Lopez de, 201. 

Gomez, Stephen, xxiv, xxv, xxvi, 
xxviii, xxix; 145-50, agreement 
with, for discovery ; 150-1. ap- 
pointment as captain; 153, re- 
wards; 154-5, caravel of, to be 
fitted out; 155-6, ditto; 157-8, 
ditto; 158-9, payment to; 187, 
discovery by; 192, 193, land dis-- 
covered by; 200, 202, 203. 

Gonzales, Joâs, xvii, xx, 40, 41-59 
xxvii. 



210 ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 

Gonzales, Joas, xvii, xx, 40, 41-59 Juan Estevez, see Estevez. 

grant; 70-91, grant to; 91-2, Kempe, William, 177-81, order to. 

pension ' Kemys, Arthur, 25, 26, 29, 30, 91, 92. 

Gra i! d , Bruit (Newfoundland), Kennebec river> xxvii 

called the Peddler s cape, xvm. ., 
^ j wu to -.a Kent, 180, 181. 

Grand Khan, xi ; 13, 14. ,,, « , .,, 

,-,,.- ... Khan, see Grand Khan. 

Grand Manan island, xxvi. ¿_ 

r* . . . , oc Labrador, .(Greenland), xn, xv ; 

ISO" 190 191 1 ' lis"* X1Vj XV; ]83 " 5 and 189 - 90 ' 19L 

Guildford! Edward,' 177-81, order to. ^¡^' ( modern >- xiii ' xv > xxix; 

" Guildford, Mary," see " Marv , . '. " ída -„: 

Guildford." Lacnine rapids, xxxi. 

^ ,r o* Langlade, x xviii, xxiii. 

Gulf Stream, xn. 7 . 

Lj -4.» TAr> in^ Lapland, 190. 

Haiti, 109; 167, note. .... 

lj , , . D ... La Poile bay, xxm. 

Hakluyt, R., account of the voyage , , ' n 

of, 1527, 203. Laredo, 103, 107, 108. 
Hales, Christopher, 177-81. order La Rochelle, 159, 161, 181, 182. 

to. Lérida, 102, 103, 107, 111, 113. 

Hales, John, 177-81. Levant, vii. 

Halifax harbour, xxvi. Lisbon, xi, xv, xvii, xxv; 27, 28, 

Hall, Mr. Hubert, F.S.A., of the 31, 32, 34, 38, 40, 59, 61, 62, 63, 65, 

Public Record Office, v. 68, 70, 128, 131, 145. 

Hamilton inlet, xvi. Livery Companies of London, 

Haro, Christopher de, 154-5, royal XX1X; 134 " 142 - 

order to. Lok, Michael, map; x, note 1. 

Hawte, William, 177-81, order to. London, viii, xi, xxix; 13, 14, 19, 

Henry VII, viii, x, xi, xvii, xx; 21 > 92 ' 100 > 134 ' 135 ' 
7, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 19, 27, 28, 29, Low island, 185, 191. 
30, 40, 182-3. Ludovic, the Moor, 15. 

Henry VII I, xxix; 135, 136, 137, Madeira, 31, 32, 130, 131. 
143, 162; 177-81, order from ; Madrid , Biblioteca Nacional, 189. 

182 - 3 - Ml. 

Herbert George, 25, 26. Magellan, xxv. 

Herrera, A. de, 203. Magellan, strait of, xxvi. 

i_,- ■ i -. nA lAn Mame, gulf of, xxvin. 

Hispaniola, 104, 109. „ , , ' c n . 

u j , ' ... Manoel I, King of Portugal, xv, 

Hudson s strait, xm. xyiij xx> xxiii; 31j 32; S5¡ 37 . 

Iceland, viii, xii; 18, 20, 119. Mantuan Gentleman's Discourse, 

Indians, xviii, xix, xxii, xxiii, 201. 

xxviii; 193. MapSj 204-205. 

Indies, the (West), viii, xii; 11. Marennes, 159. 
Indies, the, (East), xvii, xxv; 187, Martins> j ohn , 37-40, grant from 

193, King Manoel to. 

Ireland, viii, ix, xii, xix; 17, 18, Martvr Peter 199 201 

20, 21, 27, 28, 100, 177, 179. . u m V ,^ a» 1 

" Mary Guildford, the, xxix, xxx. 
Isabella Queen of Spain, 10, 27; „ M Jam „ 2 H3 

32, note. 7 , ,' . ' 

Islands, 14, 16 17, 19. Mathew, the, ix ; 194. 

Islario, General, 189. Mecca ' vii > x; 18 ' 20 " 

. n, r rs i-i Mediterranean, vii. 

Joanna, Queen of Castile, xxi; ' 

102-11, warrant to Juan de Agra- Mercers, Wardens of the, 135, 136. 

monte; 111-15, letters patent to Merrimac river, xxvii. 

Agramonte. Meryk, Richard, 25, 26, 29, 30, 91, 

John ill, King of Portugal, xxiii. 92. 



PRÉCURSEURS DE CARTIER 211 

Milan, 15, 19. Placentia bay, (Big bay), xvi, 

Milan, Duke of, 15, Soncino's dis- xviii, xxii > xxiii - 

patch to; 17-21, second ditto. Plattard, Monsieur J., Docteur ès- 

Miquelon, x, xxiii. Lettres, vi; 4. 

Mocenigo Pietro, (doge of Venice), Ploumanac'h, 181. 

3, 5, 6. Plymouth, xxix. 

Modena, vi; 63. Ponce, 105, 110. 

Moluccas, xxv; 188, 193. Ponta Delgada, 98. 

Mona, island of, xxx ; 165-68. Pooley, Mr. E. H., Clerk of the 

Musset, Monsieur, 159. Drapers' Company, vi. 

Nantes, 118. Popinjays, 12. 

Nantucket island, xxviii. PotX ',f U f?$ ba Y, (Newfoundland), 

.. ... . called Athwart bay, xix. 

Nasquapee Indians, xvi. _ _,. n „_ ,„,_ 

n B- , , • Porto Rico, xxx; 167, 177. 

New England, xiv. _ . . ... ,., 

.. , ,. ... . ... Portugal, xiv, xix. xxi, xxm; 11, 

Newfoundland, x, xm, xvi, xvm, 2 7 28 66 96 191 
xix, xx, xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxiv, _ / \ !.. ' ' 
xxx; 12, 96, 97, 99; 100, savages Po * u & 1 * *'"? ° f " * x < * X Z> 11' 
from; 102-11, voyage to'; 111-15, J7. 19 40 4] 47 50, 56 81, 82, 
ditto; 116, 118, 119, 124, 125, 126, 103 > 107 > 184 > 185 > 190 < 19L 
132, 133; 134-42, projected 3xp3- Ptolemy, 188, 194. 
dition to; 159-165, vessels at; 167, Public Record Office, 6, 8, 15, 17, 
173, 177, 181, 189, 190, 191; 105-7, 23. 24, 25, 26, 40, 50, 80, 92, 142, 
Portuguese Colony in; 199, LC0, 143^ i63 3 179. 

202 - Puebla, Gonzales de, 10. 

New France, 202. Ramsgate, 180. 

Ni,e ' 188,194. Ramusio, 202. 

Normandy, xxi. Record Office, see Public Record 
North America, 190, 193; 204. Office. 

North Strom fiord, xv. Red Sea, vii; 188, 194. 

Northwest passage, 145-150; 165-77. Rouen, xxii; 163, 199. 

Norway, 176, 189. Roy, Dr. J. E., of the Archives 
Nova Scotia, xiii, xxii. Branch, vi. 

Ognibene Cav, Giovanni, of the Rut, John, Letter of, 200. 

Archivio di Stato at Modena, vi. Saco river xxvii. 

Olaus Magnus, 184, 189. St. Anne bay, called the river of 
Osório, H., 203. St. James, xxii. 

Oviedo, G. F. de, 200, 201, 204. " St. Anthony," The, xxv. 

Ozama river, xxx. . Saint-Brieux, 123, 162, 180. 

Patencia, Bishop of, see Fonseca. St. Domingo, xxx; 194. 

Panama, 188, 194. St. Elmo, 186, 192. 

Pasqualigo, Alvisc, 13, 14. St. George's bay, (Newfoundland), 
Pasqualigo, Francesco, 13, 14. x i x - 

Pasqualigo, Lorenzo, 13, 14. St. George's cape, (cape Ray), x. 

Pasqualigo, Philip, 13, 14. St. Irene's bay, (Trinity bay), xvi. 

Pasqualigo, Pietro, 65-67, letter to Saint John, island of, x; 185-87, 

the Signiory of Venice; 199, ditto. 190-3. 

Paz, Sr. D. Julian, of the Archivo St - Jonn the Baptist, festival of, x. 

General de Simancas, vi. - St. Johns, (Newfoundland), xviii, 
Penaquid point, xxvii. xix, xxx; 200. 

Penobscot bay, xxvii. St. Julian's channel, 187, 192-3. 

11 Pensée " of Dieppe, xxi. St. Lawrence, gulf of, xxiii, xxxi. 

Perte, 202. St. Mark, banner of, 13, 14. 



212 



ARCHIVES CANADIENNES 



St. Mary's bay, (the harbour of 

the Cross), xvi; 186, 191, 192. 
St. Paul's bay (Newfoundland), 

called the Natives' river, xix. 
St. Peter, island of, 185, 191. 
St. Pierre, x, xxiii. 
" Samson," The, xxix. 
San Domingo, xxx; 166, 167; 168- 

177, evidence taken at. 
Santa-Cruz's, Alonso de, Islario 

General, 183-194. 
Santander, xxi; 103, 107, 108. 
Santiago in Cuba, xxviii. 
Scandinavia, 183, 189, 190, 193-4. 
Scatari island, x, x note 3. 
Schoodic point, xxvii. 
Seven Cities, island of, viii; 15, 16, 

27, 28. 
Seville, xi; 27, 28, 115, 147, 158. 
Sheepscat river, xxvii. 
Ships, see Vessels. 
Ship harbour, xxvi. 
Silk, vii, x; 14, 17, 20. 
Simancas, 11, 28, 106, 113. 
Slave-trade, xvi. 
Soncino Raimondo di, 15, extract 

from first dispatch; 17-21, second 

dispatch. 
South Sea, 187, 188, 193, 194. 
Spain, viii, xxi, xxv, xxvi; 11, 

105, 110, 135, 188, 194. 
Spain, King of, 17, 19. 
Spert, 202. 
Stow, John, 203. 
Sukkertonnen, xiii. 
Sydney harbour, xxii. 
Tanais, 17, 20. 
Terceira, xiv; 31, 38, 39. 
Thanet, island of, 180. 
Thevet, A., 202, 203. 

Thirkill (Lanslot or Launcelot), 

of London, 12. 
Thomas, John, of Bristol, xxii; 40, 
41-49, grant to. 



Thorne, Robert, 201. 

Toby, Maurice, 194-5, lost chroni 

cle of. 
Tordesillas, Treaty of, xiv; 28, note 

3. 
Torre do Tombo, 31, 34, 38, 60, 69, 

94, 97, 101, 144. 
Torres Lanzas, Sr D. Pedro, of the 

Archivo de Indies at Seville, vi. 
Trinity bay, (St. Irene's bay), xvi. 
Trinity group, the, x. 
Valladolid, 147, 150, 151, 152, 153, 

154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159. 
Vasques, Christopher, 104, 109. 
Venice, vii; 1, 4, 13, 14, 66. 
Verrazano, Giovanni da, xxiv, xxx. 
Vessels, Christophe, 181. 
" La Catherine, 160. 
" La Jacquette, 116. 
La Margarittc, 161. 
La Marguerite, 162. 
" La Marie, 19. 

Le Barbara, 178, 178. 

Le Marie, 133. 

Mary Guilford, xxix, xxx, 

xxxi. 
Mary -James, 142, 143. 
Matheir, ix, xi; 194. 
" l'en sec, xxi. 
" Samson, xxix, xxx. 
St. Peter, 124. 
Vianna in Portugal, xxi, xxii, xxv; 

127, 129, 195, 196. 
Vienna, Kaiseri, und Konig, Hof- 

bibiiothek at, 182, 189. 
Warde, Richard, xviii; 40, 41-59, 

grant to. 
West Indies, xxx. 
Westminster, 6, 8. 10, 16, 23, 40, 49, 

50, 91. 
Westminster Chapter Archives, 30. 
Whitehead, Mr. A. W., 21, note 1. 
Wild cats, 12. 

Willoughby, (Lord) de Broke, 116. 
Wolsey, Cardinal, xxiv; 135, 136, 

137, 138, 142, 143. 
Zeigler, 183, 189. 



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